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30-31 



KAFTA 



POCCMMCKMM HE3ABHCMMblH HCTOPMHECKMH M nPAB03AmMTHblfi WYPHAJl 



RUSSIAN INDEPENDENT HISTORICAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDING JOURNAL 







anHOEMHfl CEKPETHOGTM 




POCCwftCKHH HS338HCKMUA 
HCTOpKHeCKVlfl H 
npaBOaatitHiHbiH xypHBJ) 






390000, Poccms, r.PflSBHb, 

rut.KocTiowKO, 3. 

Ana nucem: 390000, Poccha, 

PiiaaHb-ueHTp, a/» 20. 

TB/ie^OM.' (0912)77-51-17 

E-mafl: antiy@hro.org 

http://wtvw.karta.org 

>Wpe,qnre7ifc.- 

PeABKUMR MeaaBMCMMOM 
raaerw "PnsaHCKHH BeCTHMK". 
)KypHan aaperncTpuponaM 

MMHHCTepCTBOM nanam M 
HHtfJopManHH 29.12.1992. 
CBHtteienucTao o pernCTpau«n 
Ns 01949. 

r/iaaHhtd pe/tatrrop 
AMflpeii BflMHyiuoa 

PaASKttH*.- 



K}/imh Cepefta 

CeprePt Pom3hob 
BaflMM LUy6nH 
fleTp MtiTHHep 

BHKTOp /I03HHCKHM 

Mhshha aaTopoa He 
o6a3aTanbHO coenaAaioT 

C TOHXOM apeHMf) peASKMMH. 

CoxpaMMOCTb pyKOnHCeA, 

(JjoTOMarepnanoa h AOKyMeHTOB 

rapaHTKpyeTcn. 

Ho BonpocaM noAnntCKM Ha 

"Kapry" ofipaujtaTbCn 

a peaaKijMKi. 



Naq HQMQpOM pa6oTBJiH: 

A. EiiMHyuiOB, C. Pomshob, 
HD. CepSAa, T. nocne/ioaa 

KowribWTepHaH BepcTKa: 
K>. Cepeaa 

OmeHaraHO TOO "CEPBHC" 

PttaaHb, 

yn. HHTepHauKOKa/ibttaa, 

A. 1 T\ 

3BK33 N 186. 

DenaTb ocpceTHaa. 
Twpa* 2000 3X3. 

noflnncano a neHarb 3.03.2001 

To/ihKo mm 6ecrutaTMoro 

paenpOCTpaHBHHB 



PocchAckbr "KAPTA ' oCHOBana a HOsope 1992 roAa no HHMUMBTMBe no/ibcxoro 
HsaaBHCHMoro MCTopHHecKoro Mypwa/ia 'KARTA', abixOA"mero c ftHsapn 1982 
rofia, h pnaaKCKoro o6uiecTaa "MEMOPMA/I", yHpexABHHoro s oirrn6pe 1989 
rofla. 

B HOMEPE: 

cHeo6xoaMMbi eoaMecTHwe fle«CTBnfl ao nun aaiuMTtj npaa nenoaeKa* 
Pe3omonun Bcepoccuucicoeo wpeaawja Ohoso Cbeada S3atuumy npae ^eno&ena 3 

C. KOBAJ1E8 yrpoaa npaaosoMy rocyAapcrBy h wxoaaM AeMOxpaTvm a CTpane 
CmenoepaMMa ebicmynnamm us Cb$3de 4 

BcepoccuflcKHii Hpe3BW4atiHbtiS Cbeaa a aaiunTy npas nenoBeKa 

aKmopenopmax C. POMAHOBA u C. CMHPHOBA 8 

3nnjj,eMnn ceKpeTHoc™ 

Qm paOamuu 



CeKpernocTb: TepMWHonorwi 



kl3 ncTopMn kchctbmw m opranoB saiunTw nH(popMaumn> 



C. HEPf onpyfl 3apowgaeKMe n cTaHOBnenne CMCTeww 
aaujHTbi rocyflapCTB8HHOH TaviHbi 



tO. HJMUflT BespasMepHan ceKpetHOCTb 

Toe. mauxa u npaea ^anoeana Bsznud adeoKama 



A BTJUHyilJOB. O. OPnOB. A. HEPKACOB Mshha: KoHTpTeppOpMCTMneocafl 
onepai4ns win bom Ha? «KoHCTnTyunOHKbiii nopsmonn h/im 6933a Komie? 
BoapowjaeHMe rocyaapCTaa nrin xonnanc npaea? 

ffpnmd »a Cbaada 

Ocrpoea H/flAra a coapeMeHHOii Pocchm CeeepHbiM Kaaxaa 
QomodoKyMenmbi 



V\, PATyuiMHCKAfl Cepwii — ubbt Mafle«flbi 

McmopUfl UHBKOMblCHUH 



<t>. KOXP M XT npM3H3HHfiHpMHblPaTyilJHHCKOki 



«HepTa oceanocTM ao n nocne» 
<Domospa<pMj c ebicmaBKu e AMcmepdawe 



H . KO H 5n a r ocnoae » ne m a re nounfl 
Ma ucmopuu anmuceMumu3ua 



K). TEJIErHH Kny6flpy3ed Ebw 
06u<aH c/dbfia ~~ BocmoHHa* Espona 



A. ryPbflHOB rtopoMHaft aputpMeTiDta 
Tpydm>ie eonpocu ucmopuu 



HCTOpMB a HOKyMBHTaX 



A. CycnOB flpoToran oflHoro saceaaMHR 
Cneu/iepeceneHue t<pecmk&n Ha Vpan 



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A. COJ1JQATOB npasnTeribCTBO h C6KpeTH0CTb 

HpuHuyn 3acexpejuaanup soc. maun oc/naemcn enonns coeemcxuM 



M. AHAPEEB 3naeT jim rocyflapcrrBo, mto y Hero TaiiHa, a 'fro hot? 

«CeKpemoMaHim» sMacmo 3axoHnocmu 

». BYklEP. C. HMTEPCOH Mto a Poccmw hs ceKper? 

«CeKpeTowaHMft> mopuosum cou^tajntno-aKonouu^mxos 

paMumue cmpanbi 

M flEkN riaH3a ^enncTbi a KOMnbtorspHbie Mrpw we nrpaor.,, 

npouiaon a pesuoHax Poccuu 

A OCTPOBCKMi/l NepHan werra npocpeccopa Coiitpepa 

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MKHUCMEHERfl. CEPEXEP Eapew CoaercKOti Poccuu: Mewfly SOHH3MM 

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Pfcmopt/« coadaHun EepeucKOu aemonoMhou oGnacmu (EAO) 

T. EAJTAHMHA-riEMEPCKAfl Topofl. a kotooom wwn wmuj 

W3 xu3nu eepeee a EAO 

A UHPyjIbHMKOB AoManecy 

H3 mu3hu eepeee e EAO 

CHacrnHBbie noeopoTb* cyflbGw 

Pfwmepewo c npeaudewmoM Uncmumyma 

MeMQKpamuu a Socmovwou Eepone Mpanou nRCOTOM 



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■ HEOBXOAMMbl COBMECTHblE 

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nPAB HE/10BEKA» 

Pe3onK)u,\A9\ BcepoccuwcKoro Hpe3BbiHatiHoro C-be3Aa 

b 3atMHTy npaB ne/iOBeKa 



HeiiCTBytouxa r i KoHcrwryunsi npoB03rnaiuaeT Poccwio 
0efleparnBHbiM, npaaoBbiM. counanbHWM, ceeTCKWM n ,ae- 
MOKpaTHMecKMM rocyAapCTBOM OflHaKO ce^mac ctuyauwa c 
fleMOKpaTMMecKHMH cao6oAaMH m npaBaMn nertoaeKa b CTpa- 
He CTana MpesBbmaiiHow: Ha Haiunx rna3ax WAeT aposus 
flewoKpatMHecKHx ochob KoHCTMTyuwM, b noc/ieflHue Mecauw 
mojkho rosopnTb o non3yneM KOHCTmyqHOHHOM nepeaopoTe. 
OrpaHUneHHfl m HapyujeHHS npaB n cbo6oa nenoeeKa k rpaw- 
flaHMHa b caMwx pa3nn^Hbix o6rtacTfix 4>°PMnpyioT oT^eTnw- 
eyio TeHfleHUMK) k aBTopwapMSMy. McTopMHecKHM onwT can- 
/jeienbCTByeT, sto Ta«oro pofla pewMMw aeayT k wiaccoBbiM 
penpeccHHM n npoeouHpytor wnpOKOMacujTa6Hbie BOBHHwe 
ABMctbhh 

Ocooyra onacHOCTb npaBaM vt CBo6oaaM nenoBBKa H 
rpaKaaHHHa s Poccmhckom (DeAepauMM npeflCTaBnmoT: 

— aHTuxoHCTKTyunoHHbie BoeHHbte onepaunn b Mbhhb, 
Bb)3BaaujMe rn6enb twchh nnaevi. noBceMecTHbie Hapyuie- 
hhk npaa HenoBBKa. soeHHwe npecrynneHW! h npecrynneHmi 

HpOTMB Men086HH0CTH; 

— noouipseMas npeACTaBHTensiMH snac™ npataviKa 

3THMMeCK0kl VI paCOBOK aMCKpHMUHauKH. POCT HeTepnWMOCTM 

m Hacunwfl no OTHOiueHwo k aiHHMecxnM MeHbuiHHCTeaM h 
MnrpaHTaM,Haca«aeHnerocyflapcTBOMo6pa3aBparaBnnue 
Bwxofluea us KasxascKoro n apyrwx perMOHOB; 

— KeTepnMMoe nono*eHne niofleM, nmueHHbix wwnbH h 
nponwcKH, — KaK 6eweMqeB m BbiHyHyjenHbix nepeceneHqes. 
TaK w crasiuHx SesflOMHbiMn a caMoPi Pocchh b Mwpnoe 
Bpeun: rocyaapcTBO KaK 6w BbinepKHBaeT nx W3 jkhshh — ohh 
nnujeHbi He TonbKO couMantHux npaB (Ha KMnuuie. na MejH- 
UMHCKyto noMoiub nin),no« rpaxtaaHCKMx. h nonnnmecKHx 
npaB. a noanac h npaBa Ha wn3Hb. 

— CTpeMneHtie 6iopoKpaTHK pemaMeHTHposaTb nun- 
Hyio MHMUManiBy rpa«aaH h orpannHMTb AesnenbHocTb 06- 
mecTBenHbix o6beanHeHiiw, flenan rpaMASH BeccunbMbiMw. 
3anyraHHbiMH h SecnpaBHbiMM; 

— MaccoBbie HapymeHun coquanbHbtx m Tpyaosbix npaB 
rpaxtAan. yrposa MX eme 6onbiiiero saroHOAaTenbHoro orpa- 
HMMeHun: 

— pacujMpflKjineecn HacrynneHHe snacieM Ha npaeo 
rpa>KflaH Ha 6naronpnsTHyho OKpywawmyfO cpeAy. flaaneHwe 
na oBinecTBBHHwe 3KonornHecKne opraHH3aunn, aeMOHCT- 
paTHBMoe npeMeope>KeHne aoneM MnnnnOHOB rpajKAan, non- 
nep^aaujux npoBeAenne 3KonomHecKoro pecpepenflyMa. 

— CTpeMneHne npeswAeHTCKow aflMUHncTpauMM nony- 
HktTb 4pe3Bt.naiinbie nonHOMOHMfl m coaAaTb ynpaBnaeMoe 
HOMEHKnaTypHoe KoncTHTymioHHoe coGpaHne, hto6w MMert 

803MO*HOCTb RK06bl 3aKOHHOrO W3MeHeHHB KOHCTHTyUMOHHO- 

ro dpofi; 

— nojiMTMKa ftOflMMHeHMP 3aKOHoaaTenbHOH m cyA&BHOM 
Bnacrew aAMMHHCTpaunaM pasHoro ypoBHR: 

— AeMOHCTpaTMBHoe npeHe6pe*eHne scex aeTBeii ana- 
ctm k MeatflyHapoAHWM oSnaaTenbCTsaM a o6nacrn npaB 
nenoBeKa, b3htwm Ha ce6« PoccMetf: 



— Hapacrawmafl npOTMBOnpaBHan noAMBna Kohctmty- 

UHH M 33KOHOB POCCHH nOA33KOHHbJMH 3KT3MM, HapyiuahOLLlH- 

mm npaBa HenOBeKa; 

— MOHononnaauMf enacTbio MHttjopMaunoHHOii, o6uie- 

CTBeHHOM H (pHH3HC0BO-3K0HOMMHBCKOH CtpSp: 

— AaaneHwe na HesaBUCMMwe CMkl, CTpeMiieHne k 
uenaype m 903po)«AeHne rocyflapcTBeHHo-dfleonorn4ecKOH 
nponaraHAbi: 

— MHoroMHcneHHbie HapyiueHHn K36dpaTenbHbix npaB 
rpa>«aaH,MaHvinyn«poBaHMeM36npaTenbHbiM3aKOHOAaTenb- 
ctbom Ha Bcex ypoBHflx, ncnonb30BaHne B^acTbK) CMH. ms- 
6npraMOB h cycoB arm ycTpanenuB HeyroAHbix KaHAnflaTos, 

— (paKTimecKan ociaHOBKa cyAeSnow pecfcopMbi. oTcyT- 
cTBHe 3tJ)tpeKTnaH0M cyAe6Hoii 3amnTbi ot Hapyu/eHHfi npaB 
^zioaeKa h npoi43Bona enacTew. nosceMecTHoe HeBunonHe- 
Hue cyAe6nbix peujeHMii: 

— HeactxpeKTMBHocTb aaiuwTbi npae rpa^Aan npaaoox- 
paHWTenbHWMH oprawaMM, 6onee toto — npeapameHHe ch- 
noBbtx CTpyioyp s oahh ms ochobhux hctomhhkob HapyiueHkiti 
npaB ^enoeeKa; 

— npesMepHoe ycuneHne ponn cneucfiyw6 a o6mecTBe 
h rocyAapcTBe. 3aKpwT0CTb anaCTHwx cipyKryp ot o6me- 
ciBa. orpanHMBHHe aocTyna rpa^KAan k MHcpopMaunn, 

— npeBpameHMe rennpoKypaTypbi , OC6 w ApyrHX cwno- 

BblX Cipyiayp B MHCTpyMeHTbJ nonMTHHeCKOM 6opb6bl, HHCnK- 

pupoBaHtie MiunMOHCKvix npouecco8»>. 

— MMJWTapn3ai4Hfi BiiacTti \a oStuecTBa. onacHoe BMe* 
tuaTenbCTBO cunoawx CTpyirryp b sonpocw BHyTpeHHew H 
BHeiiiHeM nonnTHKH cipaHbi 

ynacTHMKH BcspoccHHCKoro Hpe3BbmaMHoro Cijes 
as b saiAHTy npaB Menoeena cHHTatOT TaKoe nonoweHne 
aemeH yrpomaiomHM CTa6HnbHOCTM m 6e3onacnocTn Ha* 
ujero o6mecTsa, MMpHowy 11 aeMOKpaTKsecKOMy paiBH- 
tmk> Haiuen CTpaHbi. 

Mw npusbiaasM dpyKTypbi rpaxcaaHCKOro o6mecTea 

POCCHH K KOHCOflHAauUM H COBMeCTHMM AeiiCTBUflM so nun 

3amnTw npaB m cbq6oa nenoseKa h rpaiKAannHa 

HapacTawMe yrpos ocnoaaM KOHCTMTyunoHHoro CTpos n 
rpawAancKoro o6mecTBa. sepxoBeHCTBy npaBa n npaB ntm- 
hocth Tpe6yei ot HacBwcTynnTb b ttanecTse KOHCTpyttrnBHOH 
rpaiKAaHCKOM HenonMTWHecKOH onnoanunn aTOHy pewnMy. 
YcMneHHe rocyAapCTea ao/iwho 6b<Tb c6anaHcnpoBaHo koh- 
conwAMpoBaHHbiM w acpcpeKTMBHWM rpa*AaHCKHM o6u4ecTBOM 

BcepoCCMMCKMM Hpe3BblHaMHblH Cte3A B 3aii|MTy 

npaB nenoBeKa nocraHOBnHeT 

1. C$opMnpoBaTb nocTOdHHo AeHCTayramMe pa6onne 
rpynnw no cneayKitAMM HanpaBfieHMfiM: 

— aHTkiaoeHHbie AeMCTBMn; 

— rpa»maHCKHH KOHTponb; 

— cyoe6Haa pecpopMa; 

— TiopeMHan pe^opMa w 3amnTa npaa saKnmneHHbix; 

— C0L|nanbHbie n aKOHOMuneCKMe npaBa rpa«Aan. 



4 



flPABA HEJ10BEKA 



— BoeHHan pecpopMa m 3ainnTa npaa eoeHHOcnywaiuMx 
u hx ceMew; 

— npaao rpaamaH Ha cso6oay npeflnpuHHMaTertbCKoii 
flenrenbHOCTn; 

— 3aiunTa n36npaieribHbix npae rpa>Kflan; 

— aaiuMTa rpa>naaH ot aTHMHecKow h pacosovt ancKpHMn- 
hsmmm; 

— samma 3KonorwMecKnx npaa rpa>KAaH; 

— 3amwTa CBoSoflu cnoBa m HesaBMCMMoc™ CMH; 

— aamwTa npaBa Ha MHTenneKTya/ibHyio co6cTeeHHocTb, 

— no aamMTe npae fleieft 

2. CtpopMwpoeaTb cneuManbHyw paooHyio rpynny no 
saKOHoaaTenbHowy ooecneseHHio npaBHenoseKa a Pocchm m 
noflroTOBKe naneTa npoeicroB epeaepajibHbix 3aK0HOB, Ha- 
npaBneHHbixHao6ecneHenneBPoccnMCKOii*eflepaLiMnnpaB 
m cso6oa nenoseKa m rpawaaHMHa. KoopflMHamaio aeHTenb- 
hocth rpynnbi nopy^MTb MHnunaTnBHOM rpynne «06mee nevi- 

CTBHe». 

3. OpramMOBaTb npoBeaenwe MOHnropuHra nonwTMKO- 
npaaOBoro o6ecneM6Hnfl npaa nenoseKa. kotopwm 6u bktiio- 
Man b ce6n aHann3 



Ceprew KOBAJ1EB 



— ronocoBaHMW b rocy/iapcTBeHHOM flywe Pd> no saxo- 
HonpoeirraM w mhwm aonpocaM CBsaaHHbiM c npaaaMn neno- 
B6Ka; 

— aaxoHonpoeKTOB, BHecenHbix cppaKUHRMn w flpyrMMM 
cy6betaaMH saKOHoaaTenbHow wHMUMaTMBbi; 

— peaKMMK nonMTMKOB Ha npefl/ioweHMH, wcxoA*mne ot 
npaaoaaiuMTHbix opramiaauMH. 

no peaynbTaTaM MOHHTopwnra npaaosauinTHoe coo6- 
mecTBO aojwkho peiuaTb, KaKne nonwTHHecKne cnnbi Mornn 
6w paccMHTbiaaTb Ha ero noflaepwKy n xaKMe peKOMeHflaum* 
uenecoo6pa3HO npeanoHCMTb cTpytrrypaM rpaxaiaHCKoro 06- 
mecrsa h M36npaTenflM 

Ctesfl fiopynaer KHHiiMaTMBHOH rpynne «06iyee aew- 
CTBwe» raopflHHauwo BbinonneHnfl AaHHOii pe30niouwn m 
nposeaeHHe MOHMTOpMHra nonnTwco-npaBOBoro oSecne^e- 
huh npaB HenoaeKa, 

Macicea, 21 fweapx 2001 soda 



CTpaMnubi Hpe3BbinaMHOro CbesAa 

b HHTepweTe: 
http://www.hro.org/ngo/congress 



yrpo3A nPABOBOMy rocyAAPCTBy 

M OCHOBAM AEMOKPATMM B CTPAHE 

deHorpaMMa BbiCTyn/ieHMfl Ha Cte3Ae 



HHHUHaTOpbl 

Cbe3fla peujujiM 
Ha3BaTb erp npe3- 

BblHatiHblM, H 3T0 

Ha3BaHwe 6uno yr- 
BepJKfleHO 6onb- 

LUHMCTBOMOpraHM- 

sauMOKHoro komh- 
TeTa. KaK m nona- 
raercB b HHTennw- 
reHTHOM o6me- 
CTBe.BOKpyrc/ioea 
HeMeAneHHO bo3- 

HHKJia flMCKyCCMfl 

OflHn yTBep)KflaK)T. 

m 3th yTsep)KfleHHH 
nMeKiT HeManwe ocHoaaHUn. HTO^peaabMaiiHOCTbCbeaAa 
OTpa^aeT MpeaBbi^iaCiHyio nonnTHnecKyio CMTyaqwio 8 dpa- 
He. Ohm nanaraiOT. mo Hoaaa anacTb HaMepena BbicTponTb 
HeKKfl oTMerniiBO HOBbm pewnM. (IpHxoA hobom aflMMHUc- 
TpauMM paccMaTpnaaeTcn m mh «aK nepenoM a OTe^ecTBeH- 
how noriHTMKe. KaKco6biTneHpe3Bb(MaMHoe.flpyrMe — m hx 
apryMeHTbi srtoriHe cepbe3Hbi — roaopflT: «Hnnero spe3- 
BWMaiiHoro BCTpaHe He nponcxoflHT». HoBan a^acTb npefl- 
npMHMMaeTHe So^eeMeM nonuTKynocneflOBaTejibHopea- 




JIMSOBaTb HeKOTOpyiO T6HfleHMMK), KOTOpaH B03HHKTia, XOTB 

m nMnynbCMBHo n HenocneflOBaTenbHO, pasBMsanacb h 
h a6n pan a onny e me npn E nb lim He fla . CTpa h a ne pew nBaer 
flosonbHO ne^aribHyio nonwTWHecKyra sbohiolimio. Ho sbo- 
nhoutin 3TaecTecTBeHHa. Bwaiuan CBepxaepwasa HeyKnoH- 
ho npeBpamaerca bo BTopocTenenHyio CTpany Tpeibero 
Mvipa. A b 3Tom cny^ae newsBewHO HapaciaeT aoriHa Haun- 
0Ha/in3Ma, tunMOHOMannH, BoaHHKaeT newant no yrpaneH- 
HOMy MorymecTBy n SHeprKHHoe >KenaHvie npoTHBOCTOHTb 
H6KMM BparaM 

B totob comacMTbcn m c 3tom BepcMew. fl eoo6iue 
CHHTaio, hto b onpeaeneHHOM CMbicne cnop BOKpyr cnoBa 
«Hpe3BbiHaMHOCTb» He cnHLUKOM coaep>KaTenbHbiM. B ca- 
MOM/jene, nycib npaBw re. kto paccM3Tpt4BaeT hpobuhlim- 
anbHwii BHaaHTnaM co BceMM ero nocneacTBMBMM kbk onpe- 
flennioLnyio xapaKTepMCTMKy MOMeHTa. Hy w hto H3 aroro? 
flo3Bonio ce6e pucKOBaHHoe cpaBnenvie. Haun3w b repwa- 
hkm Beflb ne c ne6a we caanwriCH. EcTb aecKme ocHOBaHMn 
paccMaTpuBaTb sto coSbiTue KaxecTecTBeHHoe pasBWTue b 
no6e>KflBHHOM nocneBoeHHOM TepMaHHH. 6apaxTaBiueMCR 
b pa3pyxe. TaK mto, ecjin 6w oceHbro 1932 roaa HewieuKMe 
MHTenneKTyanbi peiUMriM co3BaTb ^peaBbtHaMHbiM Ci>e3fl, 
CTanw 6w mw ceroflHfl nan hhmh CMembCB? 

fleno b whom. HaM Heo6xoflMMO cnoKOMHo m 6e3 MCTe- 
puK npoaHann3npOBaTb ocipoiy vi Macurra6bi onacHocreM. 



Yrpo3a npaBOBOMy rocyflapcTBy w ocHOBawi fleMOKpaniw b dpaHe 



bosmowho ownAatomux Hac b 6nnwatiLjjeM SyaymeM Kaxo- 
Ba npwpoaa stmx onacHOCTeii? 

CaMan o6man. m BMecre c TeM caMaa apxan, caMan 

Bbipa3HTe/lbHafl Xap3KTepVICTHKa COCTOMT B TOM, HTO 6e3 

cepbesHbix 0anbcw|)HKaLiMM yaepeHHoe 6onbujMHCTBo Ha- 
cejieHMflHamewcTpaHbinoflo6poii Bone, bsapsbom yMew 
Teepaow naMSTM nporonocoBano 3a HHxoMy ao Toro HSBe- 
AOMoro noAnoriKOBHMKa «rB nytHNa. n35pas ero Ha nocr 
ripe3MAeHTa Poccmm. Kone^KO, Mbi Mowewi roBopwrb,, hto 
55% ro/iocOB. OTAaHHbix 3a DyTMKa, — stq eme He noflae- 
nsioiyee 6onbiunHCTBO. Ho BcnoMHMTe, xyAa yiurw oeranb- 
Hbie ronoca 3th Bbioopw cocTosnucb BCTpaHe, wnnnnoHbi 
rpawAan KOTopofi norvi6nn a pe3y/ibT3Te penpeccwfl. A 
penpeccnn stm 6bmn opraHnaoBaHbi napTMeM, HaSpaBinePi 
6onbmnHCTBO ronocos b nap/iaMeHTe, m npoBoavinsicbopra- 
HMsaunefi, npeacTaBHTenb xoTopow 6wn HeaaBno wsopaH 
HaMM npesMAeHTOM . Bot hto CTpatuHee acero . B Maccosyio 
noAABpwKy flyTnna aHeprw^HO BxfiKwwiacb HHTenneKTy- 
anbHafl anma cipaHbi. Hoaoro l"lpe3nAeHTa BbiflBwrann 
nwcaTenn. apmcTbi. ywenwe. KaweTcn, ao cmx nop Mnorwe 
M3 HHX H6 BCnOMMHaiOT 06 3TOM BbiaBUWeHWW xax o naBa*- 
AeHM«, xax o AypMOM cne. He cxpoto ot sac, Aoporvie 
Konnern, ^to hkhho n paccMaTpHBato stq n36panne w aro 
flOBepne KaKHauMOHanbHbiM nosop. CTpana CTaxoti xpoaa- 
Boii m rpnaHoiS ncTopnevi He mo*bt no3aonwTb ce6e noAo6- 
Hbix npeAnomeHHfi. BMecTe c nyTMHUM Ha KmoneBbie no- 
ctw b HbiHeujHWK) xpeMneBcxyK) KOManny nflyrero xo/inerw 
us toro we BeflOMCTaa. 3tom cnyw6bi He crecHfltOTCfl, eto 
ny6nnHHO n otkpob6hho ropARTCfl. Topahtcs ero m caM 
ripesnAeHT. 

Kaxosa we naeonornn stow hobow KOMaHAbi? Kaxwe 
HaabiKH ohm Bbinecnw H3 cBoew alma mater? KaxoBbi Gasuc- 
Hbie ueHHOCTM stom naeonorwn? 

Hki^ero HOBoro Ann Hac b stux L(eHHocTBx, yBw, hbt. 
3to — AepwaBHocTb, to ecTb npeACTaBneHMe o rocyAap- 

CTBe K9K O MHCTHHeCKOiS CSepXljeHHOtf CytllHOCTW. KOTopoii 

cnywaT ace o6mecTB0 n xawAbipi rpawAaHWK. 3to Tax Haabi- 
BaeMbiM «nopaAOK», kotopwm see ^ame OTxposeHHO Hasw- 
BatOT «ynpasnneuoM A6M0KpaTneti», BayMaviTecb e stot 
TepMHH, xo/inerw. fleMoxpaTMn — aTOBnacTbHapoaa. anacTb 
rpawAaH. A uto we. e Taxow cny^ae. ynpaanfieMan fleMox- 
paTHfl? ynpasnfleMaa kbm? 3to — «naTpno™3M»] Bbipa- 
jxaromnticfi, maBHbiM oSpaaoM, b nonCKax BHeiuHMx h BHyr- 

P&HHMX BparOB POCCHU, HblHeUHUkt CKj)HUH03 xik)6ht tobo- 
pMTb 06 « OTBeTCTBeHHOCTK » OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb — 3aMe4a- 

TenbHoe cnoBO, n cyTb ero Towe saMe^aTenbHaa Kax we. 
HanpuMep. cornacHO nenanbHo naBecTHow xoHuenunn 06 
MHcpopMauMOHHOM 6e3onacHocTn CoseTa SesonacHocTn 
Poccmm ocyaiecTB/ineTCB OTBeTcraeHHOCTb cpeACTB Mac- 
cosoft HHtpopMauMM? H nepeA xeM, unTepecHo, aopwhw 
SwTbOTBeTCTBeHHbi CMM? Ha nepBbiii Bonpoc KOHuenqnB 
OTaenaeT 04eHb npocro: Heo6xoAMM xonTponb HaA npec- 
cow. Hy, oTooAa aceH otbct v\ Ha btopom eonpoc: He nepeA 

H3MM — HMTaTBJlflMH, CnyLUaTenflMH H 3pMTenflMH 0TB6T- 

CTBeHHw wypnanwcTbt, a nepeA HananbCTBOM, H Tax oobcki- 
Ay. He enacTb OTse^aeT nepea o6mecTBOM, a naoSopoT, 
Tpe6yeT ot Hero OTBeTCTBeHHOcru nepeA HexuMH o6iuero- 
cyAapCTBeHHWMH uensMM w ueHHocTAMM, to ecTb nepea 
co5om. 

riOA CTaTb UeHHOCTSM M MeTOAbt npOBeASHWB B WM3Hb 

hobom nonwTMxn. Bee aenaeTcs tmxo h tcxhhmho, noA^ac 
Aawe He oneHb aaMeTH© Ann we cjimiukom npncTaribHoro 
HaBnKwaTenn. noflroTOBxa nio6oS onepautiM no OTCTpaw- 
BaHMK) MexaH»3MOB BH3aHTni^CKOii cucTeMbi ynpasneHMB 



OKpywaeTCs noxpoBOM TaiiHbt m conpoBOWAaeTcn onepaun- 
ew no flesMHCpopMauHH npoTHBHUxa (to ecTb Hac, rpawaan 
Poccmm) wonepaqiiew npuKpbiTwn, TaKTuxa, Bnonne npneM- 
neMan Ana pesHflenTa. ho ne A/ifl l"lpe3KAeHTa. 

Bo3bMeM Ann npMMepa HCTopwo c Tax Ha3biBaeMb<M 
per^opMnpoBaHMeM wcnonHHTenbHOM aepTHxann. Ben xaM- 
naHMR npouina noA nosynroM: «ywflTb pernonanbHbJx 6apo- 
hob». Mto, pasBe nnoxoyHUMaTbOaponoB? Kohshho, xopo- 
ujo. H Aawe Heo6xoAMMO H hbm n^i c aawiw. ocoSeHHo 
axTnencTaw npaB03amkiTHoro ABuweHun H3 pernonoB, aac- 
Tynaibcn 3a npaaoaoA cpeoaann3M enbUHHcxoti anoxn? H 
pa3Be ocHOBbi cpe^epann3Ma He nponncaHbi b aewcTByK)- 
mew KoHCTHTyunn W3 pyx boh nnoxo? Bee Tax flpw stom Bee 
Bbiiue Ha3B3HHbie coo6paweHMn, bxthbho TwpawnpoBaa- 
Lunecs npaBHTenbCTseHHow nponaraHAo^. — He 6onee ^ew 
onepaqnn npuxpuTHn 3to ncHO xoTn 6bi us toto, mto He 
CAenano aawe nonwTKW paspeiunTb maBHyto npo6neMy — 
pa3rpaHHH6Hne KOMneTenuHn MewAy cpeAepaunew n ee 
cyOfcexraMM. BwecTo aroro c MaHHaxanbHbiM ynopcTBOM 
TnHyr xyAa-To bhhs xaxyw-To anacTHyio aepTuxanb. B hw- 
HeujHeM roay, xaweTcn. co6npaK>TcnaoTaiiiHTb eeao My- 
HnunnaribHwx orjpasoBaHUM. >Kw3Hb xopoTxa, h n 5yay 
xpaTox to we. Ha caMOM aene sto npeanpunnMaeTCfl BOBce 
ne npoTUB perHOHanbHbix 6apOHoa. a ann Toro htq6u 
ynnHTownTt> Jito6oi4 0ejepann3M v\ yCTanOBMTb b Poccnt- 
yHHTapHoe rocyaapcTBO. \A to, xaxow MoweT 6bJTb qieAepa- 
nM3M a Bm33hthh? A repoHMeCKan 6opb6a c onkirapxaMM, 
noMeMy-To orpaHUMUBatoLnancn HdcnroMHTentHO Bnaaenb- 
uaMM onnosKUMOHHbix CMH? Ho BeAb MHorne BepsiT, A xax 
tuxo :: TexHMHHo npeBpamena b HasHanaeMyH) eepxHnn 
nanaTa napnaMenTa? fla, ee mieHw HasHanatoTcn ho we- 
nocpeacTeeHHo cpeaepanbHoii B/iacTbio. ho ohm Hasna^a- 
(OTCfl BnacTbio, KOTOpan OTHWHe KOHTponnpyeTca o>eAe- 
panbHWM qeHTpoM. m, b/iio6om cnynae. ohh He M36npa«3TCfl 
HaceneHweM. 

Boi einenDHMepbiiMxnx h HS3aMeTHbix LuaroB Cyme- 
CTBOBan y Hac rocxoMnpwpoAbi. cpeaepanbHbivi kommt6T 
TocKOMnpHpoAbi — axonornHecxnf* xoHTponb, Oh, npHMo 
cxaweM . paSoTan He SnecTnme . Oh , npnMO cKa*eM , Tpe6o- 
Ban peopraHnaaunw. H 3Ta peopraHH3aijnH 6bijia ocyiye- 
CTaneHa. rocxoMnpnpoabi nepecTan cymecTBOBarb w npe- 
BpaTuncn b ynpaaneHMe MMHHCTepcTBa. PlyBjiMxe o6*bHC- 
Hunn. mto 3T0 AenaeTcn pann coKpatuenun annapaTa. Hy, 
eiye 6bi! Kto we 6yaeT npoTUB nonnTHxn coKpameHns 
annapaTa! non^TiiKu, xoTopan anonHe b Ayxe npaBwnbHbix 
nonwTMKO-axoHOMMHecxMX ueHHOCTefi {Taxux. xaKaeiueBoe 
npaBnTenbCTBO)! Bee 3aMenaTenbH0. Tonbxo noneMy-TO 
HenaBH3<-!iiB0 wsGeraioTynoMHHaHiiii, ynpaaneHneM xaxoro 
hmohho MMHHcrepcTBa crran 6biBUJMM TocxoMnpHpoAW. He 
3HaeTe? A n BaM ctcawy. Tenepb sto ynpasnenHe b cocTaBe 
MHHMCTepcTBa npwpoAHbix pecypcoB. Bw npeACTaenneTe 
ce6e xoHTponb sa cocTosHneM neca, nopyneHHbiM necopy- 
6aM? M pbi6naA3op b Heapax pbiSonpoMbitiineHHbix koh- 

MepHOB? KOMMeHTapMH HyWHbl? 

HaMepeHMA w rotaHM, BbinaiuMBaeMbie hobom Bnac- 
Tbto, CTaHOBflTcn coeepoieHHO npo3paHHbiMM, ecnn npo- 
anankt3kipoBaTb saKOHonpoexru, BHOcuMbie a flyMy wnw 
nenocpeacTBeHHO aaHtiHMCTpauneii npe3naeHTa, nnn ee 
peswAeHTaMn e napnaMenTe OcTaHOBniocb Ha oahom h3 
hmx, nocxonbxy oh HMeeT npflMoe OTnoiueHvie xo BceMy, 
ne My Bbi, yeawaeubie xonnern, nocsmnnn ecro wn3Hb. 

KoHCTHTyunn Pocchmckom <t>eflepaunn xaTeropunecKiti 
aanpemaeT napnaMeHTy M3weHeHVie 1 , 2 w 9 rnaB Kohcth- 



yrp03a npaBOBOMy rocyaapCTBy w ocHOBaM AeMOKpaTMM b CTpaHe 



TyuMM KohtcTnTyqufl nonaraeT, mto n3MeHeHne stmx koh- 
uenryaiibHbix rnaB paanocnnbHO npMHHTMK) hobom xohctm- 
TyuHM. Hobum me ochobhom aanoH, comacHO aeMCTByho- 

U4MM KOHCTHTyuKOHHbIM HOpMaM, MO)KeT6btTbnpMHHTTOnbKO 

cneuManbHbiM yHpeflMTenbHwM opranoM — Kohctmtyuhoh- 
hwm co6paHneM. 3anMcaHo, mto KoHCTMTyuMOHHoe cofipa- 
Hue C03flaercH « pa6oTaeT b cooiBeTCTBMM c kohcthtyuk- 
OHHbiM cpeaepanbHbtM aaxOHOM. A saxoHa 3Toro He cyme- 
CTByeT, EcTBCTBeHHo BocnonHmb sroT npo6en, Bot oh m 
BocnonHfleTcn. ripeaMaeHTcxas xoManaa npeanowMna, no 
oyrn aena, yMpeaMTenbHyw anacTb. HaanaMaeMyso Bnac- 
Tbio ncnonHMTenbHOM, Ha3HanaeMoe KoHCTHTyquoHHoe 
coSpanne M3 400 MenoBex. Bor mto 3to TaKoe. Bo-nepawx. 
8 co6pawne sxoflMT caM Dpe3MaeHT. rapaHT aeiiCTByioujeM 

KOHCTMTyUWW CTaHOBMTCfl aBTOpOM KOHCTHTyUHM HOBOM. 

fianee BMecre c npeawaeHTOM b co6paHne BXOflST 100 
HaaHaneHHbix mm mu. flanee, B KoHCTuryijMOHHoe co6pa- 
Htie BxoflHT acq BepxMfln nanara uenn«OM Kax w ywe 
rosopwn. 3Ta nanaTa aawe tpopManbHO He coctomt Tenepb 
H3 nicneM. Bbi6npaeMbix HacenenneM flanbwe n paccxa- 
3biBaTb He 6yay, m ran Bee bcho. Ecnw bu xoTtue Hanwcatb 
HOBbiw ochobhom 3axoH no npnhiunny «Mero M3BonnTe», TO 
ny^iueM cxeMw He npwflyMaeujb. A 06 ocTanbHwx 3axoHO- 
npoexTax nmub xopOTxo ynoMnny , Ha 3Ty reMy saecb SyaeT 
cneuna^bHbfw flOKnaA 3a«OHonpoeKT 06 aflMMHucTpaTMB- 
Hbix cyflax ycTanaariMBaeT cneuManbHyw eersb npasocy- 
Amh ajir paapeweHMfl cnopOB rpaxcaaHMHa c BnacTbto. Jler- 
ko ce6e npeacTaBWTb, xax stm HeMHOroMMcneHHbie oto- 
6paHHue cyaeGHbie cocrasbi 6yayT paapetuaTb noao6Hbie 
cnopw b paMxax xopoiuo naM w3BecTHOM oTeMecrBeHHOM 
TpaanLiMM. CrpeMMTenbHO npoflsnraeTcn b napnanieHTe 
HOBbiii aaKOH o aonnTM4ecKMx naprunx, BbicrpaMBaroiMMM 
nonwTHMecKM axTMBHbix rpaxyiaH no pawKMpy. HHMUMarop 
aToro aaxona coBepweHHo He cxpuBaeT cBoeM csepx3aaa- 
hh: BHeflpnTb b CTpane aayx-, Tpex-, eoo6me ManonapTMM- 
Hyio cwcTeMy. Ohs m b caMOM aene 046Hb yfloGHa m Boace 
HeionbKOAna BnacTM. 3a6biBaroTJimub, 4to ie UMBnnti30- 
BaHHbie crpaHbi, rae rocnoACTBytOT noAo6Hbie cucTeMbi. h 
He ayMatOT bboahtb saKOHOAaTeribHbix orpaHMMeHMii Ha 
hhc/io napTMii, ynacTByKMnnx b BwBopax. ManonaprniiHafi 
CMCTeMa 8 3TMX CTpaHBX C03Aa6TCfl CaMMMH M36wpaTenfl- 
MM, Bblpa>KaK>lUMMM CBOM npeAD0HT6HMfl. A yMaCTBOBaTb B 

Bw6opax MoxceT nwGoe xonw-iecTBo napTMM. M ynacTByer, 
ft He 6yny ocTaHaBnMBaTbcn na aHanoru^Hbix TeHfleHuunx 

CTOHb B3>KHblX 3aKOHOnpoeKTOB. Kax 33KOH 05 yrOJIOBHO- 

npOL(eccyanbHOM, TpyflOBOM, aAMMHMCTpaTMBHOM KOflex- 
cax Xo^y TonbKO flexrapupoBaTb, mto HOBauMM h b 3TOM 
cnynae BbicrpoeHbi b tom xte nanpasneHMM. 

3to 3aKOHonpoexTbi. Ho mw MoweM cyAMTb o npMpoae 
HOBoro noriMTw^ecKoro pe>KMMa He TonbKO no ero HaMepe- 
HnflM,fleKnapnpoBaHHbiMPiBHonnn HesBHO 3a3TnnoriTopa 
roAa noAaKKOMnaneMeHTAeKnapauMM oAMKTaType aaKona 
yme caejiaH pna Luaroa. npMBenujux xcepbe3HbiM m Macco- 
BWM HapyiueHMfiM npae HenoBexa. HawHBM c TOro. hto 
HbtHeujHflR aflMMHMCTpauMd He npocTo BeAeT na TeppMTo- 
pMM crpaHbi paspyiLiMTenbHyto m MCTpe6MTe/ibHyio BOMny. 

OHa, 3T3 aAMMHMCTpaMMfl, pOflOM M3 3T0H BOMHbl. Cunbt, 

nonyMMBiune a xoAe 8b)6opoe noAAepxtKy 6onbUJMHCTsa 
HaceneHMA, nonyMwriM ee Snaroaapn mmm me P33BB33hhom 
MCTepi4M Boxpyr yax HastiBaeMOM bomhw c TeppopusMOM 5=1 
Boece He xony cxasaTb, mto c TeppopM3MOM He Haao 6o- 
pOTbcn Mnn hto b 6opb6e c 3tmm 3Dom HeflonycTMMbi 



cMJiOBbie MeTOflbi. OTHHjAb HeT. Bonee Toro. n npexpacHo 

DOMHK),MTOnepBb)MaKT, MJIHTOMHee. nponOr3TOMBOMHbl — 

BTOpweHMe b flarecTan — 6btn opraHMSOBaH, cxopee Bcero, 
He M3 MocKBbi. HcnoriHMTenHMM 3Toro npecTynHoro BTop- 

*eHMfl SbinM WCJiaMCKMeSKCTpeMMCTbl M tpaHaTMKM-HaqMO- 

HaxiMCTbi, He nonyHMBiDMe aonwHoro OTnopa co CTopoHbi 
o0MMwanbHbix BnacTeii HenHM. R xony cxasaTb. hto KOMaH- 
aa riyTHHa umhhmho paaurpana 3Ty cMTyauMio xax Koawp- 
Hy» Kapry A^in noSeflbi Ha napnaMeHTcxnx w npe3MA8HTC- 
xmx BbiSopax \A npM stom mx coBepujeHHo He soxiHoaario. 
<J6M o6epHeTcn 3Ta BOMHa Ans Poccmm. ne roBopn ywe o 
MeHHe. Osna^aeT riM pasBBSUBaHwe Teppopa b MenHe, mto 
penpeccnn BHOBb cranyT ochobhum opyaneM ynpae^eHMn 
no Bceii Poccmm? He AyMato. Ho vi36MpaTe/ibHoe TOMenHoe 
npuMeHCHne penpeccMM a/is fl0CTM)KeHMfi BnacTbto cbomx 
uenew cnMTaio BnortHe B03MowHbiM. Pa3yMeeTC», nonnTO- 
necKMW xapairrep sthx penpeccMM ByaeT TiyaTeribHO Mac- 

KHpOBaTbCR. ripMCyTCTByiOlUMe 3AeCb aKTMBMCTW 3KO/iorn- 

necKMX flSKweHMM MoryT MHoroe paccxaaaTb naM o tom, xax 
STOflenaeTCfl. CeroAnsi rnaoiiuft yaap HanpaBnen mmchho 
npoTMB kmx. BnpoMeM, napajine/ibHo pacieT v* o6uian Hesa- 
BMCMMOCTb opranoa MBfl, npoxypaTypbi, OCB, apywx cm- 
■noBbix crrpyxryp He TonbKO ot rpaJKjqaHCKoro kohtpojir, ho m 
ot co6riK3AeHMn saxoHHocTM m npaa hmmhoctm BooSoie. A 
3to yme xacaeTcn He M36paHHbix, a acex 

HaxoHeu, k nwcny yme ocymecTBneHHbix KOMnoneHT 
oCwecTBeHHoro npoeicra. kotopwm HOBbiM npesMAeHT npea- 
noxcMn M36paBibe« ero crpane, othochtca BHeuiHenonMTM- 
MecxMii xypc ero aAMMHMCTpauuM OaxrMMecKM stot xypc 
oawaMaeT c6.rm>KeHMe Poccmm c caMuMM HeAGMOKpaTMMec- 
kmmm pe>KMM3MM b MMpe, ot Ky6bi ao CesepHOM Kopen. 

C6nMJK6HMe C flMKTaTOpaMM, KOTOpbie OTKpblTO rtOHMpaiOT 

npaaa hmmhoctm m noriMTMHecKMe caoSoflbi a cbomx dpa Hax 
m co3fl3K)Tyrpo3bi Me>KAyHapoflHOMy MMpy m MewAyHapofl- 
HOM6e3onacHocTM. BaM, xojinerM, peiuaTb, aotdkho riM Bon- 

HOBaTbpOCCMMCKMX npaB03amMTHMKOB TO, MTOflenaeTCfl 33 

npeaenaMn HauiMX rpaHMq m aa>«e rpaHMu 6biBLuero CoeeT- 
cxoro Cok>33. Mon *e TOMxa 3peHMH M3BecTHa: npasa Meno- 
sexa. xax m mmp b uenoM, HeaenMMbi OflHaxo Swno 6bi 
neManbHO m CMeujHo. bc/im 6w HWHeuiHMM Cbe3fl 3aHflncn 
flexnapaunflMM m pa3o6naMeHn»MM BnaciM, He otbctmb na 
rnaBHbtii sonpoc: xax HaM npoTMBocTOHTb yrp03aM, mcxoah- 
iumm ot HbiHeiDHevi nonMTMMecxoM CMTyaiiMM? Mnane roso- 
pn. HaM cneayet, npe)KAe Bcero, ayMaTb He o tom, mto 
aorwHaaenaTbBnacTb.MTo6bieTaTb xopomeii MyaocTOMTb- 
cfi Haiueii noxBanw , a o tom , mto aojdkhw aenatb mn , mto6 w 
oxa3aTb xoTb Kaxoe-HM6yAb enMSHMe na aanbHeMiiiee paa- 

BMTMeC06blTMM, 

npex<Ae Bcero, Haa/ie)KMT oTeeTMTb ce6e Ha o6u|mm 
sonpoc: ao kskom cTeneH n m b kbkmx acnexrax npaaosa immt- 
Hwxy HaflnewMT saHMMaTbCR nonMTMxoii? 3to BeMHWM Bon- 
POC O COOTHOUJ6HHM npaBa M nOOMTMKM, KOTopwrt saHMMan 

axTMBMCToB asuweHMJi 3a npasa Menosexa eiye b CCCP 
HaaepHoe. pa3Hb>e /iioam otb6Trt Ha Hero no-pa3HOMy. ft 

OTBBMaiO Tax, npaBOaaiUMTHMK He MOmeT yMTH OT nOJIMTMKM 

Toraa, xoraa b nonMTMMecxHx coSbiTMnx bwamt yrposy npa- 
BaMriMMHOc™, ocHOBaMaeMoxpaTHMecKorocTpofl. rocnoa- 
CTBy npaBa m rpawaancxoMy o6mecTBy. BnpoMeM, b CTonb 
oSmeM Btiae 3TM xpMTepMM Bpna nn Tax pauMOHanbHu. 
rto3TOMy, xacancb KOHxpeTHux noriMTMMecKMx TenaeHUMM, 
HaM Bee paBHo npMaeTCB xaatabiM pa3 oTxpbieaTb aMCKyc- 
cmkj: HBnaeTcs nM. nanpMMep, yHMTapM3auviB rocyaapcTBen- 



Yrpoaa npaeoBONiy rocyflapcTBy w ocHOBaM fleMOKpaTMM b CTpaHe J 



how anacru HapytueHHeM npaa rpawAan, h KaKwe mmbhho 
npaBa npH stom HapyiuatoTca? KaKne cpopMw MO*ei npw- 
HBTb ynacTMe npaB03aw,HTHbix opraHnsauuM b no/wwue? 

Mbi flOfDKHbl COBMeCTHblMH yCWIMRMH fipOBOflHTb Cepb63- 

Hyro 3KcnepTHyio paooTy, Mbi flonwHbi opraHH30saTb cwcTe- 
MaTHMecKuPiMOHMTopMHrcoSbiTnti, nponcxoARujnx b nonn- 
TunecKOM ceKTope, b nacTHOCTti, b fly Me, 3aTparMaaiomMx 
npaBaMenoBeKa.Mwflon)KHbiperynnpHoaHanji3MpOBaTbM 
ouennBaTb taKwe co6biTw«. a saxeM pacnpotrrpaMRTb hsliivi 

BblBOAbl VI OUeHKM K3K MO>KHO WMpe. BOSMOWHO n ynacTue 

npaB03aiiiHTHMKOB B oTKpbiTwx aKUHflx HeHacunbCTBennoro 
rpawtaaHCKoro conpoTMBneHHR — ot c6opa noflnMceii noa 
neTHUMBMH flO unTHHroa n nviKeioB flpyroti eonpoc, B03- 
mohcho nM Ha 3tom nyrw floSnTbcn Kaxux-nnSyAb acpcpeKTHB- 
Hbtx peaynbTaTOB, B jtk>6om cnynae, to, hto b npeAnaraio — 
3to. b cymHocTn. rpa>KflaHCKaR m Heno/iMTMHecKan, xow m 
o6pameHHan nanonnTHMecKne uenn, onno3nunR «ny™HM3- 
wy». Xony cpasy Cflenatb oroBOpKy: onno3MunH, o KOTopoti 
a roBopKi, flonwHa 6wTb, nojibsyncb ceroAHRWHei* noriHTM- 
necKow neKCMKoA, He nenpuMHpHMOki, a KOHCTpyKTMBHoii. 
Ecnvt BnacTM nane naflHUR noviflyT HaacTpeny hbiumm rpe6o- 

BaHMRM. eCHU MeWAy H3MH M HUMH OKaJKeTCR 803M0>KHblM 

KOHCTpyKTKBHbiiiflnanor, 6bino 6w npecTynneHweM He novi- 
th Ha 3tot Ananor bo hmr co6r»ofleHMB hmctotw pw3. Ha- 
ae>Kflbi Ha t3kom nosopoT co6biTn«, no npaBfle roBops. 
ManoBaTO. Ho BcnoMHUM, hto nnonepbi npaeo3ainnTHoro 

ABUWeHMfl, B HaCTHOCTM. AHflpeM CaXapOB, HaCTOMHMBO M 

AoSpocoBecTHO nbiTa/incb BecTH noAoSHbin ananor eme C 
C0BeTCKMMnpaBMTe^bCTB0M,K0rflaHaae)«abiHe6bin0BOB- 
ce. 

flanee. roBopjio Heo6xoAHMocTnann npaB03amnTHM- 

KOB He BblTb B CTOpOHe OT nO/lHTMKW. R AOJlWeH CKaSaTb Vi 

Apyroe. Ecrin, yBneKLuncbnonnTHKovi.Mbi6yneMnpeHe6pe- 
raTbreM, hto a nasBan pyrwHHOM 6yflHMMHo(i pa6oTotf npa- 
B03amnTHbix opraHHsauHii, Mbi oneHb 6bicrpo npespaTM MCR 
b noJiMTHKaHCTByioinHxoSbiBaTejieH, HeMHTepecHbixflawe 
caMMM ce6e. He roBopR ywe o kom-to npyroM . B caMOM Aene, 
noneMy xoTb kto-to o6n3aH c Havtn cHHTarbCR, xorb kto-to 
AonweH npvtHKMaTb bo BH^Manne name MHenne? 3to Mo- 
wer 6biTb ToribKo TorAa, xoraa mw oSnaflaeM onpefleneH- 
HbiM o6mecTBeHHbiM bbcom, a 3tot Bee 3aBncnT ot uenoro 
pnAa cpaiaopOB. H hm Haiua npMHLivinwanbHOCTb. hh Hauja 
paanKanbHOCTh, hm KpacMBbiti cnor Hawwx 3aRBneHM(i. hm 
HHTenneKTyann3MHaujMxaHannTMMecKMxnoTyrKHMCny3TMx 
cpaKTopoBHeoTHOCflTcn. 06inecTBeHHbiPi Bee, noBbiiueMwe 
BnwnHMfl b o6mecTBe Moryr BOSHUKHyrb TonbKO b xoAe roro, 
hto n HasBan pyniHHoti paSoToii npasosaiuwTHviKa. 

R npeKpacHo noHHMaio, ^to ywacTue aKruBMCTOB npa- 
BOsamidTHbix opraHW33MMH b rpa>«flaHCKoiS HenonMTMMecKoti 
onno3nnnn MO*eT OKasaTbcs cepbe3HOM noMexoti An« 6yA- 

HW4H0M pa60Tbl. ripHMMHbl OweBHAHbl, M OCTaHaBnHBaTbCR 
Ha HHX HeT HyiKAbl. KaK BblXOflHTb M3 3TOM KOflTIMSHU? MeCTHO 

roBopn, n He Mory npuBecTM HHKaKoro peuenTa. HcKaTb 
OTBer Ha stot Bonpoc npiiAeTCfl a noBceAHeeHow paSoTe. 

fljlfl MeHR flCHO TOribKO OAHO: MM6HHO TBnepb 06a 3TMX 

HanpaaneHHA Haiuew AesTe/ibHOCTM cranw A/if nac o6nsa- 
TenbHbiMM. CwTyaynn raKoea. ito nonnbiM oTKaa ot oahom 
us saaaM b nonb3y Apyro« ry6nTeneH arm o6enx. Echm mw 
OTKaweMCFi ot 6yflHHHHOki npaBOsamwTHoii «naxoTw» b 
nonbsy no/iHTHKw, to cianeM HimTowHoti KyMKoSi niOAert, 
HeyaawaeMbix oSi^ecTBOM n cnocoSHbix nmub x Aexjiapa- 



uwflM. Ecnn we Mt>i OTKaweMcn ot waen rpawAancKow onno- 
3hlihh a nontay ncunioMHTenbHo 6yflHHMHOn pyTn hhoh Men- 
Kofi pa6oTW (BpoAe noMomti SeweHiiaM), to Mbi oneHb 
SbicTpo npufleM k cuTyamiH. xorfta HMKaxoii noMoinn 6e- 
wenuaMMbi peanbHooKa3aTbHecMo>«eM.XoTs6bi noTOMy, 
hto n 3Toii pyrnHHow pa6oToii Totce pasApawaew BnacTM. n, 
SHannT. HaAo6anaHcnpoBaTb MexmyAByMR KpaftHocTHMi*. 
Ecnw yroAHO, b stom m coctomt HpesBbmafiHOCTb nacTOfl- 
mero MOMeHTa. Ho xaxite 6bi peiueHMR Mbi hh npuHUMann s 
TOM kinii hhovi curyaunn . HaAO npuHMMaTb Kx c OTKpwTbiMt- 
rna3aMM. YaepflK) Bac, BfiacTb He o6M3HeiiJb, A Ha MyA- 
pocTb BnacTH, KOTopafl Tepnena 6w naiue o>poHAepcTBo m 
b Towe BpeMR He Memana 6w naM b noBceAHeBHoii pa6oTe, 
mw. yBbi, paccMkiTbiBaTb He MoweM. Xorn 6w rroTOMy, hto 
3ia BnacTb Boece He Myapao. 

V\ eme OAna saAana ecTb y poccniiCKoro npaBoaamiiT- 
hoto ABiiweHMfl. Koropoe HecnynaMHo BeAb ncTopnnecKn 
6bino nepBenueM He3aBncnMovi oSmecTseHHOCTki, nepBbiM 
(h Ha MHorneroAbt npairrnHecKM eAMHCTseHHbiM) bcxoaom, 
kotopwm AariH ceMena rpa>iyiaHCKoro oSmecTsa hs bh- 
)»KeHHOMcoBeTCKofiBnacTbio3eMne.3Tono3MUMOHMpoBa- 
Hnece6« a o6mecTB8HHOM npouecce Towe pyTUHHaa pa6o- 
Ta, ATinTenbHas. Aaxe, nowanyii, nocToflHHan n nerterxaR 
Bbi we fl roBOpMJi o no3n umoh upoBa hhh ce6n no oTHOiueHviK) 
k npaBHTenbCTsy nyrnHa . Ho Heu3MepuMO 6onee bsikhom 
RBnseTCR saAana onpeAexiKTb ce6R no OTHOUjeHMK) k Apy- 
thm areHTaM o6iuecTBeHHoro npoqecca: Macc-MeA^a. 6ms- 
Hecy, nonnTunecKUM napTMRM, a Taiotce k HaiiJMM co6paTbnM 

M3APyHX'"pa>KAaHCKHXOpraHH3aLlHtf. 

OcTaHoantocb na nocneAHeM aonpoce. Mbi Aon>KHbi 

HeTKO nOHRTb. HTO npaB03aiUMTHbie (B y3K0M CMblCTie 3TOT0 

cnosa) opraHMsauMH — nuiub HeSonbuiafl. xotr v\ BecbMa 
3H3HHMaH nacTb coBoxyriHocTw HenpaBMTeribCTBeHHbix 
rpax<AaHCKnx opraHHsauMM caMoro pasxiMHHoro npotpuns. 
aKTHBHOpa6oTatoinnxceroAHiiBPoccMn.HMeHHorpa)«AaH- 
CKne HenpaBMTenbCTBeHHbie opraHnsaunn n Apyrne cTpyK- 
Typbi rpamASHCKoro o6iitecTBa RBnnioTCR HaiuuMki ecTe- 

CTBBHHblMH COK)3HMXaMM B npOTMBOAefiCTBHH aBTOpMTap- 

HbtMTeHAeHUHRM SToecTecTBeHHO. *yHAaM6HT rpasKAan- 
exoro o6iyecTaa — npaBO, h oho we, npaBO, OBnueTCR 
nepBOti «epTBOkiaBTopnTapvi3Ma Koh6hho. penbHenAeTHW 
o xaxnx opraHM3aunoHHbix o6teAMHeHMRx. fla, n HaAeiocb. 
HTOBpaMK3xnpaB03amnTHorocoo6mecTBa.BcaMOMAene 
06 3Tom penb He noflAeT. Mbi ao/dkhw o6cy)KAaTb c naiUMMM 
xonneraMM cwcreMy ropM30HTanbHux censew. npMneM. hb 
opraHH3aunoHHbix, a KopnopaTMBHwx, BbiCTpaMBaeMbixBOK- 
pyr KOHnpeTHwx Aen, HMetomux o6myio a^r bcbx 3Hann- 

MOCTb- 

14, HaxoHeu, nocneA«ee Haiu Cte3A — HpesBbina^- 

HblH. Hpe3BblHaMHOM CMTyaUMM MOXHO npOTMBOnOCTaBHTb 

MHoroe. Ho oaho HpesBbiHaiiHOM curyauMM npoTMBonocraB- 
HRTb SeccMbicneHHO — HCTepuxy. Hauua pa6oTa nerxo 
MoweT CTaTb copeBHOBanneM b xpMxax, o6nnHeHHflx m 
xnecTKHx annTeTax no aAPecy B/iacrii. Enaro, sto noxa eme 
noHTn6e3onacHOAfiRo6nnHaiomMXM, rnaBHoe, Herpe6yeT 
HMKaKOii c^CTeMaTunecKOii pa6oTbt 3 AanbHeiiweM. Bot 
TorAa tohho mo>kho 6yA6T cxasaTb, hto Mbi noTepnenn 
«pax. fl npM3biaaho ctesA hm b KoeM cnynae He math no 
aroMy nyTM. Cnacvi6o 3a BHwMaHwe. 

MocKBtt, 20 nmapn 2001 coda 



«J RPABA HEJ10BEKA 



ij 3uxii>j"/y lops© ^h/joejbjisj 




0,iw Mupoitoa 



A.iexaiHdp ropciuK. 



.hithtx / '/hitfhied . 



£ nPABA HEJ10BEKA 




Ctf&ei CuupHoa 



E,te»a PycaKaaa 



lOpuu BdoauH. Hoeuip JImmowuhckw 



II 



4 



nPABAHEJIOBEKA 



3MIAEMM CEKPETIDCTH 



Om pedaKnuu 

...Pem, udem o HacmoxujeO "anudeMuu" tunuonoua- 
huu. xomopaa oxaamuna ueribiu pad pezuoHanbHbix nod- 
pa3deneHU0 poccuucxux cneitcnyixS u Hexomopbtx nped- 
cmaeumeneu opaanoa e/iacmu Poccuuckou 0edapauuu 

B Hacmofunse epeMn a Poccuu udym cydeGhibie npo- 
ueccbi unu eedemcfi cjiedcmeue no odauHenuto a uinuo- 
naxe unu co3daHuu yaposu eocydapcmaeHHoQ u aoenHOO 
5e3onacHocmu cmpanbi npomue eoeHHOSo xypHanucma 
Fpuaopun RachKo, yvewwx Maopfi CymmuHa, Bnaduuupa 
Coucpepa. BnaduMupa LUypoea, dunnoMama Banenmuna 
Mouceeea. uHMenepos Buxmopa fluMOHoea u BnaduMu- 
pa LUu6aeaa A6coniomHo dacnoveeHHo e compydHune- 
cmee c uHocmpanHbiuu cneucny*6aMu oay/itwo oobuhr- 
lomcn axmueucmbi 3xonoaw*ecKoao datuxeHUfi Poccuu, 

Hatuy KpauHtoio o6ecnoxoenHocmb ebObieaem mo, 
ymo npBMbie 0anbcu0uxauuu, noOnoau. ucxamenue 
0axmoe u ucnonb3oeanue nedonycmuMbix 3axoH0M do- 
Ka3amenbcme e amux denax cmaHoeamcn dna cneu- 
onyxS, a spade cnyvaee u drm npoxypamypbi. nyrrtb nu «e 

HOPMOU. 

ripuxodumcn KOHcmamupoea mb.vmo 33nacmyx} npe- 
cnedoeaHURM nodeepsammcfl daare adeoxambi nodcydu- 
Mwjr no "tunuoHCKUM denaM". 

Bbicutue aocydapcmeeHMbie danmenu e caoux 3ana- 
nenuax do cyda Hasbteatom apaxdan 'wnuonaMu u npe- 
cmynHUKaMu". eucmynatom c 6ecno^eenHbiMu q66uhbhu* 
pmu e adpec nnodomeopno pa6omaiow(ux poccuucxux u 
sapyoeiKHbix o6mecmeeH»bix ayManumapHbtx. Snazomeo- 
pumenbHbtx u npaeo3atMumnbtx opaamj3am/G Tame 3a- 
aeneHua eocnpunuMaiomcR cnau.cnyx6aMu. npoxypamy- 
pou u cydaMu nan ueneean ycmanoaxa. Cunoabie cmpyx- 
mypbi aocydapcmaa npaxmu^ecxu omeepznu ocuoaono- 
nasaioiMuu npumiun npe3yMnu,uu HeauHoeHocmu. 



143 Mamepuanoe sxcnepmoe mom ho cdenamb hb- 
CKOPbKO npeoeapumenbHbtx abieodoe: 

flepeoe. Bbiovue 3uuenonbi Hoeou poccuucxou s/ia- 
cmu. menan oSpecmu ynpaaneHHacxyso "xapu3My' u uc- 
nonb3ya dm amoeo uncmpyMenmbi ManunynupoeaHUR 
MaccoebiM co3HanueM. nbimatomcp enedpumb mu0« o 
HecSxoduMOcmu "ynpaanneuou deMoxpamuu "; o neo6xo- 
duMocmu 803po>KdeHUfi poccuOcKoeo zocydapcmea kbk 
"aenuKou depxaehi" (uMnepuu?) e xa<4ecfnee npomueoee- 
ca 3anady: o neo6xoduMOcmu yKpennenufi eoeHHo-3KO- 
HOMiwecKUx omHoweHuu c pexuuaMu Hpana, Mpaxa, 
Cupuu. KyGbi, CeaepHoQ Kopeu. Kumaa: o «a/?ufuw sue- 
lumix gpaxdeSHbix Poccuu cun Ha 3anada. npexde ecezo 
a CUJA: o eo3M0MHocmu Haeedenua s cmpane nopndna 
ycunuHMu cneucnyxG; o "enympeHHux epaeax" e nuua 
xaexamea, He3aeucuMtix cpedcme Maccoaou uncpopya- 
u.uu u aKmueucmoe odtuecmeeHHbix oSheduneHuu. 

Bmopoe, Odnou u3 anaenbix npunun o6ocmpeHun 
cumyauuu ftenmomcn yvacmueujuecj? napy menus* poc- 
cuucKoao 3BKOHodamenbcmea u pamu0uuupoaaHHbix 
uemdynapodHbix doKyuBHmoe pwdoM socydapcmeenHbix 
cmpyxmyp Poccuu, 

Tpamba- OSocmpunocb npomuaopewe mexdy cue- 
mpMHbiMu ueHHoemftMU apamdaHCKoao o6tu,ecmea (om- 
Hpbtmocmb. csoSoda cnoea, npospannocmb anacrnu, 06- 
mecmaeHHbiu KOHmponb} u ampu5ymaMU noemmomanu- 
mapnoeo eocydapemea (u36bimo<4Hast ceKpemnocmb u 
adMUHucmpupoeanue, cmoeMflenue cunoabix empyxmyp 
xdoMUHupoeaHuioeaKOHOMUKe. nonumuxe, o6uj,acmeeH- 
hou XU3HU, menaHue cneucpyx(6 doxa3anib ceoto hboGxo- 

dUMQCmb U HB3a>AQHUMOCmb). 

CMoxem nu o6mecmeo npomusocmoRmb amou anu- 
det*uu? Bonpoc noxa ocmaamcp omxpbimbiM, , . 



CexpeTHOCTb: TepiiNHOJiorNi 



rocyjapciBciiiibic ceK-peTM — ito CBejieHHN iiojihth- 
necKoro, ?KOKOMHHecKoro, BocMHoro h HayiHO- Tex HHHCC KO- 
TO xapairrepa, > i p;ii;i it.iii p;m .liunoHHi' KOToptix i iM.iacT 
yrpo3y 6e3onacHocrM h HeiaaHCHMocTH rocy,iapcTBa hjih 
HaHOCKT ymep6 ero iiHTepecaw. rotyaapCTBeHHhieceKpeTbi 
BKiiiOHaiOT Bce6» rocyiiapCTBeHHyio, c Ty>Ke6H\ to h soeHHyio 

TaMHbl. 

Oy--».-c6naji Tafina — jto caeiieHHH. yTpaia KOTopwx 
HaHOCKT ymep6 HHTepecaM rocyjapcTBa in oanoro hj ei o 

BCaOMCTB. 

Botinias TaHHa — 3to CBcaeHHH. oxpaHBCMbic rocy- 
aapcTBOM. hhcto BoeHKoro xapairrepa. 

flpe inpHtitmai f.n,cKMe tckpen.i nK.-no'iann B cefifl 
npoMbim.icHHyK). (pHHaHcoByro h KOMMepiecicyio TafiHbi. 

ll[i(iMi,iiit.K , n«a« laiuia — ito cCKperw tipOH3Boji- 

CTB8, OTKpUTHJI, HloSpCTeHHJt. HOBblC TeXHO^OTHH H TJL 

4>HHaHcoBaH TBHHa — >TO 6yxranTCpCKHc H (|)HHaHCO- 
eue aoKyMCHTw, jcioBas riepenKCKa h t.j. 



KuMMi p'lt'CkllH TaJilia 3TO BCC CBOHCTBCHHWe 33H- 

Kowy npe;mpH«Tnio woSchhocth. aeTa.it! KOMMepnecKOH 
jeHTe.ibnocT»i. napTHepu, hctohhhkh cwptst. oco6chhocth 
cgbiTa nponyKUHH, 



HcmotHUKU: A jenmy -pa. ru, 

3HifUtaoneduJi vKupuxt u Me$oduw. 

ucmopunecKitu cnpasowuK nTPV, KFE u t>pyeue,..» 
















4 



flpaBa MenoeeKa. 3nuneMMn cexpemocm. 



11 



N3 HCTOpHH HCHCTBMbl 

n opraHDB aauiNTbi 

MHlJlOpMaUHHH 



Mali 1921 urn 

I kiL i;iHoB.'ieiiHCM Majioro CosiiapKOMa ot 5 Mas 192! 
roaa npH B4K C03aan cnemianbHbiH orassx noa pyicoBoa- 

CTBOM I. H. EoKHS. 

OkiHilpi. 1921 in i;i 

1 3 orraGpa 1 92 1 roaa aeupeTOM CHK yTBcpxmcH nepe- 
HCHb CBCacKHft, cocTaBMfoniHx Tafiny h He noancttaumx 
pacnpOCTpaHCHHW CaeaeKiu ac. :n iHCb »a: 

1) bochhuc; 

2) >KOKOMHHeCKtie. 

(>Kia6pb 1921 roaa 

riocTaHOaneHHeM CHK PODCP ot 13 oicraSpa 1921 

roaa yTBep»meHO <■] lo loaa-mie o bochhoh ucH3ype B4K». 
no KOTOpoMy «juix orpaxcaeHH* iio.'ihvhhcckhx. 3kohomh- 

HCCKHX H BOCHHUX HHTepeCOBPCOCP" BBOaHJIHCt.«UCH3ypa 

nenaTHux npOH3BeaeHHfi, nOHTOBo-TcaerpatpHoft xoppecnoH- 
aemiHH it Kon rpo.ib 3a paaxoTeaerpa<J>HbiMH cbjhhmh» 

HKtHb 1922 roaa 

Coiaano T^aBHOC ynpaejieHHe no aejiaM H3aaTeabCTB 
(f-iaBjiHT) npH HapKOMate npocBeuiCHHa (HapsoMnpoce). 

\m u'l 1922 io ia 

30 asrycTa ] 922 roaa CcKptnapHaT UK PKn(6) npHKsa 

nOCTaUOB.lCHHC «0 IIOpaaKC xpaHCHHfl H aBH5KeHHK ceKper- 

hhx aoKVMCHTOB». HocraHOBJieHHCM ot 30.08.22 npeayc- 
MaTpHBeuiocb co3aaHHe ceKpeTHux Hacrefi ajwt opraHHiauHH 
h Be^enHH ceKpCTHOro aejionpoHiBoacTBa, 

Hmiii|.i. 1922 i n.ia 

Oprtwpo IJ.K PKri(6) npimsjio nocTaHOsneHHe «0 no- 
paaice xpaiieiimi ceKpeniwx hoc ranoB;ieHnfi UK PKI1(6)». 

fl l!H'.lpb 1923 I IM;i 

IloCTaHOB.lCHHG riOJlHTSlopo UK PKn(6y OT 1 1 HHBapH 

1 923 roaa o co3jshhh npH my cncuHajitnoro McacseaoM- 
CTBCHHoro 6iopo no ae mn(pupMaunH (4e3HH06fopo) b co- 
craBe npeacTaBHTejieH ot my, UK PKI1(6), HKHZl, PBC, 
py UJTa6a PKKA. 

3aaa4H 6iopo: 

«— ynrr irk i > iMioiuux b my h PaaBcaynp b apyrae 
yHpcsKaeHHJi cBeaeHH fi o ctchchh ocBeaoMJieHHocrni hhoct- 
paHHbtx pa3seaotc o Pocchh; 

— y*jeT h xapatrrcpncTHKa cbchchhh, HHTcpecyioiitHX 
npoTHBHHKa; 

— BblABJICHHe CTeneHH OCBeaOM.ieHHOCTH npoTHBHHKa 

o nac; 

— cocTaaaeHHc h tcxhhkcckoc miotobjichhc uenoro 
pxaaaowHbix CBCacHKil h aok\ mchtob. aajoniHX HcnpaaHJib- 
Hoe npe.iei a H.i ci i hc npoTHBHHKy; 

— CHa6*eHtie npoTHBHHKa BwmcyKasaHHbiMH MaTepH- 
aaaMM h aoKVMciiTaMii npoH3BoaHTb lepca cooTseTCTByio- 
uuse opraHbi my h Pa3Beaynpa». 



Anpe.ib 1926 roaa 

HocTanoBJieHHe CHK CCCP ot 27 anpcJis 1 926 roaa 
«06 > i BcpatacHiiH nepcsHH cBcaeHHH, hbjiskiuihxcji no CBO- 
eMy co.icp*annKi cncu.Haat.H0 oxpauaeMOH rocyaapcTBCH- 
hoh ! aii HOH». 

AnpeJib 1926 roaa 

27.04.26 CHK CCCP yTsepajm KlTepeieHb cBeaeHHft, 
ABAxioiuMxcA no csoeMv coaep*aHHio cneiiHajibHo oxpaiue- 
Mofi roeyaapcTBeHHoH TafinoRw (nepabifi oTKpbrrbifi ncpc- 
ieiih i. C BciennH aejiHJiHCb Ha 3 rpyruiu; 

1 ) CBcacHHS BOCHHoro xapaicrepa; 

2) CBejienns ikohomhscckoio xapaicrepa; 

3) CBcaeHHH mioro poaa. 

Oco6eHHocTH nepemw: k CBeaeniuM, sbjihhjiuhmcs ro- 
cTafiHOii. othocstcji CBcacHHs — CC, C,* He noajiewanute 
nriiiiiiiiiiMW 

HioHb 1926 roaa 

CncuoTaeJiOM npn Ofliy iman wJlepcceHb BonpocoB 
cosepuieHHO ceicpeTHofi, ceKperHofi m He iio;ne-*amefi orjia- 
iiieiniK) iicpc]!ticKii». CoaepKaHHC iTOro nepenna fkwiee ae- 
Ta^bno pacKpuBaer Bonpocw. oTpaxcHHuc b nepewHe CHK. 

CTpyKTypa nepeiHa: 

1 ) BOnpocw BOCHHoro xapaicrepa; 

2) Bonpocu 4>HHaHCOBo-3KOHOMK<ieci:oro xapatcrepa; 

3) Bonpocu noaKTHqecKoro (b tom hhcjic nap i hhhoi d i 
xapaKTepa; 

4. Bonpocu oSuiero xapaicrepa. 
1926 r m 

npHHJITbl o6lllCCOI03)lbie HHCTpyKUHH: 

«HiiCTpyKUHii no Bcaenmo ceicpeTHoro h uiH(ppOBaJib- 
Horo aeJionpoHiBoacT8a»; 

«HncTpyKUHJi MCCTHbiM opraHaw Omy no Ka6jiK>ae- 
khm 3a not ranoBKofi ceicpeTHoro h stooHjimaiiKOHHOi'o ae- 
aonpoH3BoacTBa»; 

«H«crpyKUHJi no seaeHHio apxHBHoro aejionpoH3Boji- 
ctaa h caaie aeji b opratiu Uc»rpapxHBa»; 

i-Hhc ipvKuiiH o nopaaKe saroTOBJieiuiH n KOHBepTosa- 
Hua KoppecnoHaeHUMH, nepecuaaeMofi aHiiaoMaTHHecKOH 
no«rroH». 

Man 1927 roaa 

CHK CCCP npHHJtn nocTaHOB.iccnc o ccoaanHH Boeuit- 
3HpOBannoi1 oxpaHbi ana oxpanw npeanpnaTiiH tt coopyxte- 
hhh, HMeiouiHx oco6oe 3HaseHHC jum rocyaapCTBa. m 06 
opraHHiauBH ctuiaMH bohck OHiy bochhoh oxpauu npea- 
npHaTHH h coopy^eHHH. hmcioiuhx HCsmoiHTeabHoc SHane- 
HHe ana o6opoitbt CTpanu. 

1928 roa 

llpiiHsibi paaaeJibHuc «HHCTpyKUHa no ceKperHOMy 
aeJionpoH3BoacTBy» n «HHCTpyimHa no LUtiiJipOBajibHOMy 
ac jio npoH3BOaCTBy » . 

1929 roa 

I Ipiiiisia «HHcrpyKUHa MecTHbiM iipraiiaH Omy no 
iiafi.-iHucn inn 3a cocTOfiHKeM ceiqjcTHoro n Mo6naH3auKOH- 
Horo aejionpoH3BoacTBa yipoKaenHH h opraHH3auHH» 

KoHeii 1920-x h 

llpoBcaeiia ymiipHKaixnji cocraBa ccKpCTHblX opranos h 
ycTaifOBJiena craHaaprHas ii.iMeiiK.ia i y pa aoaafHocrefi cck- 
peTHUx annapaxoB ynpeKacH hh h opraH mauHft. B ueHTpaab- 

' CC — CosepiuBMHO ceKpeTMO, C — ceKperno 



tl 



1/13 MCTOpMW «CMCT6Mbl 1/1 OpraHOB 3aUi.l/fTbl \AH<$OpMaU,\AM* 



Hhix annapaTax BCHX h HKHfl, HKT. HKnC cosaaHbi cck- 
peiMbic oTaejna. a ocrajibtibrx iiapKOMaTax — ceKpenrbie 
naCTH, a ii i . Mil ku.\ . y npaancHHjrx h OTacnax ceKpexHbic nacTH 
h ccKpentbie oTaejieHiw cooTBercTBeHHO. HoMCHniaTypa aoji- 
jkhoctch ccKpcTHux opraKOB 6him cjieayromefi: 

— jaBeay roiimfi; 

HHCTpyKTOpbi; 

— cetcpeTapii (romouihhkh ceKperapefi); 

— icoppccnoaaetrnj; 

— CTapIilHC MaiUHHHCTKH (MatXlllHMCTKH); 

— noMoiiuiMKH ceKpeTapefl — apxHBapitycbi 
C'TpyKTypa ceicpei m,ix opraHOB npeaycMaTpHBana: 

— ceKpeTHoe aejionpon3BoacTBo; 

— Maui6iopo; 

— qepTOKHoe 6iopo; 

— CTCHorpa4>HHCCKoe Siopo: 

— rpynny kohtpojis; 

— rpynny no yHCTHO-pacnpeaejiirrejibHOH pa6oTe; 

— 6iopo nponycKOB h cnpasOK. 

KoHKperHUH coerab ccKpeTHbix opraHOB onpeacjuuicji 
HapKOMaraMH no cor/iacosaKHto co cneuoiacjioM Ol'Iiy. 
OiymSu 3auiKTbi HHtpopMauwit na3WBajincb no-pa3HOMy; 

— ceKpetHue Macro; 

— noaoTacuu ceicpeTHoro a&nonpomBoacTBa; 

— umippoBajibHbie GTacJiu h T.a. 
t tuiHfipb 1930 roai 

npHKa30M HapKOMBoetiMOpa CCCP Jfe070 ot 25 cen- 
T»6pa 1 930 roaa bbcacho «HacTa&neHKe no MoCHJiHiaiiHOH 
huh patki re a BOHCKOBbix tacins, ynpaBJieHR9X, y Hpe»cienii- 
jtx h aaaeaeKHflx PKKA». 

1937 roa 

npHKaaoM HKO CCCP Jfe024 yTBepjKaeno «I lonoaceiiHe 
o uewrpajibiiOH BoemioH uemypc PY». 

npHxaa HKO CCCP X?0043 «06 ochobbx m opraHHsa- 
UHH CKpbtTOro > lipaiijiciiiiti BOHCKaMH» 

ripKK33 HKO CCCP JfeOlOS «0 MeponpHMTHSx no 3a- 
UMlppOBKe h an m i. 1 n n Ba h ii ii bohckobux 4acTefi h coxpaneHHK) 

B "ramie aHOIOKaUHOHHblX CBe.k'i! I! I! •• 

AarycT 1939 roaa 

IIocTaHOBJieHHe CHK CCCP ot 17 hmhji 1939 roaa 
Aa884- 1 45c «0 peopraiiHsamtH <pejibjn>erepcKOH cb*3h HKBJ, 

CCCP», HO KOTOpOMy «ncpCB03Ka CCKpCTHOH H COBCpillCHHO 

ceicpeTHOK KOppecnoaaeHUHH LJK HK 1 It f> ). CHK CCCP, Hpe- 
3wmyMa BepxoBHoro CoBera CCCP, HKO, HKBM* h HKBH 
ot MocKBbi .id pecciyGiiHicaHCKHx, KpacBux h o6nacTnux 
ueirrpoB m o6paroo» B03aaraaacb Ha t}>e;ibai>erepcKyio caiob 
HKBZl (nytiKT 1 ), a unepeaoaKa ot Bcex BeaoMci b (3a hckjijo- 
•ichhcm y'ipoK.-iL'Mifii 11 0praHH3auHH, > Ka sainiwx B iiviiki e 1 ) 
LCKpenioii. coBeprueuHO ceKperHofi KappecnoHacHuutt h 
apai oueHHbix MerajuioB ot ucHTpa ao pafioHOB h ooparHO» 
B03narajiacb Ha cneuHanbuo coaaaHHyto cncuHajibHyio CB«b 

HapKOMBTa CBA3H. 

CeHTflSpb 1939 roaa 

npMKa30M HKO CCCP XsO 1 50 ot 4 ccnT«6pa 1939 roaa 
BBcacHO «HacTaBaeHtte no ceKpemoMy aeJionpou moac i bj b 
PKKA». 



Hkjhi. 1940 roaa 

npiiKaaoM HKO CCCP >°Oi30 ot 20 hk>h» 1940 roaa 
BBeaeHO «HaCTaaaeHHC no MoGmiHaaujioHHOH pa6ote bohc- 
kobux Hacreii, ynpaaaeHHH h yHpexaeHHH KA». 

1940 roa 

2.01.40 roaa nocTaHOBJicHHeM CHK yTBcpacaeua «Hh- 
crpyKUHB no seaeHHio ceKpe-i nwx » mooh.-ih iaunnnHt.i\ pa- 
6ot h aenonpoiiaBoacTBa b yipoicaeHHJix h na npeanpHjrra- 
x\» Qua pernaMeuTHpoBajia cneayiouiHe eonpocu; 

— Kaiei opnpoBaiiHe cseaeHHH no crencHH hx ceKper- 
HocTH, nopaaoK paapaSorKH ncpeniis cBcaetiMH, noajicm'a- 
iuhx 3aceKpcHHBaHHto, h nopsaoK ycTaHoruicHHs h lOMene- 
hhji ipiiipa ceKpcTHocro; 

— cpyHKUitH 7-ro OTaejia yrB, (jiy iikhhh h OTBeTCTBCH- 
HOCTb pyKOBoaHrejicH yHpo«acHHH 3a cociosHne pemiiMa 
ceKpcTHocro; 

— KaaBaHiie ceKpcTHbix opraiioB, nopjiaoK hx cosaamtji 
h aHKBtiaauiiH, ocHOBHbie 3aaann; 

— Tpe6osaHtut k pa6oTHiiKaM. aonyiueitttbiM k ceKpeT- 
hoh HinpopMatntH; 

— nopjtaoK otpopMaeHHa aonycKOB k cckpcthum pa6o- 
tom h aoKyMexraM; 

— TpeSoBaHHfl no orpatiHHCHiiio aoctyna k ceKperooH 
HHtpopMamni; 

— nopaaox seaeHKH ceKpeTHoro aejionpoH3BoaCTBa h 

pa&OTbt C aOKyMCHTaMH B CeKpCTHUX 6KDJtHOTeKaX h apxjr- 

Bax; 

— nopaaoK oSpautCHHs c mH$poTejierpaMMaMH b yn- 
PL"*aeiinji\. He hmcioiuhx uiHtppoBajibiibix oprauoa; 

— nopsaoK xpanemm ceKpenibix h MLi6n:imaniinn hi.i\ 

awtyyeuKMi; 

— nopaaoK yicra, xpancuHx cneurrpoay wimi h oSpaiue- 

MUM C !!(.-». 

— TpeooBaHKa k npoK3BoacTBy khho- h (poTocrbeMKH; 

— nopaaox iipoBeaeHiui ccKperHUx saceaamiii 
Map 1 1941 una 

npHK330M HKO CCCP Ne095 ot 5 Mapra 1941 roaa 
BBeaeiio «HacTaBJieHHe no Mo6HJiH3a«HOHHOH pa6oTe utecT- 
hux opraHOB BoenHoro ynpaBneiina HKO CCCP». 

AeKafipb 1946 roaa 

nocTaHORiicHHC CoBMHHa CCCP «06 ynopxaoieHHH 
BcaoMCTBeHHoii oxpaHU h eeonepaTHBHOM ikvi nunc tin h boh- 
CKaM MBil». 

1946 roa 

IlpHKaaoM MB4 CCCP cosaaHO 5 KOMCHaaTyp no oxpa- 
hc oco6o aaiKHUx oGheiaoH ripOMbmLienirocTH (nonoiKeHO 
Haiaao BOHCicaM no oxpane ocoSo aaKHbtx rocyaapcTBCHHux 
o6beKTOB h cneunaakHbix rpysoB). 

Hwitb 1947 roaa 

IIocTanoB.icHne CM CCCP ot 8 hkjhx 1947 roaa «06 
ycranoBJicuHH nepevtu caeacHHH, cocTa&njiiomHx rocyaap- 
c 1 hchhvk) TaiiHy. pasr/iaweHHC KOTOpbix KapaercR no aaxo- 
Hy». 

H»Hb 1947 roaa 

npiiHJrr YKa3 npC3HaHywa BepxoBHoro CoBCTa CCCP 
ot ot 9 hmhji 1 947 roaa «06 otbctctbchhocth 3a pasrjiaiue- 
hhl' rocyaapcTBeHHOK 1 aiiuw k 3a yrpaTy aoicyMeHTOB, co- 
aepacatiuix rocyaapcTBCHHyio Ta«Hy». 






M3 HCTOpWM «CMCTeMN w opraHOB 3ami/ITbl \AH<pOpMa\A,\AVt> 



13 



1947 roa 

Ha ooi.esaax TITY npH Cobmhhc CCCP bbojmtcji aojDK- 

HOCTH 3aMOB (nOMOLUHHKOS) HaH&lbHHKa ODlCKTa HO pe<KH- 

My. 

Mspi 1948 roaa 

nocTauOBiieHHCM CoBeTa MuHHcrpOB CCCP ot 1 Mapia 
1948 roaa yiBepacneuw uIlepeHenb r.iaBHefiiuiix imlmchhh. 
cocraBnatomnxrocviiapcTBeHHYKiTafiHyiiH «HHCTp) kuiih no 
oSectieietiKK) coxpaiuiocTH i oc yaapc i hciimoi: i nimbi b y i- 
pejKaeHMSX u Ha npeanpiun hmx CCCP». B HHcrpyKUHH 1948 
roaa y craiioB-'ie iiu TpH c l enenn ceKpeTHOCTH ( — C, — CC, — 
CC OB*), nopiuoK onpeae;ieHHx creneHH ceKpeTHOCTH cbc- 
jeimil. npoBeaena ynii(pnKaunfl Ha3BaHHii ceKperHbix opra- 
hob. B ncpeHHe 1 948 roaa caeaeHHs pa35nTbt Ha: 

1 ) M06lLilK3aUH0KHUe BOIipOChI H CBeaeHHH o pe3cpBax; 

2) cBcieHHJi BocHHoro xapairrepa: 

3) CBeaemui iKOHOMHiecKoro xapaKTepa: 

— npoMbiuuieHHOcri.; 

— rro.iciHwc HCKonacMhic; 

— CCJlbCKOC X03SHCTBO; 

— TpaHCnOpT K CBS3b; 

4) ipiiHaHCbi; 

5) bhchihjmi nontrniKa h bhcuihsh ToproBJUt; 

6) Bonpocu HayKH h tcxhhkh: 

— aroMHas 3neprmi; 

— paaHonoKauHOHHas rexHHKa; 

— pcatanBHaa TexHHKa; 

OTKpblTHH h H3o6peTeHH«; 

— CBeaeHHH no Kap: orpatpmi, reonorMH, nrapoaorHH; 

7) l'bck'hhm 06 ApKTHKe; 

8) pasiiue cbc-jchhh. 
\ ii pL-.it, 1948 roaa 

CneUKanbHue lactH BHyrpeHHiix BoficK (no oxpaHe oco- 
6o sawcHux o6beKTOB) nepeaaiiu wa MB4 CCCP b bcjchhc 
MrB CCCP. 

OKifiSpb 1952 roaa 

n0CTaHOBJieHHeC0BCTaMHHHCTp0BCCCPOT29QKTJt6- 

p» 1 952 roaa «06 ncno.ib30BaHnn e npoMWUiJieHHocTM. cipo- 
irrejibCTBc h apymx OTpacjuix Hapojuioro xo3*HCTBa paSoT- 

HHKOB, BbJCBOOOHUaiOWHXCH H3 OXpaHHI. U Mcpax 1!li ) .1 V '1111C- 

liMio .iL'.ia oprajui3auHM oxpaHbi xo3sHCTBcni!bix o6i>eicroB 

MUHHCrepCTB H Be;iOMCTB». 

Map i 1954 roaa 

06pa3osan KoMtrreT rocyaapcTBCHHOK 6c3onacHOCTH 
(KTB) np« CoBerc Mhhiic ipoB CCCP. 

1956 roa 

npcaccaaTeacM KFE npH CM CCCP yTBepaaeHa <»Hh- 
CTpyKUHJj no o6ecncHCHHM coxpaHHOCTH rocyaapcTBeHHofi 
raJiHbi b ynp«KacH»«x h Ha npe.mpim i hmx CCCP». Pa3ae;ibi: 

1 — o6iiiHe nojiowemwi; 

2 — 3aj(a<iH ccKpexitbix OTae/ioB, ccKpernbix hsctch; 

3 — noMcmcHiM ceicpcTHbix oraejioB h qacrea h «x 
oxpana; 

4 — aonycK mu k OB, CC h C aoKy mch i a\;. 

5 — oojnannocTH jihu., aonymcHHUx K OB, CC h C 
aOKVMeirraM; 

6 — onpeaejieHMe creneHH ceKpeTHOCTH; 

7 — sejieHHe OB, CC h C pa6oT; 

8 — paapa60TKa, ytex h paaMitomemie, xpanenne OB 
CC h C nep i c*i;m h TexHttnecKOH aoKVMeHTauHH; 

' CC OB — CoepujeHMO eexpeTno Oco6ofi aaatHocrw 



9 — pa3MMOxeHHe CC h C wi.iaHHfi b THnorpaipHJix; 

10 — BcaenHc OB, CC h C ae.ionpoH3BoaeTBa; 

1 1 — cocrasneHHe n npoxoxcaeHtie mmppin e;ieipaMM 

12 — no.ibioBamte OB, CC h C cBeacHHXMti b KOMan.it: 
poBKax; 

13 — coBCLiiamiii no OB, CC h C BonpocaM; 

14 — OHOJHOICKH CC H C M3aaHHH h T.a. 

1958 roa 

[locTaHOBncHHe UK KTICC «0 wepax no coxpaHeitHto 
r ocyjapcTBCtinofi iaKHbi». 

1958 roa 

HocTaHOB/ieime CM CCCP «0 Mepax no ycHJieHHio 
ceKpeTHOCTH pa6oT no canQHEBUBBM BoopyatcHHUM h 060- 

pOUUOH TeMaTHKC», 

1959 roa 

NocTaHOBicuHCM CM CCCP yTBep)K;ien «nepe«icHb 
caeaeHHH. cocraBj-unoauix rocyaapcineHHyio TaliHy». 

ripHHjrra «HHCTpyicuns no ooccneHetmio coxpaiixocTH 
rocyaapcTBCHHOtt 1 aim w b vHpo*;ieii iihx h Ha npeanpHJCTHJix 
CCCP». 

1963 roa 

nocTaHOBJieHHe UK KTICC h CM CCCP «06 ycmieHHH 
pe^KHMa ceKperuocTK npoBoaiiMux pa6oT». 

1964 roa 

IIocraHOB-ieHiie CM CCCP «0 Mepax no aajibHeHniefl 
3ainH(ppoBKe aeficTByiomKx h erpojiuoixcji oSteKTOB 060- 

pOHHblX OTpaCJieft npOMblIILieHHOCTH». 

OKiHiipi, 1965 roaa 

1.10.65 yrBepnaeHa «HHCTpyKmu no o6ecne>ieHHfo 
coxpaHHOCTH rocyaapcTseHHOH laiuna v. pe*nMa ceKperHO- 
ctii npoBoauMbix pa5oT». B llHCTpyKUiiio 1965 roaa ao6aa- 
,lCHbl Bonpocbi: 

— nopaaoK pa3pa&OTKH t xpanciiiiJi ti nciio:ib30BaHMS 

Mo6iL1M3aUHOHHbJK aOKyMCHTOB; 

— nopJUOsyieTa, x pane mis, ncno.ib (OBamiM h yHHTTo- 
*cmis MarcpiiajjoB cnera saaan Ha buhiic.ih i cimi wx Maiutt- 
Hax; 

— nopjuioK ocpopMiieHH* h nepeaaiH CC h C aoKyMeH- 
tob, ceKperHbix HiaenHH, TOBapHO-conpOBO.in 1 (.MbHofi h ne- 
pesoiOHHOH aoKy Mein amin 3a qjaHHLty; 

— nopxaoK npneMa pyKOBoaKTejMMH y*ipe%aeHHH >i 
[.pcjinpiiM in ii aeJierauHH H3 HHocTpaaiibix rocyaapcTB. 

HucTpyKUHJi 1965 roaaocTaBKJiaHa3BaiiHe«ceKpeTHbie 
oraenu h^h ceKperHbte HacTHn, ho aooaBRaa re, KOTopue 

ItMCIl VK1TCS «nepBbIMH OTaCJiaMH HJIH fiepBblMH HaCTMMH». 

11 10.11. 1966 roaa 

y K33 BepxoBHOro CoBeTa CCCP «06 yronoBHOH orBCT- 

CTBCHKOCTH HHOCTpaHUeB H J1HU 6e3 ipaA.IaHC I1UI 32 3^0- 

cTHbie HapyuieHHi) npasHJi jrii *l-h w* no t eppHiopmi CCCP». 

OKTn6pb 1970 roaa 

riocTaHOBaeHHe UK KRCC x CM CCCP «0 Mepax 
ycHTCHtuj pexcttMa CeKpeTHOCTHW. 

Hum. 1972 roaa 

1 1.7.72 yTsepHtaeHa «HHCTpyiojHJi no o6ecne<ieHHio co- 

XpaHHOCTH rOCyaapCTBCHHOft TaRHbl H pCAHMa CeKpeTHOCTH 

npOBoaHMbix pa6or». HHCrpyKmm 1 972 roaa npeaycMaTpH- 
BaeT OToenbi hjih rpynnw pexcHMa h ceicpeTHbie 01 .lo.n.i hjih 

laCTH. 



14 



H3 MCTOpWM *CMCTeMbl M OpraHOB 3am,MTbl HHCj}OpMaUI/1H» 



.'U-Kufiph 1973 roaa 

riocxaHOB-icune UK KnCC«OMepax iipoTHBOjieiicTBHH 

HHOCTpaHHblM TeXHHICCKHM palBC.IK.IM >■ 

1973 roa 

Co3naHa rocyaapcTBenHas TexmtHecKaa komhcchh no 

npOTIIBOacHCTBHIO HHOCTpaHHblM TeXHHHeCKHM paiBC.TkaM 
(roCTeXKOMHCCHJI CCCP). 

Honfips 1 976 roaa 

riocTaHOB.ieKne UK KPICC » CoBCTa Mhhhctdob CCCP 
ot 1 5 Hon6ps 1 976 roaa JV° 94 1 -323 «0 Mepax no aajibHeHuie- 
My coBepuieHCTBOBaHHio CMcreMU coxpaHeHH^ rocyaapcrBCH- 

HblX CCKpeTOB». 

<J>enpa.ih 1 980 roaa 

riocTaHOB.ieHHeM CeKpeTapnaTa UK KTTCC ot 1 2 4>ee- 
paas 1980 roaa yrBepwaCHa ttRBCTpynw no pa6oTc c ceK- 
peTHWMH joKVMeHTaMM b annapaTe UK KnCC», 

.U-K-afipi. 1980 i o i.i 

nocraHoaieHHCM CoBeTa Mhhhctpob CCCP ot 30 ae- 
taGjpa 1980 roaaJfsl 121-387 yTBcpjuaeHw «nepeveHh raaa- 
Hoiiiimx CBeaemiH. cocTaB.isnomitx rocyjiapcTBeHHyio Tafi- 
ny» h tSfoatmsmm o nopaaKe ycraHoarjeNHH cTeneHit ceK- 
peTHocTH KaTeropHH cBeaeHHit h onpeaeaemia cTeneHH ceK- 
peTHocTH CBCJCHHH, coaepKaimtxcjt B paOOTax, aOKVMeHTaX 

(I II J.tC.llf HX». 

IIki. ii. 1984 roaa 

1 1 1 il-i anoB-icHMCM CoseTa Mhhhctpob CCCPot 1 kiwis 
1 984 roaa Ns733- 1 62 yraepacaeHO « riojiowcHHe no nrxmiBo- 

•IciiCTBItKI HHOC ipailHWM TCXHHMCCKHM pa MKVIKHM - 

Maii 1987 roaa 

OocTaHOBJieHHGM CoBera Mhhhctpob CCCP ot 1 2 Mas 
1987 roaa Xs5 56-1 26 jTBepacaeHa «HKcrpyKUMH no ooecrte- 
HeHHKjpeatHMaceKpeTHOCTK BMHiiHCTcpcTBax, seaoMCTBax, 
wa npeanpHHTHxx, b ynpextaeHHax u opraHH3aiutsx CCCP» 
.NeO 126-87. B hch 3anHcaHO, hto dcikhmho-cckpcthijc opra- 
hw cosaaioTCJi Ha npaaax CTpyiaypHbix noapa3a&rieHHH. a 
COCT3B KOTopwx BxoaaT noapa3ae;teHHJi pewHMa n noapaiae- 
-k-n itn cek'peTHoro ae: lonpoii iho.tc i sa. 

■ K-i.-aripi. 1987 roaa 

2 1 [vk ;inpn 1 987 roaa rjiaBJiirroM yTBepacaeHbi <«EaH- 
Hbie npaBHna iiena-raniiM HeccKpcrHbix h i umm- 

MapT 1988 roaa 

25 Mapra 1988 roaa raaBaKTOM yrBepMtacHO «riojio)ice- 
hhc o nopaflKe noaroTOBKH MatcpnajioB, npeaHaiHaneHnux 
Xi a OTKpbiroro onyo.iHKOBanHS h maaHHJi c rpiitpOM "Zlaji 
cjtyjKefiHOro noab30BanH>i"» {iTo^o)KeHiie-88). 

Anpe.ii. 1990 roaa 

llocTaHOB-ieHHCM CoecTa Mhhhctpob CCCP ot 30 an- 
peiui 1 990 roaa N«439-67 yTaepaaeHo »<rioao*cHHc o paipa- 
6otkc, inroTOBaeHMH h ooecne'teHHH iKcnayaTamiH niitcppo- 

Ba-lbHOH TCXHHKH, TOCyaapCTBeHHyX II BeaOMCTBCHHblX CHC- 
TeM CBX3H H VHpaB^eHHH H KOMn.TCKCOB RIKlp V*CHMH. HCnOJlb- 

3ytoimtx unt<ppoBa.ii.HyiOTcxHHKy» (niJJ-89). 
1990 roa 

IViaHiii.tM ynpaBaeHHeM no oxpane rocyaapcTBCHHbix 
TafiH b nenaTH ( TYOT) npH Cobctc Mhhhctpob CCCP VTBep- 
•/KjcHw «McToaHHCCKHc peKOMCHjauHit no oxpaHecseiieHiiH. 
;n vi. if*;tiiin \ ^auiHTe ot pa3T;iauieHna b nciaTit h apyrnx 
cpeacTBax MaccoBoii HH<|>opMamiH». 



d>eBpa.ib 1994 roaa 

PacnopsHcenneM lipe3HaeHTa Pd> Ne730-Pn ot 1 1 .02.94 
yTBepsKaeH «nepcHeHbaojT3KHocTHux .iho; opraHOB rocyaap- 
cTSeHHOH BjiacTw, Haae.ieHiibix no.iHOMOHHSMH no OTHeCC- 

HIIKJ CBeaCHHH K rOCyjapCTBeHHOH T3HHe», 

Anpt.ib 1994 roaa 

CoBMecTHUM pemeHneM FocyaapcTBeHHofi rexHH4ec- 
koR komhcchh npH FlpeaHaeHTc P(t> h Ct>cacpa.ii.Horo areHT- 

CTB3 npaBHTejtbCTBeHHOH CBH1H H HHfpOpMaHHH ItpH npC3H- 

aem-e P* ot 27 anpe.m 1 994 roaa Xs 1 yTBcp»aeHO <«noao- 
•*eHneo rocyaapCTBeHHOM jiHtiernHpoBaHim jesTe^bHocTH a 
ooaacnt lauiHTbi iiHt})opMamin». 

HoHopb 1994 roaa 

FlocTaHOBJieHHeM DpaBHTeabCTsa P* or 3 KO«6pn 1994 
roaa yTeepsicaeHo «no/T05KCHiie o nopaane ofipameHHs co 
cay*e6Hofi HWpopMauiieH orpaHHHCHHoro pacnpocrpaHe- 
hhsi b 4>eaepa.ibHux opranax ncim mn ictlhuh BJiacni». 

Aiipe.ib 1995 roaa 

nocraHOB-TeHHCMripaBHTeabCTBa P<t>OT 1 5 aitpe.is 1995 
roaa Jfe333 yTsepataeHo «rioaoaceHHe o .THueHiHpoBaHitit 
aeirreabHocTH npeanpH«THH,yHpejKacHHH h opran Miami it no 
npoBcacHino paoor. csHiaHHbix c ncnoabioBaHiieM cBeae- 
hhh, cocTaBasiomHX rocyaapcTBeHHyio TailHy, coiaaHHew 
cpeacTB iiimtii !.! KHtpopMauHH, a TaK^e c ocymecTBaeHHeM 
MeponpustTHH h ( m) oKaaaHHeM yc-iyr no laiaine rocyaap- 

CTBCKKOH I aflHW •'. 

1 1 hi hi, 1995 roaa 

HocTaHoiLTCHHCM HIpaBHTeabCTBa PO or 26 hkihm 1 W 
roaa >fe608 yTBepKacHo «noao*eHHe o c&pmfyoatum 
cpeacTB laiuHTbi HH(popMamiH». 

( i'M i Hopi, 1995 roaa 

nocraHORncHMCM FlpaBHTe^bCTBa P4» ot 4 ceHTBopa 
1995 roaa ,N°870 yrBepiimeHbi «npaBii.ia oTHeccHHa cseae- 
hhh, cocraBviBioiuHX rocyflapcTBCHHyio TaitHy, k paxiHMHWM 
CTeneHSM cek-peTHOCTH», 

MiiHfipi, 1995 roaa 

y Ka30M ripe3HacHTa P* ot 30 noa6ps 1 995 roaa JSTs 1 203 
yraepmacH «nepcHCHb cBcacitiii). oTHeceHHbix k rocyaap- 
cTBeHHoit TaitHe». 

>lnita|)i. 1996 roaa 

20,01 .96 VTBepxcaeHO «Flo.noiKeHHC o Me*BeaoMCTBCH- 
hoh komhcchh no laujHTC rocyaapcTBCHHofl TaiiHuw >Ts7l , 

McmoHHUKu: A.?enmypa.nt. 

-Iccouujuux ucmopuKOQ cneifcjyjico 

um. A. X. Apmyioaa 



COBEPUJEHHO CnKPETHO 



(fteemftjAflKA 



J* flpaBa nejioBeKa. 3n^eMi4R cenpeTHOCTM. 



M 



Cepreti HEPTOnPYfl 

SapOlflBHMB N CTaHOBJieHNe CHCTBMbl 3ail|NTU 

rocyflapcTBeHHOH TaiiHbi 



B Pocchhckoh MMIiepttll HC CyiUCCTBOBaaO ueKTpaamo- 
saHKOH CHcreMU laiuHTM rocyaapcTBeiiHofi TafiHM. MHfl. 
BoeKHoe bcjomctbo h JenapTaMeHT iio.thiihh caMOCToa- 
TCibHO npn.iara.iH ycH.iHtr no o6ccneieHiiio coxpaxHocTH 
rocyaapcTBeHHofi TauHu. Flpn jtom /JenapTaMCHT noatmmt 
c.iaBHncs CBoeR CHCTCMQi KOH()maeHmtaabHoro jenonpoin- 
aoaCTaa, a MM ,3 h BocHHoe bcjomctbo HMe.nn aocTHwcHH* b 
oBjiacTii KpimTorpa(t»<H. 

B tokc Bpewfl npeanpHHHMaeMwe MepoirpwrrHH hoch- 
jw v;un ti'ini.iii xapaicrep n »c mop.ih oGccneHHTb i^ck-thb- 
moh laiuHThi rocyiiapcTBCHHwx ceKpeTOB. Cobctckoh pec- 
ny6aHKe npnuiaocb paipa6oTaTb h cosaaTb ^(ptpeKTHBHyio 
CHcreMy sauiHTb! rocyaapcTseHHofi TaiiHbi, KOTopas. b Moati- 
(})HnnpoBanHOM coctohhhh. npojojiacaeT cyiiiecTBOBan. n b 
HauiM atm. Ee OChobh we npHHiiHttbt it CTpyirrypa 6uaii c(pop- 
MiipoaaHbi b 20 - 30 roaw. 3aTew ToabKO peaaKTHpoBa.iHCb 
pyKOBoaauiHe aoKYMCHTM it sieHs.iHCb HaTaamiH opranoB 
lauiima HinpopMaiiKK 

(KonetHO xce, « uapckoii Poccuti cymecmeoeaia do- 
«ajhHacephe3Hajt cucme.ua ceKpemnocmu. Cosemacou «.ior- 
mu, u3nattnhHti moma.iumapHnu. maKou cucme.Ubt oKaia- 
.ioch moao. To.ibKO mobtmamtoe mcexpeHueaHue. utnuoHo- 
mohusi. HeeeponmHoe paipacmauue annapama u penpeccue- 
hnx tpyMKtiuu cneiiC.ir.TKO ycmpauecLio m-eo Jlenuna u K° - 
npuv. pedctKuuu "Kapntbi"), 

Depnoi maroM b coiaaHHii ueKTpaaHToaaHHOH CMCre- 
mm lauiirru rocyaapcTBeHHoK rafiHbi mo>kko nainan, opra- 
hhmuhio opraHos K0HTppa3BcaKH. OS 3<p4>cktubhocth MX 
pa6oTb> Haniicatio aocTaTOHHo MHoro. Bwaa BBeacna chctc- 
Ma nacnopTKoro kohtdojih in ynopaaoHCKHH npouecca Bi>e3- 
aa a Bbiciaa Ha reppHTOpmo Cobctckoh pecny6aHKK. B 
HacTHocTK, b HOHopc 1917 6bi.iH yTBcp*aeHbt aeKperoM CHK 
«ripaBH;ia Bieiaa h Bbieua hi Pocchhb. A 24 aripeasr 1919 
roaa 6wa inaaH aeKper CHK «0 nopaaKe ntara 3arpaHiiH- 
Hbtx nacnoproB". llpaBaa. -)<p(}>CKTHBHocTb ?thx Mep b tot 
nepnoa Gun hc bucokoh. riotTH .iktooh we.iaioiuiiii Mor 
o^opMMTb ce6e <|>aabuiKBbre nan noaaeabHue aoKyMCHTbi, 

B 1920 roay HKB£, cor.iacHo nocTaHoa;ieHHio CoBcra 
Tpyaa h ooopoHbi or 1 8 aarycTa 1 920 roaa. 6uao npeaocTas- 
.tcho HCKaiofHTe.TbHoe rtpaao onpeaeasTb nopsaoK ui>ciaa h 
Bbic3aa b otacibHwe mccthocth. Tokhm oSpaioM. sncpsue b 

HCTOpitH POCCHH. 6bblO BBeaeHO HOHHTHe TCppHTOpHM Half 

paROHa c ocoomm pchchmom. no3anee ith paftoHbi n TcppHTo- 
pHM TpaHC<})opM[tpyioTC(i b «jaKpbiTbie» ropoaa. 

B npHHuitne. b YronoBHOM yaoxccHHH PocchRckoh hm- 
nepitH !903 roaaBCTarbe 1 126waoBBeacHonoH»THcyKpen- 
aeHHoro pa in ma. Haxo«acHnc b 3TOM pafioHe icioaeKa c 

nOaae.lbKbtMH aOKV MeHTSMM HaH CKpbiBaiOlUHM cboio Haim- 

OHaabHocTt., noxiaHCTBo h bohhckoc iBaHite saasjiocb yro- 
aoBHbiM npecTynaeHiicM h rpo3Mao rpa*aaHCKHM ,ihu3m 



M*. i n"ii-nm.-\i b TtopbMy Ha cpoK ot aayx Heae.ib ao oaHoro 
roaa.anoeHHbiM — OTaana b apecTaHTCKHe potw HacpoK3^ 
4 roaa. Ho npn itom hhkto He KOHTpoiuipoBaa pencttM Bi.e3aa 
h BbieT.ia H3 aaHKoro pafiona, 

Ho 1921 roaaKenpeariptiHHMaaiicbnoribrrKHynopjiao- 
4HTbo6pa6oTKyHxpaHCHHeaoKyMeHTOB.coaep)KaiiiHxrocy- 
aapcTBeHHVHJTaHHy. HanpHwep. b itaaaHHOM Ynpan joimc-i 
BoeH)io-yHe6Hbix jaseaeHHH lanaaHoro (pponra ■ 1921 roay 
yneSHOM noco6tn) «BoeHHaa TafiHa» paccMaipHBaiHct hc 
itvibKi) npocTeituiHe MeToaw opraHmai[nn ceicpcTHoro ae- 
,ionpoH3BoacTBa. ho h nepeieHb cBcacHiiH, KOTopue Moraii 
flB.iHTbc» BoeHHofi raHHOH, AoTop yseCHoro noco6nH, 6blB- 
uiHii o(pnuepBoeHHoti paificaKH napcKoii apMHii H. E. Kaicy- 
pHH, nbiTa.ica. TaKHM o6pa30M. peiLHTb npo6.ieMy c 3amHToii 
soeHHoft TafiHbi b aeficTBVKHueH KpacHofi ApMim. 

OaHoapcMenHo c }toh khhtoh. 13 otcrndpn 1921 roaa 
aeKperoM CHK Sua yraepjicaeH nepeKenb cBeaeHHH. cocraB- 
.imomitx ratmy n ne noa.Te»camHX pacnpocTpaHCHHio. CBeae- 
hhs ae.maHCb naaBe rpynnw: bochhoio h 3KOHOMHHecKoro 
xapaKTepa. 

Eme o;ihiim BawKUM MCponpHHTHCM 6u.to coiaaHtic 5 
Mas 1921 roaa 8 cneuoTae.Ta npH BMK. C 6 fyenpansi 1922 
roaa no 25 aeka6ps 1 936 roaa stot opran 6yaer na n.i na t [,fn 
npocTo cneuoTae>i npn ITiy - OITiy - ry TB HKB^ CCCP. 
A c 25 aeKaopjr 1936 roaa no 9 hiohh 1938 roaa — 9-fi 
cneuoTaea npH TV rB HKBfl CCCP. ncpBoe oxaeaeHHe 
3Toro cneuoraeaa uHHMaaocb «Ha6awaeHHCM 3a Bcewii ro- 

CyaapCTBCHHUMH VHpe/KaCHHflMH, napTHHKblMH Ho6wecTBeH- 

HbiMHopraHMjauHstMHnocoxpaneHHrorocyaapcTBeHHoftTaH- 
Hbi». Hmchho cneuoTaea SBanacfr TOjobhoh opi aim laniieii. 
KoopaiiHitpyioiueti Bee MeponpK«THH no saiutiTe rocyaap- 
CTBeKKOH TaiiHbi. Xotm ochobhoh ero 3aaancH owaa pa3pa- 
6oTKapyKQ8oaiimHx aoicyMeHTOB. peraaMCHTHpyioiaHx pa3- 
iHiHbie acncKTH opraHM3auHii ja'iinn.i rocyaapcrBCHHoft 
TaiiHbi. 

riepBaa nonuTKa HaaecrH nop«aoK a apepeoopaSoTKH h 
xpaHeHiifi ceKpeTHbix iok> ml-h i<>h ow.ia npeanpHHSTa 30 
aarycxa 1922 roaa. Toraa CeKpeiapiiaT UK PKn (6) npHHiui 
nocTaHOBJieHiic <«0 nopsaKe xpaHeiuia u aBHMcetiHs ceKpeT- 
Hbix aOKyMeHTOB», B itom aoKyMCHTe ancpBbie ollto aacpHK- 
cupoBaHo, hto xi» opraHioamiH n BeacHitu ceKpeTHoro ae- 
aonpoHiBoacTBa hcooxojhmo coiaaHne ceKpeinux HacTefi. 

B tom we roay Oproiopo UK PKfl (6) npimsao nocra- 
HoaicHKe «0 nopsaKe xpaHeHiia ceKpeTHbix hoc i a huh icii iiii 
UK PKM (6)». AHaaornHHbiH aoKyMeHT 6ua HiaaH n b Kpac- 
hoh ApMHii. IlpiiKaj PBCP K° 201 1 onpeaejisa nop»aoK 
o6pameHH» c cobcpiuchho ceKpeTHofi KoppecnonacHiiHeH. 

npasaa, a HiaaHHOM b 1924 roay yne6HOM noco6n>i 
«TexHHKa uiTaoHOH cay-*6bi. OnepaTHBHas c.Ty*6a bohcko- 
bwx uiTafiOB (b bochhoc Bpevi»)», npeaHaiHancHHOM an* 



IB 3apo)KfleHi4e m CTaHOB/iemie CHCTeMbi 3aui,mbi rocyflapcTBeHHOM TafiHbi 



cnyuiaTenefl bochkoh aicaacMHH. bhobu. ksk h rpH roaa Ha- 
3aa. aBTOp nocBSTmi uejiufi paaae-i BonpocaM ceKpeTHoro 
aenonpoM 3 Bofltrma. 

Bmui.io nocraHoaneKHe no/niT6K}po UK PKn (61 ot 1 1 
aHBapH 1923 r. o cxmaHHH np» my cneiuiaabHoro Mexsc- 
jioMCTBeHHoro fiiopo noae'JHH<t>opMaunn (HesKHiJiopMoiopoJ 
b cocraBe npeacTaBiiTe-Teii ot RIV, UK PKF1 (6). HKlifl. 
PBC, Py UJra6a PKKA. Ochobhmmh 3aaanaMit owpoobiaii: 

— yneT noctynaioiiiHx b rny h Pa3Beaynp h apyrae 
yMpeacacHHs cBeaemifi o cteneHH ocacaoMaeHHOcni hhoct- 
p.iim i.r\ paiBenoK o Pocchh: 

— yneT h xapaKrepitcTHKa CBeaeHHii, HHTepecyioiHiix 
npoTtiBHHKa; 

— BWHB.ncKHc creneHH ocBeaoMaeHHocTH npoTHSHKica 
OHac; 

— cocTaBjieHMe h TexHHnecicoe H3roTORjieKne ne/toro 
paaa jiowhux CBeaemiii h aoKyMeHTOB. auionm \ Hen paBH . n.- 
Koe npejcraB.icHHe npoTHBUHKy; 

— cna6»ceHHc npoi hbhhks suuieyKasaHHUMit MaTepH- 
aiaMH h aoKyMeHTaMH npoH3Boan i 1. nepei eooTBCTCTByjo- 
mne opraHbi my h Pa3Beaynpa». 

Tcm i- ii mi. i vt 6bi;ia sanoweKa MHoroiieTHBJi npaKTHKa 

MHOrOHHCilCHHbtX 3c})(peKTHBHbIX OnepaUHH nO JC3HH(j)OpMa- 
UHH npOTHBHHKa. KpOMC TTOrO, HH(j>OpMan.Hil 00 ypoBHe 
OCBC30MJICKHOCTM npOTHBHHKa [103B0anaa OpiEHaM KOHTp- 

paiBCiiKM onepaTHBHO BWHBnjm, (jjak-ibi yreHKH ceKpeTHOH 

HH(J>OpMaHHH H HCflTpa.3M30Bl.lBaTb areilTOB NpOTHBHHKa. 

DocTaHOB-ieHKeM CHK ot 27 anpejui 1926 roaa 6w.t 

>TBCp*jeH HOBUH OTKpblTblH «nepe<ICHb CBeaCHHH. XBJIfllO- 

uiHXCD no CBoeMy coaepwaHHK) cnewiaabHO oxpaitHCMOH 
rocyaapcTBCHHoH iaiinnii>. Bee cbcjchhs 6wjih pa3aeaeHbi 
Ha Tpti rpynnu: cBeaeHHs bochhoio xapairrepa, cue ichiih 
3KOHOMKHecKoro xapairrepa h CBeaeHHii HHoro xapairrepa. 
KpoMc iToro 6ujTo BseaeHo TpH KaTeropHH cckpcthocth. 
CorjiacHo nepciHio, yKaiaHHWM b Hew cbcjchknm 6wa npw- 

CBOCH tLTHH HI Tpex rpH(})OB CCk'peTHOCTH: COBepiHeHHO CCK- 

peTHO, ceKpeiHO h hc noa:ie>KHT oniauieiiHio. 

nepeneHb hmci pjia HeaocraTKOB. Ilo3TOMy. nepes aaa 
Mcoiua. cneuotaea npH OPfiy tnaaa cetcpeTHUH «llepcHeHb 
sonpocoB coBcpujeHHO ceKpeTHOH. ceKpeTHOH h hc noaae- 
*a nidi hi .i;n iienmo nepenucKH». 

B .lamioM nepeHHC 6mjih yHTCHW bcc HeaocraTKH npe- 
abuyuieroncpeHHH,H3MCHHJiacbHcaMacTpy)fTypanepeHH)i. 
Tenepb ace cBeaeHmr 6KU pasaejieHy Ha neTwpe KaTeropHH: 
Bonpocw bochhofo xapairrepa, Bonpocu (JmHaHcoaooKOHO- 
MHtccKoro xapairrepa, aonpocbi nojiHTHMecKoro (b tov« hhc- 
ne napTiiiiHoro) xapairrepa. sonpocw oSnicro xapairrepa. 

B 1926 roay 6wa npHHHT Ha6op o6iuecoK)3Hbix hhct- 
p> Kiinii. KOTopue peraawcHTHpoBaaM OTacabHtie Bonpocu 
iipi jhh t.n i.i n h aeaeKHs ceKpeTHoro acao»pOH3BoacTBa: 

«IlHCTpyKHHS HO BCaCHHW CeKpCTHOIO B IJJH(})piJ- 

Ba.ibHoro ae,ronpQK3BoacTBa)>; 

— «Hncrp>Kunfl MecTHbiM opraHaM Omy no HaSaio- 
acHHio ia nocranoBKOH ceKpeTHoro » Mo6n.*iinamioniMi o 
aejionpoH3BoacTBa»: 

— «HHCTpyKUHS no BeaeKHio apxiiBiioro aejionpoH3- 
aoacTBa it caane ae.i b opraHbi UeHTpapxHBa»; 



— «HHCTpyKUH» o nopsaKe 3aroTOBaeHiiH h kohbcpto- 
Bai(ns KoppecnoHaeHUHH, rtepecwjiaeMoR annjioviaTimecKoii 
noiToH»; 

— nHHCTpyKLtHM o tiopgaKe CTeHorpa({iHH Ha cek-peTHbix 
coBemaHHsx it 3aceaaHUHX»; 

— iiHhctpykuhs oiiopaaKe RC.icHiifl m xpaHeHim ceicpeT- 
Hofi nepenticKit». 

ripaBaa. ^th nHCTpyKunnaeHCTBOBajin Heaonro. B 1928 
obino npHHHto pemeHHc o tom, hto Heo6xoaiiMo pa iae.tm i. 
ceKpeTHoeaeaonpoH3BoacTBo h iuii4>poBa.ibHoe acaonpoin- 

BOaCTBO. 

A b 1929 roay 6boa npHHsra H0Baj> «HHCTpyKUH« mcc- 
thwm opraHavi Omy no Ha6;noaeHifio 3a coctouhiicm ceK- 
peTHoro H Mo6naH3auHOHHoro aeaonpon3BoacTBa yHpe*ae* 
huh h oprami3auHH». Tcm cawbivt ouau noaTBepxcaeHbt 
(pyHKuim Omy no KOHTponio h co6jTK>aeHKio Tpe6oBannu 
ceKpeTHoro ae.ionpoioBoacTBa. 

B KOHire 20-x roaoa 6uaa npOBeaeHa VHH(pHKauHB co- 
crraBa ceKpeTHbix opraHos 11 ycraHoaieHa CTaHaapiHaa ho- 
MeHKaaTypa aoaatHOCTefi ceicpeTHbix annapaTOB yMpenue- 
Htifi 11 npi jhh laimii. B ueHTpa-ibHbix annaparax BCHX 11 
HKHfl, HKT. HKT1C co3aaHbi ceicpeTHhre OTjcau. b ocTajib- 
Hbix HapKOMarax — ceicpeTHbie nacTM. a b r.iaBKax, ynpaB.ne- 
hhsx h oTaeaax ceKpcTHbie sacTH k ceKpeTHbie oiacaeHiia 

COOTBCTCTBeKHO. 

KoMCHicnaTypa ao;r*HocreH cexpeTHbix opraKoa bk.thi- 
naaa: 3aBeaytotuero, HHCTpyicropoB. ceKperapefi (noMouxHH- 
kob ceKpeTapefi). KoppecnoHacHTOB, CTapuiHX MauiHHHCTOK 

(MaUIHHHCTOK), H0MO1HHHK0B CeKpCTapCH. apXHBapHVCOB. 

CTpy h-rypa ccKpernux opraKoa npeaycMarpHBajia: ceK- 
perHoe ae.3onpOH3BoacTBo. Maui6iopo. "icpTewHoe 6iopo. 
CTeHoipatfmiecKoe 6iopo, rpynny KOHTpoJia, rpynny no 
y«ieTHO-pacnpeae;iHTeabHOH paooTC, Siopo nponycKOB 11 enpa- 

BOK. 

KOHKpCTHbiH C0CT3B CCKpCTHblX OpI3HOB OnpCae^HJlCIl 

KapKOMaraMH nocornacoaaHHioco cneuoTaejioM npir omy. 
C,Tyw6bi hi inn 1 m 11 h tjiop \i j 1 11 1 it n i! ( Li 11.1 1 1! o. no-pa3HOMy : cck- 
peTHwe qacTH, noaoTaeau ceKpeTHoro aeaonpOH3BoacTaa, 
uiH())poaaabHbie oTacaw h r.a. 

tlpilHSTTbie B KOHIIC 20-X TOaOB HHCTpyKUHH aeftCTBOBa- 

jih ao 1940 roaa, a HOMeKmiaTypa ao.iwHOCTeii 11 cTpyrrypa 
pewiiMHo-ccKpeTHUx opraHoB npocyuiecTBOBajia 6e3 H3Me- 
HeHHit '.HLiHMTCabHO aoabiue. 

HaHooaee i^^ckthbho ucm-paaH JOBamtaji citcTewa 3a- 
uiHTbi rocyaapcTBCHHOH TafiHW paooTaia a 60-80-c roau, 
xotji b tot nepHoa He npeanpuHUManocb noHTii HiiKaKHx 
paanKa-ibHbtx step no ee Moan<P MKa u HH — TaK 3(p4 )e,CT,, BHw 
11 oiiTiiMiLibHu owaH npHHuitiibi. 3aaoxceHHbic emc a 20-e 
roaw. 

McmotHUK; Aeenmypa.ru 

C e it p e t h 

Li K H n C. ""l 
3956 

70llEKi9/''i ! 

V. ceitTi|i 



U K Kn 



4^ flpaea He/ioeeKa. SnufleMiw cenpeTHOcm. 



17 



AHflpePi COflflATOB 

DpaBNTiMlbCTBO 
N CeKpOTHOCTb 

npe3HaeHT FiyTHH yTaepaHa hobuh nepe'iem, mhmh- 

CTpOB. IllkMCHHhU npaBOM OTHOCKTb CBCaCHHa K rOCTaHHC. 
<t>aKTHHCCKH 3TO (pOpMaabHOCTb. tlOTOMy MTO HOBblH CI1HCOK 

.miub 3aicpenaneT caaTyc-KBo, cooopasya nepeneHb mhhh- 
ctpob c HbiHe aeficTBytomefi CTpyKTypoH npasHTejibCTBa. B 

CtTHCOK KK.iKlHH.1H MHHHCTpa npOMbUIIJIeHHOCTH. IIIIUII It 

TexHOJiornii Aaetccaxapa iioHayKOBa, ceabCKOro xo3HHCTBa 
— A.1CKCCJI TopjeeBa, ikokomhhcckoio paiBimiH — fepMa- 
he rpecpa, iHcprcTHKH — AaeKcaHapa TaBpHHa, pyh-oaoan- 
tcjis PodeMKaaacTpa Ceprea Cas h renaHpeKropa Pocchhc- 
Koro arcHTCTBa eiooouhhum boopvwchhhm A.iencaHapa Ha- 
Mpaveaa. 

B cobctckhc BpCMCHa y wac cyuiecTBOsajia inobiTOHHas 
cucTCMa URCKpcMHiiamiH iiiiijiopMaUHH. Eon BapyrnxcTpa- 
Hax HcxoaHJiit m npHHiwna oncpbtToCTH (a FepMaHHH, Ha- 
npHMep, cymccTByeT cneuHaabHaa aojrwHOCTb «ynojiH0M0- 
4eHHoro no pacceKpCHiiBaHHK>». koiopuii caeaHT 3a tcm. 
tTo6w c .iokvmchtob BOBpCMH cHHMajicN rpntp) vi 3aeeicpeHn- 
BaaH aHUJb OTacibHbie kvckh, b CCCP CHirraiH, hto arooaa 
HH(|)opMauitB noTCHUHajibKO «aocTOHHa» rpHij>a, h nmiib no- 

TOM 113 OOmcfi CHCTeMbI acaaail HCK.HOHfHllH. OTKpWBaK 113- 

SpaHHbiMaocTyn. 

MHorwe. BepojtTHo, \okc laSbuw, hto na HeKOTopwx 
npeanpmmtax cyuiecTBOBaati tbk HaibiaaeMbie pokhmho- 
ceKpeTHbie opraHw, cocToamne 113 opraHOB ccKpcTHoro ao- 
KyMCHTHpoBaHMM (o(J)opM,icHHe ByMar) m noapasaeacHKH 
pencil Ma (onpeaeaeHHe ({jopMbi aoCTyna aaa coTpy.tHHKOBl. 

KpOMC TOTO. CTOHT BCtlOMHHTt TaK Ha3btBaCMMe BTOpytO 

(«cek'peTHo» ) m nepsyio («coBepuieHHo ceKpeTHo») (J>opMbi 
aonycKa, KOTopue BbiaaBaancb hcxojjh H3 aeftcrByiouieH m 
noHHHe HMCTpyKUHH Ns 0126-87 CoBMKHa CCCP ot 1987 
roaa «rto ooecneHeHHto ceKperHocTii b MiiHHcrepCTHax. Be- 
aoMCTBax. Ha npeanpHHTitHx, y'lpcstciemtsx h opramnauHsx 
CCCP»>. 

riocjie pacnaaa Coio3a 3Ta crpofi na» cucTCMa ceKperHo- 
cth. KOHe<JHo. nocrpaaa-ia. B nepsyio onepeab ot npuBaTtna- 
uhh. /Jeao b tom, hto b Ha^xic 90-x 3ainn la rocyaapcTBeH- 
Hofi TaftHw coseTCKoro oopaaua b r,ia3ax petjiopMaTopoB 
aBTOMaTtmecKH 03Hanaaa coKpuTHf ot noTeHiiiiaabHbix hh- 
BecropoB CTpaTenmecKH Ba*HOH RB$Of)M8KiOl. H rocTaii- 
hoh peiu jl'iii nomepTBosaTb. JlocTaTOHHo cKajart. hto sasoH 
o rocrafiHe b Pocchh 6m.i npiiHHi To.ibKo b 1993 ro.iy. npii 
yvoM nepBbiH ncpeneHb mkhhctpob. hmckiuihx tipaBo otho- 
ciiTh cBcaemia k rocraJtMC, iiohbilics To.ibKo ncpm roa — b 
HW4 roay. KpoMe toio, npaaiua othccchim cueaeBHJt k 
pa3aiiHKMM eTencHHM ceKpeTHocTii. to ecTb paooHttfi aoKy- 
mcht, ohi.iii npHHUTbi TOjibKo 4 cciiTsops 1995 voj& nocTa- 
HOBaeHHCM npaBHTcabCTBa .Ns 870. h eme nepe3 Mecan 6bia 
VTBcpwaeH ciihcok caejCHHii. TaKH.vi o5pa3QM, aa*e noc.ie 
np»iHJiTii» tiiMni.i o i ocTaRne eme asa roaa 6biao HenoHstHO. 
hto h KaK OTHocHTb k i occeKprraM. 



B peiy.ibTaTe npima i » cuius Hano-ioBHHy yHHHTO-*H,ia 
coBercKyio CHCTCMy ceKpeTHoeni, npH 3tom He 11 jmchhb caM 
upjuuuuL K cepeaime 90-x cucTeMa sauiaa b noaHbifi Tyn.nK. 

OCTaBUJHCb ntlUOM K ntiUV, C OaHofi CTOpOHbl. C 3K0.10raMH. 

ooBHHHeMbiMH b umiioHaxe. a c apyroR — c Maccofi «hh«uh- 

aTHBHHKOBM. HUiyiHHX, KOMy 6bl HpOaSTb HCTHHHUC Kill MHH- 

Mbie ceKperbi poaHoro npeanpnuTHJi. 

B nocaeaHee apeMn ciiTyauHK cTaaa ml-hsi kl-ji C'hdru 
cTaan naaTHTb hli ihuhmi 3a ceKperHOCTb, a ki>h 1 ppa ibivihukm 
nojiyHH.iH 6oabtue ho.ihomohhh. OanaKo caM npKHiinn chc- 
TeMH 3aceKpen HBaHH m rocyaapcTBCH hwx T3hh Taw m He n3Me- 
Hifyics, ocTaaujHCb KDOOt coBeTCKHM. B pe3yabTaTcceroaHH 
npH 4>opMaabHOM yavHiiieHHK nojiowcHiDi c coxpaHCHHeM 
HaiLKx ceicpeTOB b nepcncKTHBC mm onurb HacryiiHM HaTeate 
rpa6,iH, Ha KOTopwc najicTa:in eme b Hataae 90-x. 



KDpUM LJJMUflT 




Ee3pa3Mepiai 

CEKpeTHOCTb 



npiiHaThifi b Hioae 1993 r. iaKOH 
BiiL-phue b Hoayio poccHitcicyio 3noxy 
onpeaeana, KaKoro poaa HmpopMamm 
Mo*eT 6birb oTHeceHa k rocyaapcTBeHHofi TaitHc. KoHCTiiTy- 
hhs Poccra Mtpecutaa 3Ty HopMy. yKaiae, hto cooTBeTCTBy- 
ioiuhh nepeneHb onpeaeaneTCH $eaepa.ibHbiM 33kohom. Oa- 
HOBpcMCHHo 6wa cipopwy-tHpoBaH 3anpeT Ha npiiMCHcmie 
iiiooyx HOpMatHBHbix aicroB. 3aTpai HBaiomiix npaaa 11 oda- 
3anHOCTH rpa*aaH, ec.iH jth aKTW He 6tom onyoaHKoaaHW 

OH)HUHa.3bHO. 

ilaa roaa cnycT» KoHCTiiTymioHHWH cya npHHs.n nocra- 
HOB.iCHHe. b KOTopou noanepKHy.1. 'i in nit oaHo npaBonpii- 
MeHHTeabHoe peiueHHe (b tom nwcae h npiiroBop cyaa), 
t hm saHHoe c o6BHHeHneM b painiauieHHH cBeaeHHH. cocTaB- 
i«i.niin\ roeyaapcTBeHHyioTaHHy,He Mooter ObiTbocHOBa ho 
hh Ha icaxoM whom nepeHHe TaKtix CBeaeHHH. Kpowe \TBep*'- 
aeHHorn <j>eaepaabKbiM 38kohom. TaKOBa »ce no3Hun» Bcp- 
xoBHoro Cyaa PO, 

Caeaya xopouieii cobctckoh TpaanuiiH. Ham caauKuii 
reHepaaHTCT Bocnpimsa KoHCTHTyuKto, 3aKOH «0 rocyaap- 
t-TBeHHofi TaiiHe» 11 apynie npaBOBwe aKTW KaK uiHpMy nan 
acKopanmo. T.e. KaK hchto. coBepuicHHO ne HMCtouiee otho- 
lucHHfl k aeftcTBHTeabHocTH m npeaHa3HaHCHHoc aiiiub m 
l'o uairifH BHSnuOCTK. 

TaK. iaKOH «0 rocyaapCTBeHHoti TaftHe» upmisi 21 
hkxis 1993 1. 7 ct-HTHopa toio we roaa mhhhctp ofiopoHw 
ni.ia.-i upiiKiii.V.'D'' I «06 yTBepjKaeHit h BpeMeHHoroncpeHHR 
CBeaeHHii. noaaeacaiuHx 3aceKpeHHBaHHK> b BC PO». Hepei 
TpH roaa eMy Ha cmchv npnmc.i hobuh. acKCTsyioimiH h 
noHbiHc. npiiKas Si 055. oT.iHHatouiiiric)) ot npewHero awuih 
Tew. hto vTBepaeteHHUH mm nepenenb He HaibiaaeTCa Bpe- 
MeHHbiM. 4to we K-acaetcJi cseaenHH. noajicwauiiix 3aceKpc- 



18 



flpaBa M&noBeKa. SnufleMMn ceKpeTHocTM. 



HiiBaHiiio cornacHO MitHHCTCpcKowy npHKaiy. to hx ookm b 
cpaBKCHHH c TeM. hto MoweT 6uti> OTHeccHO k rocyaapcTBeH- 
hoh Tail He no laicotiy ot 2 1 ihojui 1993 r.. So.ibiue pa3 b cto. 
Ec-th cneaoBaTb npHKasy, to ceicpeTHkiM b BoopyiKeH- 
hwx Cnjiax ABJiscrca a6coniOTno see. A ecjm hto-to h He 
muieTCfl (t.c no HeaocMOTpy cocTaBHTCJieti ne nona.io b 
KOHKpeTHbie iiyHicTti nepeiHs), bcc paBHO c aereocTbio mo- 
-kci 6biTb rio.-iiit.-icHo ihu 6 c ipa iMepHbie, BceoobeMJiioiUHe 
ijiopMv uiponKii apoae: «CBeaeHHfl 06 3KcnjiyaTaiiHH n hc- 
pio. 1 1. tonati Kit Boop) Acini h it BoeHHOH TtSKBBxm. B pesyjtbra- 
Te npaKTHHecKH Bee, hto cooomaeT npecca o BoeHHbtx aeft- 

CTBHHX B HcHHC H ,1.1! CC 1 alfC. 06 3BH3Ka I aC I pOfjjaX, II <pb[|ta\ 

cmiaitOBc opywHeM, ihCcih jiHHHoro cocraBa, aesepTHpcTBe. 
«KcycTaBHbix othohichh«x» it T,n., — cn.noiu Has rocyaap- 

CTBCHHaS HIMCHa. H HHKaKHX HCKJIlOHeHHH.CIieilHa.lbHOOrO- 
BOpeHHblX KoHCTHTyuHCH h 3aKOHOM «0 rocyaapcTBeHHofi 
TafiHe». CaM itpHKa3, panyMeercH, Toace c rpH<poM (icasc we 6e3 

ITOro), XOTS jeHCTBHTCIbHMX CCKpCTOB B HCM HC OO.IbUIC, 
HCM B KHHrC O BKVCHOH H 340pOBOK flMUlC. 

KcTaiH, HH KoHCTHTyUHS. HH BbLLiiCVnOMJIHytUH laKOH, 

hh apyrne 3axoHbi b apiutu He aeHcreyioT. He o6vhb;ichw 
ItpHKaiOM MHHHCTpa OOOpOHbl, B 3T0M acneKTe JiioSonbiTHa 
peaKUH« coTpymiKKOB 8-ro ynpaBiiCHHii rcHcpa^bHoro im-a- 
6a, KOTopbiM Bceraa nopynaeTCJt npoaeaeHHe ikci icpi it iu no 
ceKperHocTH. 

3a TpM c nojiOBKHOH roaa paooTw no aejry A.iexcaHapa 
Hhkhthhd h MHoro pas cnwuia.! ynpejc: T3K tto we, no- 
BaweMy, rocyaapcTBO hc hmcct npaBa Ha TaftHy, Ha saiuHTy 
ceicpeTOB, pair;iauicHne KOTopux Mower HatiecTii spea ero 
6e3onacMocTH? HMeeT. Bonpoc jiHiub b tom, tto 6c3ya*ioBHo 
cneayer ciHtarb TafiHofi h neMy oiaasaTb upHopHTCT b Heo- 
'K-Hii.ini.ix CHTyaiiHKX. 

Koraa no aejiy HiiKtrrHHa ciieaoBareJib h;hh,i'iii:i no- 
BTopHyto ■)KcnepTH3y, npnieM cneuna^bHO nonpocH.n 3kc- 
nepToa pyKOBoacTBOBaTbcs 33kohom «0 rocyaapcTBeHHofi 
TaiiHe». Te npHcnaJiH rHCBHyio TeaerpaMrny (hc npoCTO ceK- 
peTHyto — uiHiJipoBaHHyioy, a KOTopofi oGuBSOB, tto «no 
aeficTByiomeMy b BoopyweHHbix Cnjiax nopajKy nptt aaHC 

3aKJllOHCHHH Ita.UIOKHT pyKOBOZlCTBOBaTbCB npHKa3aMH MH- 
HHCTpa o6opoHbi». H aocnx nop pyKOBoacrByioTCJi hmh... 
flns Toro >rro6y jionymeHHbte k rocyaapCTBeHnofi TaflHe 

viia'^a in ee h \pann:in, Hco6xoaHMo HCCKOJibKo ycnoanfl. 

Bo-nepBbIX. tacCK pf'ltl B;t t i, t - H . Ii> t*)l !>] I n, I i. Mi Te CBCIteKKfl, 

KOTOpue MOryr 6biTb OTHeceHW k rocyaapcTBeHHOH TaftHe b 

COOTBeTCTBKH C KOHCTHTyUHCK H 33KOHOM, 

Bo-BTopbix. Taii Ha hc ao;r*na 01,11 1. pa tM i.n 1 >ii 11 6e3pa3- 
MepnoH. B npoTWBHOM cjiyqae ee » MiitHTMTt. Sy^eT neB03- 
moikho (KaK yjcp»caTb b TaftHe Bee?!), aa n oxotw hh y koio 
hc SyaeT xpaHHTb ccKpeTbi iio;inuinnejiH. Oco6chho y Tex, 
kto HMeer xotb HeKOTopoe npeacTaBjictiHe coBpcMCHHUx 

BO3MOMtH0CTHX H MeTOaax p.'HHL- Ikii. TeM 6o;iee HL-it ih;ih;i«, 

KaKyra onacHocTb upeacTaBjiscT coKpbiTHe iKo.ioiHHecKHx 
CBeaeHHH aJia bccfo vkhboco. FTpw co6Ji>oacKHH sthx aByx 
ycnoBHfi npaKTHicCKH He 6yaeT B03HHKatb «ttorpaHHHHbix» 

CHTyaUHH. B KOTOpblX aeHCTBHTClbHO npHaeTCH Bfcl6HpaTb 
npHOpHTeTbi:H.TH5KHTb.HaHyMepeTb,HOCOXpaHHTbTaMHy.3 

roBopto cnacHOo TeM, kto caejiaeT. ynce caevian Bw6op b 

nOJlb3V*H3HH 



Mropb AHflPEEB 



3naeT jw rocpapcTBO, hto 
y Hero TaiiHa, a hto hot? 



. . . BcoBeTCKne BpeMenaceKpcTHan bcc Hanponajiyio, ho 
Bce-raKH pery;]HpHoCHHMa<3H rpH((i c ycTapeBUicft nan noaae- 
*amc(i 3KcnopTy tcxhhkk. JI 1060c aeflcTBHe b tom hjih hhom 
HanpaB.iennn no och «ceKpeTno-HeceKpcTHo» coiipoBo^Kaa- 
-aocb BopoxoM cepbe3HetiiiiHX 6yMar. I i mc h ho oh h. 3th aoxy - 
MCKTbt, xpaHHBiuneca Ha 3aBoae-H3roTOBHTe.Te, b cootbct- 
CTBywnjeM r.iaBKC cooTBeTcrsyiouiero MMHHCTepCTBa, bc- 
aoMCTBa h T.a. H t.h.. h onpeaean^H, «oTKpwTbi» h^h <naKpb[- 
tm» KH(}>opMatin«. MccieaosaHHs, MaTepna.ibHweooT.errbi. 

Bot, k npwMepy. hobwh GoeBofi caMojieT. B HeM ao nop 1,1 
ceKpeTHO Bee CKonoM, hto 3atj)MKCtipoBaHO b aoKyMeKTax H 
OKE, ero cxoaaBUjeM, n b apMencKHX uiTa6ax. 3a pc*it\io\i 
caeaHT tbk HaiwaaCMbiii «ncpBbiH» oTaen, h rope TOMy. kto 
panvtacHT TaiiHy. Co speMeneM, b xoae nepeaain itoh Moae- 

.311 HCTpCOHTe-lH Ha ^KCnOpT, tOm M3yHCHHJt b iT>a*aaHCKHe 

By3bi, b tot we MAH. HanpHMcp. pacceKpeHHBamT ero ot- 
ae^bHbie >.ieMeKTbi. ocTaB.'iss no-npexcHCMy laKpw 1 bi \i h mo- 
.■liiptiinnpoBaHHbie yxibi h arpcraTU. 

He nojuiOKHT pasmaiueHmo cncTewa «cboh — >4y)KOH», 
ec;iH HMeHHo ee ao chx nop wcnoJibsyiOT BBC. B crpowafi- 
uicm ccKpcTC cute aoaro mohcct coacpwaTbcn TexHoaormt 
H3roTOB.ieHitii oco6o sawKbix aeTanefl, TaKHx. HanpHMcp, KaK 
.3ouaTKH ra30BbixTyp6HH. J ionacTH6oeBbtx BepTo.teTOB, TiiTa- 
HoBhte c oct a a.1 hk) nine r)>K>3e.3»>tca 

/laSKC eCJIH nO^HOCTbtO pacCCKpeTST 3HaMCHHTblli K3- 

MOBCKHfi acpTo.ieT «MepKa« aKy;ia», laKptrrbiH aa» nocTo- 
Pohkhx na3, rio.iaram, ocraHeTca caMa McroaHKa npoerrn- 
posaHHs coochux HecyuiMX chctcm. BecbMa co6;ia3HHTe.ib- 
na*i TeopeTimecKH. coocHaa cxeMa OKa^anacb TaepawM opeui- 
kom ,1 ih aMcpxKaKCKHX iJnipM. nouieauiKX 6bmo no hums 
nyTK. Ee cyab6y 3a oKeaHOM peuman MHoromicneHHbie c.iy- 
nan cxjtccTWBaHHH b nojicTe JionacTeK. C Tex nop na 3anaae 
ocrepera^HCb pacnoaaraTt oawn necymnif bhht Haa apynm 
— » otjihhhc ot OKE hmckh KaMOBa. cyMesuiero onucTa- 
ic.it.Hii cnpaBHTbcs c 6eaofi n pe;LimoBai b Bee ripeHMyme- 

CTBS '1 nil KOMHOHOBKH... 

CKoab aonro hh nepeHHCJiiiH ceKperitoe wan OTKpbiToe, 
KawabiH mar Ha nyrH «Ty,iart hih «o6paTHO». noBToptocb, otu 
HMTBepiKaeH aoKyMCHTaiMH. Hmh, b nacTHocTH, TaK H33hiBa- 

CMUHH nepCHHHMH rOCyaapCTBeHHblX H.IH BCaOMCTBCHHblX 

raHK, iiu. ib uma.KH ueH3op. peiuaji cyab6y npaKTHHecKH ,ito- 
6oro MaTepHa.ia b ToraauiHHX r a3erax. atypna-iax. Ha TeaeBK- 
aeHHH, Oh MOr noTpeooaaTb ot pcaaKTopa aKTa o HeceKpcT- 
hocth, cocTaB-iflBuierocs Ha tom npeanpHHTHH, b tom HMH 
hjih hhom ynpewaeHHH, KOTopoe nwe.io cTHTyc ro,30BHoro b 

OnpeaCitCHHOM TCMaTHKC. 

BH3y bochhoh ucH3ypu, Haiipiisicp. HeH3MeHHO Tpeoo- 
BanH 6yKBa.ibHO Ha atooofl chhmok. 3aneHaTJieBuititi nawopa- 
My Mockbw c BbicoTbi xotji 6w MHoroiTawHOro aoMa. npea- 



4P flpaBa MenoBeKa. SnufleMMfi ceKperHOcm. 



19 



nojrarajiocb, hto no <pOTorpa$HH noTemiHaabHbiii arpeccop 
npHBBweTCS k mccthocth, TOTOM paKerHO-saepKbtfi yaap... 
FLioxa jih, xopouia n» uapuBtiiafl Toma ceKperoMaHHs. b 
Heft, aaase npii noaHon aficyp jhocth KpirrepHeB, rocnoacTBo- 
Baa nopaaox. Mtoou onpeae.iHTb. noanaaaeT aw noa aeft- 
CTBHe t pti<|>a KOHKpeTHbifl ofipaienpaKeTbi.caMOJieTa. xopaC- 
,m, Topneaw, TexHoaorHs hx npOH3BoacTBa,aocTaT04HQ 6biao 
nepcpbiTtKy»tyiioKyMeitTOB,nojiHac notcpbiTux nwabioaecji- 

TH^eTMH, OTCJICJKMBatOlUHX nOHHyiO HJ1H MaCTHHHyiO OTMCHy 

h.ih coxpaHCHne ceKpeTHOCTH. H Haft™ cooTBCTCTByiomHe 

5yMarH M05KH0 6bl/IO B BCCbMa OrpaHHHCHHOM micae VMpeac- 
aCHIlfl, OTBeiaBWHX 33 «C80H» 06"T.eiCT. 

HTO-TOHCtlOHSTHOCnpOHCXOaiiJlO HaCy»lCDHOM npoucc- 

ce 3aMOHaa rioyna. Cya to h aeao ynHpaaca. no cyTM, b 
oaMH-ejuiHCTBeHHbiH aonpoc; ceKperHbi nit MaTcpuaabE. rto- 
ayweHHue hm ot pocchhckhx KOHtparenTOB. Ot oTBeTa Ha 
Hero h sasnceao, »;ik;i i> c\u jih /noiK'niia reabHoc i t. aucpn- 
KancKoro rpavKjaHHHa. noaynHT ait noaTBepwaeHiie a cyae 

SepCHR C.ieaCTBHH O TOM, HTO OH — UltlHOH. 

Her HHHcro neoobiHHom a lami imamm cyaeoHbix npo- 
ueccoB. To QTKpbiBaioTcii HOBbie. hc HiBecTHbie paHceoScro- 
frrenbCTBa ae.ia. To cya TpcoycT ot caeacTBHS ooaee bcckhx 
aoKaiaTeabcTB npecTynaeHHH o6BHHseMOro, hto bmh> * i;ic t 

OlH<UMMOUU1.X HCKSTb HOBUX CBHaeTe.iefi, BeUJJOKH, KKbie 

apryvieHTbi. Hnane roBopw, a npoiiecc BOB.ieKaioTCH aonoa- 
HirreabHbte naacru iiH<j)opMaiiWi. noaKpenaaioutHe mm, Ha- 
oSopoT. ocjiao;iHK3uine iio3iimti( odbhhchhs h saiwiTw. Ho 

BOT HTO HOBOrO MOlKd MOSRKTbCS B ,T.OKa3aTeabCTBaX CCKpeT- 
HOCTH nail, HanpoTiiB. HeceKpeTHOCTii tckctob. Ta6.iHU. rpa- 
(inhi'H caMiix [ ;ih icHi>ii(.ioMi.i\ «inaeaiiH»? 

Koraa b aeae Floyna. a nepea hum — BoenHux nacbKo 
11 HiiKHTima. oobhhchhc h lamura npc.TbJiB.iHKiT Ha csei 
6o)khh BiaiiMOHCK-noHaKiuiHe apyr apyra aoionaTe.ibcTBa 
ceiqjeTHoc rn nan hccckpcthocth KOHtepcTHoro o6pa3iia boo- 
pynceHim. npiiBoaHT b 3aa cyaa roBopauinx coBepiueHHo pai- 
Hoe JKCiiepioB, He xoneicfl BcpiiTb hh tcm, hh apyniM. fleao, 
no 6ojihiuoMy cncTy, He b aajibHenuieft cyab6e aMepHxaHua. 
«bho BasnaBiuerocfl b HenpnsTHyio ttcTopnio. BecnoKOHTb 
jo.ijkho cawo coctoshhc «ceKpeTHOfi » c<}>epbi. KOTOpoe, no- 
xowe. cToab 3anyTaHH0 » HeoaHOwaiHO, hto 3arpeMeTb noa 
cya MoaceT aioooit mateaep nan 6ii3HecMeH. nepeaaBiunii 
HHOCTpanuy, tac—Wl, nepTOKH oobiKHOBenmiit. aaBHO ycTa- 
peBuien MopcKoii Topneau, paooTaiomeii 11a c*atoM Bosay- 
xe. 

ripH wciaHiiH HerpyaHO aoKa3aTb, hto, pa3 ohb eme 
cocToin HaBoopy*eHiiii, 3HaHHT,ceKpcTHa. A BOTyTBepiKae- 
hhcm apyroR cTopoHbi. lauuiTM, o tom. hto ec npeaKOM 6waa 
TaK Ha3biBaeMa» Topneaa YaHTxeaa. co3aaHHaa b Aht.ihh 
eme ncpea nepaofi mhpoboh bohhoh. cya mojkct ii npeHefi- 
pent. H6o airr o chsthh cexpeTHOCTii Mor c rex apeweH ii He 
coxpaHitrbcs. A hobmh. yate b KauiH BpeMCHa. moivih h He 
cocraBHTb. TaK noieMy, cKaacnre, >tot^io6oh, aa»:e 3aKOHo- 
nocayuiHbiii rpa»raaHHH aoawcn noaBepraTbCH pncxy 6wTb 
oSbhhchhwm b pa3r.iaujeKHH rocyaapcTBeHHbix ceKpeTOB ii 
OTBenaTb 3a 6e3aaa6epHocTb rocyaapcTBa, yme He SHatomero. 
hto y Hero Tafina. a hto Her? 




OpeA BY14EP, Ckott nMTEPCOH 

Mto b Pbccmh He ceipeT? 



rajeTa«KpHCHaHCaHeHcMoHnTop»ony6anKOBajiacTa- 
tlk) (Dpeaa Byfiepa ii CKoira rTiiTepcoHa (^to b Pocchh He 

ceKpeT?». 

B HCH, B HaCTHOCTH. TOBOpHTca, HTO B pOCCHKCKHX HaVH- 

hux ii vKvptiibiiicicKHX Kpyrax HcnbiTbiaaioT Bee fio.ibmyio 
[Wi no Mepe roro KaK Ha'iiinaKn notiiiMari.. KaJOOM 
nocaeaCTBHHMH rpo3HT tot KnKmcBofi npimuiin. KOTopwii 
aom b ocHOBe npouecca o rocyaapCTBCHHofi himchc hhh- 
unnpoBaHHoro cDCB: noMTH H3-3a aiooon HHtpopMauHH. ne- 
peaaHHon MHOCTpaHuy, sac Moryr nocaawTb n TtopbMV. 
Cefinac ace BHHMamte ripMBvieneHo k aeay Wropn CyT«- 

THH3 — COTpyaHHKa rtpeCTHlKHOrO MOCKOBCKOrO HHCTHT>Ta 

CLLI A h KaHaaM, KOToporo o5bhhhh)t b mnHOHa>Ke 3a co- 
TpyaHHHecTBo (Koropoe KajKercs cawwM oShkhobchhmm) b 
HayHHon oS^acTH c KaHaacxiiMH w 6pht3hckhmh Koa.ieraMH. 

CyrarHHa, HitKOraa He HMeBuiero aocryna k ceKpeTHofi 
HHijiopMamin. d)CB b TeneHHe 1 5 mccbucb aepwHT noa erpa- 
jKeii. nponecc Haa hum vskc aBawaw OTK.iaabiBa.icst. 

«Penb naeT o hoboh KOHiienutiu. npHMeHoeMOH BaacTH- 
mh: 3KcnepT mowct «coiaaTi. ceKpeT».aa>Ke paooTas c neceK* 
peTHUMH MaTepHaaaMH. — roBopirr Beayuinfi pocchhckhB 
noaHTHHecKHii 3x*cnepi Anapeii Dhohtkobckhh. nocaosaM 
KOToporo. oh 6ua ki.ukim Ha 6eceay b OCB. nocKoabKy KaK- 
to ynacTBOBa.! BMecrre c CyTSTHHWM b paooTe ojhom KOH(pe- 
pCHUHH. — Mbi acaeM. jaraitB ;n.ix;iniie. naii.iei .ih jto noa- 
TBep)KaenHe b cyae. EcaH aa. to mm Bee b aio6oe BpeMH no 
npiixoTH OCB MoaceM 6wTb npniHauM bhhobhumh B"co3fla- 
niiii ceKperoB"». 



4t npaBa nenoBeKa. 3™,qeMw,R cenpeTHOcm. 



Bojihs npoueccoB o rocyaapcTBCHHOH himchc cpe»cnc- 

CHpOBaHM3H 8 tt>CE, I.I\UOKIl HC i pCHOVKH Kl /K\ pHil.lllt 1 OB . 

yqeHux h woJioroB, b mi.k> c<|>epy acsrTCJibHQCTH bxojjh 
BoeHHbie Bonpocu. a taioKe Bonpocbi, Kacafoimtecu naimo- 
na ii.mni 6e3onacHOCTH. 

B aexaSpe aMepKKancKHH 6h3Hccmch 3aMona rtoyn 

SblJl npHt'OBOpCH pOCCHtlCKHM C> ,'li>\! K 20-TH 1 4)'KU) KO.IOHHH 

CTpororo pewiiMa 3a nonbrrny npHo6pecTii aoKyMCHTti. ko- 

l4.ipi.IC 111.1. IK li;i tBilHbl CCKpCTHblMH .(HUH. IKIC-'IC CI O upcCIit 

rioyn 6wji noMH.iosaH npe3HaeHT0M BjianHMHpOM nym- 

HblM. 

Bn.im.iii 3KOjior TpHropHK DacbKo, ycnewHO otohb- 
uihKch ot 4ihni'itcniiii h ncpeaane HiitpopMaiiHH o 3axopoHe- 
hhh b Thxom oKeatie aaepHbix oTxoaos poccHHCKoro (jj.ioTa, 
b kohkc iipoiunoro roaa BbiHy**iieH 6un BHoat npeacTaib 
nepea cyaoM no i cm vkc caMbiM oohhhchhwv,. 

npe3KaeHT riyTHH SBHO OflofipHTeJlbHO OTHOCHTC* K 

3thm npoueccaM. Ha coctosbujcmch b xoHue npotu.ioro rona 
b KpeMJie coBewamiH npoKypopCKHX paooTHMKoa ohhujhh 
areHT KrB npinua.i ero ymcTHHKou «coxpaHHTb BaiKHbii; 
acncKTw, KOTopbie Bceraa itvevinci. a pafioTC opraHOBoeso- 

naCHDCTH HaiUCH CTpaHbl». 

OitHa H3 npii hii m . tn-3a KOTopofi aevio CyTaniHa noayHH- 
JiOTafcofi 6o.ibiuoH pe30HaHC, jaKjuo^aeTcs btom. ito. noxo- 
ace, T3KHC npoueccu ciaHOBflTCJi nohccihchhoh npaKTHKofi. 
Oh 6hin apecTOoaH rrocne Toro, KaK — cosmcctko c upot^ec- 

COpaMH H3 K3HajCKHX yHHBepCHTCTOB KapJTTOHa 11 I I'Hlka — 
tipHHfl l >M.!l'IIIC B HCCJiejOB3HK)l (OHO r|) HHa lie, I pun;]. lOCb 

npaBHTe.ibCTBOM KaHaabi) othoujchhh Mc»c;iy bochhmmh h 
rpawaaHCKHMH jiHuaMH b Pocchh h apyrm hoc i himmhiuc- 
thicckhx CTpawax. 

B apyrux cTpaHax, a KOTopwx npoBojwjiocb ito ncc.ie- 
aoBamie. hhk3kkx npoe.iew hc hoihhoo, CyrsntHaooBMHji- 
K)TTaK5Ke s cocraB^CHHHiuiJi 6pn i aiK'KuM KuMiiatitfH jaiu>Kc- 
cra H3 crarefi aocHHoro xapascrepa. ony6.inKOBaHHbix b poc- 
chhckoh rtpecce. 

A. iHUka i CymrHHa B:iaaitMnp BaciuibuOB roaopHT. <rro 
OCB i ipc.i bjiftmci eMy oGbhhchhc 3a TO, 4T0 oh anam tit pu- 
Ban HH({)opMauHio. noayteHHyio hi otkpwthx hctohhhkob. 
«Bbt MOKere HHTarb, hto xothtg, ho He BsayMafiTe cpaBHH- 

B3Tb H li Ha.'! I! i>ip t >Ba 1 1, nOJiyHCHHyH) IIHlflopMaUHIO. nOCKOflb- 

Ky tcm cavtwM m.i MoweTe cosjiaTb rocyjapcTBeHHWH cck- 
per», — i uitupii i oh. 

3KCnCpT MOCKOBCKOrO HC3aBHCHMOrO llCLVIClOHil i l-.ii.c ■ 

Koro UeHTpa no Konxpojiio Hajj iuh>p> vkchhhmu FlaBCji rioii- 
BHr, b HacTOHiuee apeMH npoxcjastunR o6yneHHC b Dphhctom- 

CKOM yHHBCpCHTCTe, TOWe HaxOiMTCJl IlOa CJieaCTBHeM H3-33 

khmi n o poccHHCKHX CTpaTerMMecKHx «.icpn>.i\ apceHa/iax, 
Kotopyio oh H3ja.3 b 1 998 roay. 

OaHHM hj coaBTopoB 3toh KHitni 6bui CyrarHH. «fl 
ooecnoKoeH.— roBopirr FIojiBHr. — B HbiHcumeH hojihth- 
'iecKOHoocTaiioBKe b Pocchh hohth BewnMOKSO o6i.scHHTb. 
noieMyjiesTenbHocTbHe3aBHCHMhix, aeapeaanesBteaeKBUx 
3KcnepTOB b bochhoh oojiacTH — b.iai u ans CTpaHu. B 
Pocchh nywao tioHjrrae HaynHofl cao&ojibJ. noHHMaHneceK- 
peTHOCTH ha \4 >. in ich Ha ypOBHC Kaweti hix o BeKa, aaiKe Cpean 
o6pa30BaHKbix jiK)acH». no cioBPM iKcnepTOB. cyae6Hbte 
npoueccu npeacTaBJiMRDT co&oh CKOopanmipoBaHnyio no- 



nuTKy d>CB BHOBb bbccth orpaHHHCHHfl nocae jecHTH.ieTHs, 
Koraa npoBcacHne Hcc.icaoBaMHft a bochhoh oo.iacni npaK- 

THHeCKH He KOHTpOJIHpOBiLIUCI., 

«rocyaapCTBo nbrraeTcn bbccth otpaniiHeHHH. nocKonbk'y 
hx Boo6me hc 6biao». — roaopuT npcaceaareab Baaansoc- 
TOKCKorooTaeaeKHR OpraHH3auHH no H.icpnoit 6e3onacHoc- 
th (3to MOCKOBCKan He3aBHCHMaH 3K0JionmecKas rpynnaj. 
no ero cioBaM, b npouuiOM rojy bo BjTaanBocTOKe, rac 
HaxoaMTCs 6a3a THXooKeancKoro iJKioTa, 6w;ih apecTOsaHH 
necKojibKo iKo.noroB. jamiMaBiiiHxcs Bonpocavm iarpH3HC- 
hh« OKpyncaioiucH cpeaw, — acew hm ObiJio ripeawiB.ieHO 
o6bhhchhc b pasmauicHHH bockhmx ceKpeTOB. «riocac pa3- 
Bana CCCP 3KOJiorn nocMKTajiH. uto ace aoj]»;HO 6biTb ot- 

KpblTO H OOO BCCM MOHv'HO TOBOpHTb. BblJ] HO.lHblH X30C. 

Tenepb rocyaapcTBo noKa3biaaeT HaM. hto roBopim. hcu. j? 
hh o ieM», 

no c.iOBa.M BocHHoro SKcnepia riaBJia (fccjibreHrayipa. 
in-ia c.io*-nBiueHC5i b CTpaHe hoboh aTMOctpepbi oh OTtfasa.!- 

CS OT HCCKOJIbKHX npe.-mo)KCHHH OT latiajHNX HiaaHHH, ra- 

khx KaK npecTH^HUH 'uin.ioni.Miii «Jane's Defense Weekty». 
«3ro c.ihujkom noxoiKc Ha c5op pa3BcacBeaeHHH — KaK h to. 
HeM laHHMajici Cyrst hh, — nojiepKHBao" oh. — H npeano- 
HHTaioaHa.-iH3. h 3apy6eiKHMe HsaaHHJi nposta.isioT 6o.ibtuoH 
HHTepec k TexHHiecKHM acncKTaM. MHorwe H3 pocchhckkx 
CMH ywe npaKTHKyKiT caMOueK3ypy». 

B to BpeMN K3K HeKOTopue npeaynpoKaaioT. mo xapaK- 
TepHoeaiiH cobctckhx BpcMeH orpaHHMCHHe HayxHofi i >Kyp- 
HaaHCTCKofi cBoooabi vikc hc 3a i op3MH, apyrae rosopsT. tto 
KaMiiaHHN (t>CB oopeneHa Ha nposaa. nocKoabxy OHa Topiuo- 

3HT COUHaabHO-^KOHOMHHeCKOC pa 3S1ITI1C CTpaHU. 

«C npHxoaoM k B-iacTH nyTHHa *C5 ynpOHH-ia cboh 

IT03HUHK, — C1HT3CT BOeHHblH JKCHCpT HHCTHTyTS CLUA II 

KaHaau rcHHaaiifi Kohctkob. — "3to no sho.im . i» hm atCTHBH- 

3HpOBaTb CBOH IlOHblTKH nOBepHyTb BpCNtfl BCtllTTbH, 

itJleno CymrHHa CBHaeTCibCTByeT o HcooxoaHMOCTii 
npeaocTasifTb oGmccTBy npaao Koirrpona 3a aesTenbHoCTbio 
rocyaapcTBa, — roaopHT oh. — Haiuc Bbicuice nojiHTHHCc- 
Koe pyKOBoacTso .ioi*ho sto nonsTb, Or >Toro c.ihujkom 
cnjibHo 33BHCHT aajibiieHiiice pa3BHTHC Pocchh, htoow no- 
3bo.ih rb itepewHTKaM npomaoro cTarb Ha nyTH ooMena hh- 
(popMauiicS c apyrHMH CTpanaMHw. 

OanaKo KCKOTopbtc onacaioTcn. tto K.i\inaniiH mo*ct 
noaymrrb noaaepiKicy b o6uiecTBe. f<Cajnoe rpeBowHoc — 
hto o6mecTB0, Hii.iiiMo. noiuepsKMBaeT aeficTBHa OCB b 
aaHHOM HanpaaaeHHH. — oTMcnaeT noaBHr. — nosceMecT- 
iii.ii! noKCK «ujnH0H0B» no3B0.meT poccnfmaM nvBCTBoaaTb 

Ce6jl TaK. C. (OH HO OHM on»TI. JKHBVT B CBCpXJCp)KaBe. A 3T0, B 

CBoio oiepeab, aejiacT <I>CB 6ojicc arpcccHBH0H». 



CoB.ceiroeTHO 



itatoaaixiiKA 






npaBa MenoBeKa. SrwfieMMfi ceKperHocm. 



21 




MapK AElTlH 

DeH3a: HCKNCTbl 

b KOMnbMTepHbie 
Hrpu He HrpaMT... 

"BoeHHbie yc/iym» a"" Hj*hgm Kopew 

Hecmo rosops. c ran mm TepMimoM mhc cine ctelikh- 
BarbCH He npHXoanaocb. Mtq rro TaKoe — «BoeHHbie ycay- 
ni»? CeKcya-ibHbie — nowwaK). Rih, CKaaceM, apyacecioie. 
Han etne k-aKKe. A «BoeHHue» — 3to icek? CoTpyaHnnecTBo 
c oKKynaHiaMM? Ha3biBaeTCji — KO,iaa6opanHOHH3M. To*e, 
KOHeHHO. CBoero poaa OKa3aKHe ycjiyr. Hjih. k npHMepy. 
npoaawa aoeHHbix cek-peroB HHocrpaKHoil pasBeaKc. To*e 
Beat ycaym. Oiobom. TepMHH OKaibiBaercB BecbMa Mnoro- 
ifianm.iM. Hoa Hero mhoto veto noarpecTH moskho. 

Hy. ito ace panoBopw, cxaweTe bw He6ocb, craTbti 
YroaoBHoro Koaetcca mmcctcs. Hmcctch. floa HOMepOM 189. 
MHTaeM: «HejaKOHHbiH 3KcnopTTexHoaorHfi, HaynHO-TexHK- 
•iccKofi iiHipopMauHti h ycjiyr, KOTopbte Moryr 6wTb huhui.- 
lOBaHU ttpu COIWHHH opyiKHH MaccoBoro nopanceHHH.cpeacTB 
ero aocTaBKH, BOopywcHiut 11 bochhoh tochhkh h b othouic- 

HHH KOTOpblX yCTaHOBJieH ClteilHaabHblit 3KCn0pTHWH KOHT- 

pojrb, — HaKa3UBaeTcn uiTpa(pOM B paiMepe or ceMiicoT ao 
oaHofi TbicjtHH MHHifMa.ibHbix pa3MepoB on.iarbi Tpyaaan6o 
niiiueHHeM cBofioaw Ha cpoK ot Tpex ao ccmh ;ier», 

Moryr 6biTb jicno.tbsoBaHbi. A MoryT 6brn> — HE hc- 
iioabioBaHt.i. KaK nosepH) u.. 

3KMTe.ibrieH3b[ Bhktop.Ihmohob h BaaaHMHptIlH6aeB 
H3 rina vocKimbH 6bt.nw apecrosaHU coTpyaHHKaMK Y<I>CE no 
rieHieHCKOH oS^iacTH B wapTe 1 999 roaa. Hm BMeHa.iacb — h 
bmchhctcs — BumenpHBeaeHHas CTaTbji YK. Kohchho, He 
npecaoByraa «n3MeHa Poa»iHe», ho craTbjr Toace He ^erean fl 
6w aa*e CKa3a.i — TJDKeaan CTarbs. A raaBHoe — aSco.iHUHo 
6e3raacHas. CaeacTBite Beaocb 3axpwTo (HauiH c;iaBHtie ve- 
k hctm o v ch b rro a 10 Sht ), aaa a scaTaM n p h tuaoc b aaTb n oan h c- 
KyHOHepaar.iauieHHHK.npHJTOMcaMHHeKHCTbicoxpaHeHH- 
cm caeacTBeHHoR raitou ce6s He yTpy»maaii. no hx hhhlui- 
aiKBc b mccthmx CMH 6bi.ia pacnpocrpaHena noapoonaa 

HH(pOpMatU1H O TOM. 3a HTO H flOHCMy ObLIH apeCTOB3HW 

JIhmohob h IlIufwR 

HeKMCTCKan Bepcun 

Men 3ciit'Koe KOHCTpyKTopcKoe 6iopo MoaciiiDOBaHiis. 
xopotuo H3BCCTHOC cpean aBHacTpOHTeaeS it b Pocchh. h Ha 
3anaae, b noeaeaHiie roan, no mhchhw «encnnajiKCTOB» ot 
<fcCE. auuiaao Ha Jiaaan. He 6uao hh 3aKa30B, hii, cootbct- 
ctbchho. aeHer. H Toraa HCKoropbie coTpyamtKH rTKEM. 
npeaaa HauHOHaabHbie HHTepecbi. itoui.ih na corpyaHHie- 
ctbo c... Her. He c 3anaaoM. C Boctokom. A kohkpctho — c 
EOxaofl Kopeefi. rieH3eMCKHe Kypmjmcm, pacnpocrpaHiiB- 
UiHe BepcKio tDCE. Ha3UBatOT iry cipaHy «a3HarcKHM THr- 
poM», a ee HoiTcaeii — «a3HaTaMn». 3to 6e3 s^ioro yMUcaa, 
6e3 pacHCTCnoro oTreHKa. ripocTas KOHCTaTauHJt: aecKaTb, 



ripi>aa.iiu-i, Eiauin poccHHCKKe HHwenepbi «a3HaTaM» 3a aMC- 
pHKaHCKHe aoaaapbi... 

C\Tb aeaa — b vckhctckom itxiOJKCHHit — npocra. 

npasHtenbCTBO IOjkhoh Kopen stcoGhi .laBiio ywe 03a- 
6ohcho an:iaiiMcM coSctbchhux buchho-mhuv ihhw\ CtW. 
To ecTb Boo6me-To ohh, ^th casiue cwau, y IOxchoh Kopew 
HMWOTCa. Ho nan- 6w He cboh: Ha «OaHToMax» aeTawT. A 
xovercs hm — hto6u cboh fkam. TaKCKaian.. HauiioHaabHue 

Kopone roBopn, cMacrepK^n Kopeiinw co6cTBenHbin 
caMoaer. HaswBaeTCa — «KTX-1». Ho h\tmhu ewtxermen, 
KOTopue Ha weM .icTaTb 6yayr. A aertHKOB hvaho ooynHTb. 
Hw 3Toro co3aacTcs aBHaTpcnawep — KeBepOBTHo aoporo- 
cTo»ma« uiTyxa, ueHa KOToporo — HCCKoabKO mh.i.ihohob 
aoaaapoB, 

■\nn.n pi'Hii-*cp KKKKOKopeHUbi To>Ke co6paaH. Ho — 
6e3 KownbtoTcpHoro ooecncqetuis. Ha KOTOpoe y hhx to aH 
aeHer He xHamio. to hh Moiroa. A 6e3 3Toro ooecneHeHHH 
aBHarpena)Kep — cobccm HHKHCMHan unyKa. 

npotpaMMHO-MaTewaTHHecKoe o6ecneneHHe Kopeiiubi 
Kyntiati y anraHHan. Xotb a h fauna He npeaynpe"*aaaH : 
B03bMHTe BMecTe c TpeHawepoM. HaaevKHee oyaer. Oati.iK. ■ 
Kopefiuu nosKMOTHaweb: bcio ny Koinni.ioicpn>hi HeproB- 
uiiiHy xyniuiH ( mm .1:1 uib 3a nee. Me»my npOHHM, 1.148. 000 
4»ywTOB cTepaHHroB). a caM Tpenaxep — He ciaan. HecKan>. 
He HviKHhi hm 3anaaHbie >«e.ie3KH, y hhx co6cTBCHHbie iimc- 
kjtcji. Hy, «a3HaTbi», nero c hhx B3jrrb... Me>Kay TeManraH va- 
ne OKa3aaHCb npasbt: tiporpaMMHoe ooecneneHHe c «4y5KHM» 
TpewasKepoM pa6oT3Tb He 3axoTeao. 4ero-TO Tain TaKoe hc 
cocTWKOBaaoch. H Toraa bmccto Toro, hto6w Bce-TaKH Ky- 
nHTb y aHniimH aBnaTpeHa*-ep. KimHOKopeKUbi pciim.ni 

C3KOHOMHTb. 

B 1 995 roay ohh. no BbipaiKeHHfo caeaoBaTejiefi <t>CE. 
«BbJULTH» Ha 3aMecTM7eaji raaBHoro KOHCTpyirropa FIKEM 
JlHMOHOBa h Ha SbiBUiero paooTHHKa UeHipaabHoro aipo- 
rHapoaHHaMHvecKoro HHCTHiyTa LUn6aeB;i. KHBinero s noa- 

MOCKOBHOM ^VKOBCKOM. Te BpOJC 6bl B38:iHCb HOMOHb. A B 

Mae 1 999 roaa hx npecTynnyto aeaTcabHOCTb npeceKaii HauiH 
caasHbie hckhctw. Cnavoa apecTOBa.iH JlHMotfosa. Hepe3 
HecKoabxo aHefi oveHb Be»uiHBo bw3bxih b neH3y LUn6aeBa. 
flcHoe ae,io, b KanecTBe caHaeTcm. H Toate apecTOBaaH. 
CTaThKJ YK bm y»:e 3HaeTe. 

JlMpMHecKoe OTCTynneMHe 

HoSaecTHUM HCKHcraM b nocJieaHiie roaw Kaic-To He 

C IIIMIKOM BC3CT. Y* TaK OHH CTapaKJTCJI HaUJH BOCHHbie 

cckpeTw oxpaHHTb... He noaynacTCB. A noieMy? Mower, 
noTOMy, hto 3TH cek-perw HCCKoatKO iiiiyna m'. 1 Koro hmmhc 
HHTepecyer Hama ceHOKocitiKa c sepTHxaabHUM BjaeroM? 
A ecaH ccKOKOCnaKa nKKusiy ne HyvKHa, 3a hto. era* me 
Ha MHaocTb, Haunt ao6necTHue puuapM mHTa h Mena 6yayr 
3apnaaTy nojiynaTb? Bot h noayHaercs: HyxcHo oxpaHHTb. H 
hcm 6o.ibuie cena c ra 3Ta KOcnaKa HacrpH)KeT, Tew crpo*e. 
K TOMy we — BepTHxaabHhiH Bxier. TyT paccaaSanTbcs 

HHKaK HC.II. !H 

H MK-rB-(t)CB hc apeMJieT. B 1 996 may 6wa apecTosaH 
AaekcaHap Hhkhthh — coTpyaHHK HHcnetciiHH naepnoH 6e- 
3onacHocTH H.u-piii.i v 3HepreTHHCCKHx ycraHOBOK. Ha cboio 
6eay Hhkhthh 3aHHMaacn eme H 3KonomeH. Oh noarOTOBH.i 



M. Rem fleH3a: neKWCTbi b KOMnbtcrrepHbie wrpw He nrpaioT. 



npocTpaHHbifi joKJi&a; "CeBepHwii 4>-tot: noTeHUHaabHbiii 
pKCK pauiioaKTHBHoro 3apa>KeKHa>>. H Maao tofo hto noaro- 

TOBHn. 

Hy, noaroTOBHa h noaroTOBHa. H oTnair 6u b Haunt 
cjiaBHbie opraHM — tsm «3Koaorn b mraTCKOM» paioopaancb 
6u. Bmccto Toro oh ttot aoKaaa HopBewruaw ncpeaaa. flcHoe 
aeao — H3vteHa PoaHHe. TTpiineM neKHCTbi Tan 3aMCHaTcabHO 
npoBcm caeacrBHe, hto Ha cyae npoKypopw aaace He cmoimh 

BHSTHO C(})OpMynnpOBaTb. B HCM. CO&CTBCHH0 rOBOpH, OOBll- 

HJieTCS Hhkhthh. npmii.'iocb ero oitpaBjan. h Bunycrtm., 
n pa Baa, nocjie ipex wst otchjikh. Toace Henaoxo. 

TIOTOM — BoeHHblii MCypHaUKCT fpHropHH [ liK-l.Ki i 3tot 
TOWC C 3K0.1OraMH COTpyaHHHaa. C HnOHCKHMH. Hct hto6m c 

TeMH.KOTopue «b uiTaTCKOM)). H hto 6 m.i ayiwaaH? HpaBHJib- 
ho: rocyaapcTBCHHan in Men a. H onim> — npOKoa: caeaCTBite. 
cya, onpaBjaTeibHufi npitroBop. Ho n TlacbKO aaa roaa a 
TiopbMe oTcwaea. Xoxb tok. Bhkob3t — hc BHHoaaT, a Kcno- 
Baotto 6yacT. Caasa HeKHtrraM! 

iKiuiii roBopn, b caynae I kn.-i.Kc HeKHCTbi CBoe nopa- 
weHHe He npit 3«aaH. aeao npoTHB Hero oTKpbrro BHOBb. ) 

Ho 33TO yac BajteHTHH MoiicecB. KOTopwfl H3 MH Jla, 
npRMO-TaKif Hac ro allium ujiihohom 0Ka3ajieJi. 3tot Ha «a3na- 
tob» pa6oTaji. Meatay npoHHM, ace c tom ate IOjkhoH Kopeefi 
criioxaaca. Hy it noaynna no 3acayraM: 1 2 acre KOHtJwcKaiiH- 
eft. 

OanaKo h Tyr y hckhctob He ace CKaaano tionynHaocb. 
BbincHiiaocb. hto bo BpcMH o6bicKa y MoHcecaa nam in hto- 
to oKoao 4000 KyjiHHux jjeHer. To ecrb aoaaapos. He c;ihui- 
kom ina'iii re. it.miH cyMMa. Bot H caeaOBaieaaM <f>( b roace 
raK noKasaaocb. H na cyae ya«e (jiHrypHpoBaaH I4000aoaaa- 
poB, npuHCM pa3ao3KeHHMX... no KOHBepTaM co iirraMnaMH 
KJMHOKopcHCKOro nocoabCTBa. 

HeaKKypaTHo. R 6u aaace csaaaa — noaHbitt iuhothim. 
H eme Mory ceoe npeacTaBHTb, hto ooBHHSCMwfi oiti He 
cobccm 330pOB. HauinHOHWi k xpaHHa noaynemtbie 3a 3to 
acHCJKKH b KOHseprax c nocoabCKKMii in i asinaMn Hy, mhjio- 
Bcuace, HHHcroyaHBHreabHoro. HoTro6bixHTpue«a3MaTbi» 
i)h\ua:inci>TaKHMH aonyxaMH — nepeaaBajiHCBoeiwy mtnioHy 
roHopapu b KOHBepTax c oSpaTHbiM aapecoM. — no y* 
h3bhhhtc Hit 3a hto He nosepto. 

KaKroBapHBaaMMxaaMHxaabiH^KBaHeuKKH.TtuaTeab- 
hEc Haao 6m. aoporHe TosapHuui HeKitcTbi. TmaTeabHEe. 




Tenepb bot. noxoace. aeao Monceesa 6yaer nepecMaT- 
pHBaTbcn. ">ro Haao? 

lipaaui. eme He Bee noTepjmo, KaK pas ceHHac cya 
paccMaTpHBaer aeao aMepitkaHCKoro rpaj«aaHnna 3aMynaa 
Itiiyna. Toxe uaHHOHa. Hy. ito KaK paa noHHTHo: c*'eaH 
asiepHKaHeu — oGssaTeabHO uisihoh, Ho 11 Tyr hto-to TaKoe 

HC BbrTaHUOBblBaCTCJl. <...> 

(IJoyn 6ba ocyxcdeH Ha 20 ,iem luwemix cao6odbi, a 
jamcM noMttioeaii [JpeiudenmoM TlymuHtiiM — npu.\t. ped 
«Kapmbi») 

Hy h «neH3eHCKoe aeao» eme BHyuiaeT HeKoxopwe Ha- 
fflfTWH, 

«He6ecHbiii tmxoxoA" 

18 moan HbtneuiHcro roaa b rieH3eHCKOM o6aacTHOM 
cyae Hananocb cayiuaHHe aeaa no ooBHHCHitio JlHMOHOBa h 
LUitoaeBa, Cyae6itoe iaceaanne ou.to iaKpi,tTi,iM 

Ha nepBbix Me 3aceaaHnax BwscHitaocb. hto Busoau 
caeaoBaTcaew y*I>CB HecaHUiKOM aacKBaTHbi. npeacaeBcero 
OKasaaocb. hto (OwHOKopeflcKHfi caMoaeT «KTX-I» — «oa- 
hobhhtoboh yHe6H0-TpeHHpoBO4HbrR caMoaeT nepBOHanaab- 
Horo o6yneHHS aeTHHKOB». 

Eoaee roro, Moacab aroro caMoaeia HcnuTbiBaaacb b 
UeHTpaabHOM aiporHapoaiiHaMHHecKOM HHCTHTyre hm. >Ky- 
KOBCKoro. flonpoiueHHbiit b cyae b KanecTBC cnemtamtCTa 
3aMecTHTeabaHpeKTopa UATH BaaepHHCyxaHOBpaccTaBHJi 
tohkm naa «e». XapawepHCTHKH caMoaeTa «KTX- 1 ». a«mii 
CyxaHOB, conocTaBHMbi c xapaKTcpncTHKaMH pOCCHHCKKX 
caMoaeTOB «Hk-18» h «^k-52», ticnoab3yeMbix b a3poiciy- 
oax. IO%HOKopeKCKHH caMoaeT «KTX- 1 », CHHTaer CyxanoB 
( saweny b CKo6Kax — tcpynHCHumfi docchhckhh aBTopirreT b 
ofiaaCTH caMoaerocTpoeHHS). He Mower 6biTb itcnoab30BaH a 
KanecTBe BoeHHoro, nocKoabKy He cnoco6en Hecni na ce6e 
BoopyjKCHHC. Oh npocTO pa3BaaHTCH. KoHcrpyKUHS He bu- 
aep-*HT aeca opysKim h OTaaHK npH CTpeaboe in awianm >n- 
HbixnytueK. 

npasaa, laMeTHJi CyxaHoe, nepeaeaKa «KTX-1» aan 
BoeHHbix Hyaca BOiMOacHa. Ho-m nepeaeaKadyaeroaHanaTb 
co3aanne cobccm apyroro. HOBoro cawoaeTa. Kaaaaocb ow. 
see acKO. OaHaKO He 6yaeM paaoBaTbcn npe%ae BpeMeHit. 
H6o HeT TaKHx KpenocTefi. xon. 6w h aeTaiomHx, KOTopwe 
nauiii aooaccTHwc hckiictm hc cmoivih 6u bistb. CaeaoBaTe- 
:tn neH3eHCKoro YdiCB KyxapeB it noroaitH. b cboio one- 
peab. -jaeepnan cya b tom, hto «KTX- 1 » — «yHe6Ho-6oeBoH 
caM0aeT». CacaoBaTe.ibHO. bochhwh. /FoniKa HCKiicTOB-cne- 
HHaaHCTOB TaKosa: aioSoMy waao-MajibCKii paioiipaKHiteMy- 
cji b amiaumi neaoBeKy hohstho. hto. ecaw Ha TpeHitpoBon- 
Hbrfl caMoaer BoapyiHTb napoHKy nyuieK. noayitiTCB boch- 
Hbtii uiTVpMoBitK. TaK ce6e mi.ic.iuiiik;l Btopoii CBOKecni. 
noToiny sax caceau Ham «KyKypy3HitK» Ha6nn. rpaHBTaMit, 
KOTopbieacTHHK6yacTc6pacwBaTb na roaoBbi BparoB.roiTO 
GyaeT yace He «h-yKypy3HHK». a oneHb aaacc bochhuh cavto- 
aeT. 

Ha )ty resty Gbia aa*c (pit.ihM chut — cobctckihi cynep- 
6ocbhk «He6ecHbifi Tnxoxoa»>. Ho h 3to eme He Bee. Caeao- 
BaTcait V4>CB KyxapeB h nocoaHH HacraiiBaioT: aBHa-rpcna- 
i«ep, b co3aaHHH KOToporo npHHKMa.ni ynacTHe poccwftcKHe 



M. /JewH (1eH3a: HeKMCTW b KOMnbiorepHbie wrpbt He wrpatOT... 



23 



cneumiHCTbi, BnoaHe Mower outb Kcno;tb308aH b aoeHHbix 
ue;mx. HanpHMep, a.'m o6yHeHna toarHOKOpeiiCKHX bochhux 
nernHKOB. CaeaoBaTejibHQ — <OKcnopT bockhux ycayr», cr. 
1 89 VK P<t>. Ho m iyr He cnaaii ioc t>. Oo Mxemiio JKcnepTOB 
[BX iaK.ii04eniiB lanpoTOKO.iHpoBaHbi cyaoM). oieiecTBeH- 
Hoe Tpena>KepocTpocHHe — KaK mi rpycTHO no npmnaBaTb 
— OTdaeT ot lanaaHoro na HeeKo.ibKu aeciiTHaeTHH. 

Cnemta-iHCTw MwHHCTepCTBa ooopOHu PG> h focyaap- 
LTBeHHoro HaynHo-HccaeaoBaTeabCKoro HHCTHTyTa aBHami- 
ohhwx cHCrreM KareropHHecKH jTBepwaaiOT: paipaoaTWBae- 
muh no a «KTX- 1 » TpeHawep Mor DbiTb hciio.ii. k<nait TOflUCO 
an* rpajKaaHCKorocaMO-iCTa. K TOMy *c JIhmohob h UJnoaeB 
aeHCTB0Ba.ui coBcpuieHHoaeraaMto: paipe incline Haco;pya- 
hhhcctbo c KopCHuaMH 6boo aaHO V"npaB.ieHHeM amiauiiDH- 
Hofi tipOMbiiu.'ieHHOCTH rocKOMO&opomipOMa. Eo;iee Toro: 
coTpyaHHKH rieH3eHCKoro V'«I>CB. KypnpOBaBiiiHe buc waa- 
uihx b K)*HyioKopeiopa6oTHHKOB nKBM.peryjiiipHonaiy- 

H3j1H OT 3THX paooTHHKOB OTHeTW BeayuiHXCfl HCCJieaOBa- 
HHHX. 

Hh paiy 3a njm> jict teKHCTU He nonbrrajincb npeceib 

«HC3aK0HHyK).ieitTC.ll.H0CTb» pOCCHHCKHX HuaceHepoB. «Ky- 

paTopoB>* BbQBajin b cya — BepojiTHo. 4To6bi yc-TbiuiaTb 
ooi.Hciiemie ctoab homhioiuch oectieHHocTH. «KypaTopbi» b 

cya He HHU.ma.. 

Bbicoxne aoroBapuBaioLunecq 

CTOpOHbl 

I i eit icne kh ii cyawi AaeKcaKap TepexoB i ma ml i c s b Tpya- 
hom nojioa'CHHU. fae-TO s eMy aawe conyBCTByio. C oaHoii 
CTOpoHM — necKojibKO a6cTpak*THwe ripasocyjHe h lakoii. a 

Cilpyi OH BltOaKC KOHKpeTHbie «OpraHbJ». C KOTOpblMH, K3K 

H3BCCTH0. Bceraa Heo6xoaHMO no.moe B3anwonoHHMaHHe. 
Bo Hi6ewaHMc, 

Cyaba TepexoB aonpocKa cBHaeTeaefi. cneu.HaancTOB. 
jKcnepioB. CyaefiHoecacacTBiie o5Hapy*n.io nojmyK) neco- 

CT0»TC-1bH0CTb OOBHHeHllfl. y»i JiailHO 6bt — KT0 BHHOBaT? 

Bo.iee aioyanbHbiM Gbiii apyrofi Bonpoc: hto aeJiatb? 

H3 BeCbMa HH4»OpMHpOBaHHOrO HCT0HHHK3 H yiHa.1, HTO 

b xoae npouecca Tepexoa aaace KOHcy.ibTHpoBa.icfl no ic.ie- 
4k>hv c oaHHM H3 njieHOB BepxoBHoro Cyaa P*. H noavHHa 
otbct: no ae.iy moikot 6biTb mibKO oano peuicHiie — onpaa- 
.iaie.ii.ni.iii npuroBop. 

TaKoro petueHHfi cyabfl TepexoB no3Bo.nim> ce6e tte mot. 

HecKoubKO pa3 oh npocwa 3amnTy lasBitTb xoaaTafictBo 
o HaripaBieHHit aeaa Ha aocaeaoBaHHe: no co6ciBeHHofi 
iiHHiura i iiHt cyab« He snpase tto caeaaTb. B *aMen TepexoB 
ooeiuaa ocBo6oaKTb noacyaHMWX noa noanncKy o hcbi.ioj- 
ae. Ho 3auiHTa Ha cae>iKy He cor-iacinacb. nocKo.ibKy cHana- 
na cjieaoBaiciH. a iiotom h cyabu HeoaHOKpaTHO oocuiaan 
H3Mennrb.'lnMoiRmy h llliioaeHy Mepy npeceHeHHSt. Bpa-in. 

B oaHH H3 cpHHa.-ibm.ix aHefi npouecca (aeaocaymaaocb 
nom-opa Mecaua) Tepexos, ouovkhb saceaaHHC Ha HecKoab- 
ito «tacoB. aoroBopiiJics c rocyaapcTBCHHbiM ofiBUHHreaew o 
tom, hto xoaaTaficTBoo HanpaB.icHHHae.ia HaaocacaoaaHHe 
nocTynHi ot oobkhchha. 

Ho npoKypop. npeaciaB.iJiBUJHR ODBHHeHHe na npouec- 
ce, no6oflacfl Busn Ha ce6« oT^eTCTBeHHocTb b oaHHoiicy. 
Haa hum. Haa npoKypopow. TO-*e Beab KaHa.ibCTBo HMeeTca. 



HecKo.ibKo nacoB mjiH HHTCHCiiBKbie TeaecJioHHbie neperoBO- 
pu, b KOTopux cyabii h ooBHHHTe-ib nuTajiHCb iiojiytmn. 
noaaep*Ky npoKypopaoo^iacTH. Tot nonaNany Hecomaiuaa- 
ch. Toraa b «neperoBopHwft npouecc» 6wjio 3aaeftcTBOBaHo 
pyKOBoacTBo CacacTBCHHoro oraeaa YOCB. H npoKypop 
caa,icji. 

npeABapme/ifaHbie mtoth 

Ohh ne\ leuiiue.ibHwe. Je.io oTupaBiieHO na aocaeao- 
aaHHe, ooBHHfleMbie npoaojixaioT eiiaeib r TtopbMe. Ohh 
cuaflT > iKe 6oaee noayropa jict. 

B hx cyaboy nonuTaaticb BMeuiaTbcn HauiH napoaHbie 
loopaH h hkh. B nacTHocTH. aenyTat Tocy aapcTBeHHofi ZlyMbi 
B«Hec;iaB HrpyHOB HanpaBK.i aupcKTopy <t>CB 3anpoc. b 

KOTOpOM Bn0.1Heo6oCHOBaHHO IKK laBH.l noaCOMHCHHC K0M- 
nCTCHTHOCTb HCMJCMl klt\ HeKHCTOB. 

flenyraTy otbcth.! 3aMecTHTcnb anpeicTopa, reHepa_i- 

1IO.TK0BHHK Co.lOBbeB. OtBCT aelOBOH. KOpOTKHH. B HCpBOM 

ao3aue; « Batue 3a»B;ieHHe paccMOTpeHO". H bo BTopOM: «06o- 
cHOBaHHocrb B036y»'aeHtiH yro.ioBHoro ae.ia h cteneHb bh- 
hobhocih VKaiaHHbix mq SyayT onpeae.ieHu cyaeoHbiMH 
opranaMH». Hhumh caoBawH — He cyfiTecb Kyaa He npocsT, 

A KaKOBbi nepcneKTHBbi cyaeoHoro peuiennfl npooae- 
Mbi, na KOTopoe TaK ynwpaeT reHepn-nonKOBHHK'. 1 riepaoe 
e.iymaHHe jaKOHHtiaocb hhhcm. Oho npiiB&io k BUBoay: 
yciiyni, npeaocTaBJieHHbie K^KHOKopeKCKofl (pnpMe no aopa- 
fioree nporpaMMHo-MaTeMatHHecKoro ooecneieHHa ajia aeiia- 
TpeHaacepa. hc abjisiotcji «ik-hiiijmii h ne moiat 6biTb ncnoab- 
iDHJHbi aim c03aaHHB Boopy*eHHH h bochhoh tcxhhkk 

B KaieCTBe -*HpHOH toikh. a 6u aame CKa3a.i — KJiaKCbi. 
Ha pen>TauiHi neH3eHCKHX hckhctob npHBeay (JiparMenT 3K- 
cnepTH3bi. npoaeaeHHoft eme oaHHM hibccthwm poccHftc- 
KBM yneHbiM. aotrropoM texHiiiecKHX hsyk EiouiieHcoM : 

«Cyaji no wOTsery o kom;ih.ihpi ibkc . >• (emwcTBeHHbiH 
npeaocraBJieKHbtfi mhc aoicyMeHT TexHtttecKoro coaep»:a- 
khh, aahDiHHH npeaeiaB-icHHe 06 oGwjmc h xapairrepe Bbinoji- 
HCHHblX paOOT), BbJIIOJlHCHHait paooTa He HMecrr HHKaKoro 
OTHomcHHS k BoeHHbivt npHMCHeHHSM. noCKoabKV nporpaMM- 
Hue 6noKH, aHaaorHHHbie ncpeHHcieHHUM b itom aoKyweH- 
xe. coaepacaTCo b .iio6oh KOMnbioxepHOif Hrpe «Flanken> 

p33pa60TKH CpHpMbl «MicrOSoft« H OnHCaHbl B OTKpUTOH 

jiHTepaTypew. 

Rot, HeKHCTbi p KOMnbioTepHbie Hrpu He HipaioT. y hhx 
coBcevi apynie nrpbi. Bot BecbMa xapaKiepubifi npHMep 
Toro. KaK ncaocb c.Te.icTBiie. BecbMa HHc})opviHpOBaHHbiH 
hctomhhk, 6jih3khh k cneucay>K6aM. paccKa3a.i mhc o tom. 
hto caeaoaaTejib rieH3eHCKoro y<t"CB KyxapeB tan poem 
cseaeHHfl H3 fpy oTHocwTcnbHO lowHOKOpcfiCKOro caMo.nera 
«KTX- 1 ». HacKoabKo mhc H3BecTH0. otbct raacwa: «KTX- 1 » 

He sms.'W BOCHHbIM CaMOHCTOM. 

Taxofi oTBer. KaK bw noHttMaere, KyxapeBa He ycTpoH.i, 
M noTOMy Baene ero hot. 3aio ecrb apyroft — H3 y npaBJieHHS 
soeHHOft passeaKH <I>CE. H3 Hero aBCTByer: aa, stot kjkhoko- 

pefiCKHH «KyKypy3HHK» BHO.IHe MOWHO HCnOJlb30BaTb B BOCH- 

Hbix ueajtx. Ecan oicHb laxoTOTb. A hckhctw, KaK bu noHH- 

MaCTC, OHCHb X0T6J1H. 

C.ibiuia.1 n KTo-Hn6yab hi aac. rpa*aaHe. hto6u nauiH 
e.iaHH we pwiiapH mHTa h Mena xorb pa3 npH3Ha.i>icb b CBoeft 



24 



<@ FlpaBa MenoBeKa. SnMfieMMfi ceKpeTHOcm. 



OUIhGkC? JJeCKSTb, H3BHHHTe, C KCM He OblBaCT... Mfal 5KC BCC* 

tiSKn a huh. paooTa y Hac HepeHan... Hy h TaK aaaee. 

ysepeHiTaKoroBbi HcciuiuanH HHKoraa. A noieMy? fla 
noTOMy hto hckhctw He oui 11 6 a tore ft! Bot He oitiHSaKmn. h 
see TyT. no onpeaeaeHHio. 

Ha h o KaKofi om in' Kt- mojkct Hani penb? Jl HMOHOBa h 
UlH6aeBa eme toj11»ko-tojii>ko apecTOBa.w, a jHpeKTopy OCB 
yme obtia nocaana nooeaHas peaxitHs: nofiwajtH uitihohob! 

II fiaaroaapiiocTb BbicoKoro H34a.ii.cTBa ne jacTaBii.ia 
ceost waaTb: HaiaabHHK YfPCB no IleKseHCKOH oSaatTH Fpn- 
ujhh noavHHa rc»epaaa, a eacaoBaTcab Kyxapes craa laMec- 
THTeneM KanaabHttKa CaeacTseHHoro OTaeaa. 

Tyr, JHaete jIH, He ao npinHawiH oiiihook. Bot noTOMy- 
to, x ay waio. JTHMonony c LUnSaetibiM cHaerb npeacTOHT eme 
aoaro. 

Bnepsbte onydxuKoeano s eaieme 

"MOCKOSCKUU KOMCOMO.iet( " 

CeypeTHO 

npoe KT 



AHApew OCTPOBCKUfi 

lepiiai MBTxa npoipeccopa 
Coiii|iepa 

noxostte. BaaawBOCTOKy npocro cyncaeHO ocTaBaTbcs b 

UeHTpe BHHMaHHH MHpOBOH OfimCCTBeHHOCTH. 3aTane abtxa- 

H»e mw eme -/KaeM, KaKoe Hosoe petueHne bmhccct ca\ti.in 
cnpaBcojiiiBbiH b Mwpe cya no ae.iv FpHropHS FlacbKO. a TeM 
bpcmchcm opraHbi, KOTopue noneMy-TO iipitnn ro mns.ma n. 
«KOMneTeHTHUMio>, yace b hh.ihi.im pocr pacKpyiHsajoT ote- 
peaHoe «ninnoHCKoe» aeao. 

CaeacTBeHHbtMH SpHraaaMH ynpaBaeHwi *CB no HpH- 

MOpCKOMy KpaK) OblJlH npOHlBCaeHbl ObWCKtt B KBflpTHpC H B 

KHCTHTyTCKofi aaSopaiopHH npoijieccopa. aoKTopa HayK Baa- 
aHMHpaCoHtpepa. 

Jl.itpH3HaTbCJi.HecneuHaiHCT8o6.iacTHroc6e3onacHo- 
CTii h y* TeM 6oaee He Baaaeio Tnftnnun caeacTBHH, oaHaKo 
noaaraio: ito6m iiohstl uexaHinvi npoHcxoaamcro, hvhcho 

HL-CKO-th h'O yrjiy6llTbC51 B HCTOpHIO. 

BaaaHMnp HnKOJiacen'1 Cofitpep poaHacst b jmBape 1 930- 
ro. B mjhocth ymnasa <}ih3hkoh — aa h kto era Toraa hc 
vB.ieKa;icH, Koraa B3pwBbi nepeux 3T0mhux 6om6 npoBosr- 
iaai in HacTymeHHC hoboh ipu. 

l"Iocae iiiKoau nocrynati BToabKOTro coiaaKHbift M*»TH 
— By3, nefi BfBSMOM ceroaHs bo bccm MHpe Bouipim n vainest 
KaK BbicujiiH 3naK KaHccTBa. B Hanane njmiaecnrbix CoiMpep 
6wa cpcan nepBbix sunycKHtiKOB KHCTMTyra, iipHneM okoh- 
■na oh ero c KpacHbtM awnaoMOM. 

Haia.1 ycneuiHO ae-nati. HayHHyio kapbepy 8 mockobc- 
khx aKaaeviHiecKHX HHCTHTyrax. paooTa-'i (hmch tnciiiia.ii.- 
Hbifi aonycK) npeHMymectBeHHo Haa ooopoHHOH TentaTHKOH. 
CnHTaacs ojhhm H3 ayiiuHx yneHHKOB hwhc noKOHiioro 
afcaaeMHKa MnjiawoHmMKOBa — inaMeKHToro <pti3iiKa. co- 



patHHKa Kyp^aTosa. ynacTHHKacoBeTCKoro aTOMHoro npo- 
eiaa, cnetiHaaHcta no pasaeaeHHio inoronoB. Hmchho noa 
pyKoaoacTBOM MHaaitOKuiiiKOBa Coftcpep nan tita. i ii c 6aec- 
kom sauiHTM.i KaHaHaatcKyio aHCCepTaUHK). 

OaHaKo b ceMHaearrux caynHacs HeripuRTHbiii Ka3yc. 
MaaauiHH opat BaaaHMHpa — Ba.iepnti Coiitpep — k tomv 
BpeMeHH TOHce BHaHbtfi yueHWH-oHotptnHK. cnemiaaH3npyio- 
tUHHCJt B ooaacTM MoncKyaspHoft oHoaormi. yBacKCS aiiccH- 
aeHTCKiiMH iiaes.Mii it aaace petunia cmchhtl HCTopitiecKyio 
poaHHy. 

OaHaKo Ha rnyobicyto Heo6ayMaHHOCTb raKoro ujara 
CMy He^aMea-iitTeabHo yxaiaim nee re we «KOMnereHTHbie» 
opraHbi: «Bw yiacTBOBaaH b 3aKpwTUx paapaooTKax. a noTO- 
m> no MCHKiucii Mepe ceMb act psi.tc t.i »3 cTpaHw aas eac 
3aKpb>r». Becb OTMepeHHbiH cpoK I-Saitpini Cortt()ep npoxo- 
aHa b 6e3pa6oTHhtx. 

3aoaHo — na bchkhh, tbk CKa3aTb. cay^aR — peuiHati 
say run. h no CTapmeMy 6paTv: BaaaHMHpa Cofic})epa, koto- 
pbiil roraa 6bia 3aaeayiouiHM aa6opaTopneH HHCTHTyra aoa- 
Hwx npo6aeM AH CCCP, He3aMeaanTejibtfoaHii]Hai! aonyc- 
Ka k 3aKpbrrbiM TCMaM m ot rpexa noaa-'ibme BbirHa-in c 
pa6oTbi. 

...no oo.ibitioMy c^ery cnacao ero Toraa to. tto aroatr 
BbicoKoro HHTeaaeura Bceraa OTKOCHawcb h othocjttch k 
ae«rreabHOCTM cneucay»c6 c lUBecTHoti aoaefi 6pe3ratiBocTH. 
FlpiiMepoB Macca — ot noaaepacKH t]>mt<KaMH-iiacpmitKaMii 
roHHMbtx b CBoeBpeMa reHeTHKOBao HeyaanujeHCfl (hccmot- 
ps Ha npocTHue ycnaHft) nonuTKH napmnHbtx h «KOMneTeH- 
THhtx» opraHOB .tHiUHTb AHapcs Caxapoaa 3Banns aKaaeww- 
Ka. 

Tax cayiHaocb h c BaaatiunpoM CoRtJ)epoM, KOToporo 
noaaepwaaH aaaeKo He nocaeaHne b oTeiectBeHHOH HayKe 
aK>an: npeaceaaTeab HBHLl aicaaeMHK AHapefi Kanwua it 
anpeKTop C03aaBaeM0ro TwxooKeancKoro oKeaHoaoniiec- 
Koro HHCTHiyTa (TOH) aKaaeMMK Bmcrop HabHteB .ihmho 
npnraacH.in ero bo BaaaHBOCTOK. 

He npoirro npttHJiTb Ha paooTy no laHBaemtHx a nepco- 
Ha.ibHo npwraacHTb ncaoBCKa, aHtueHHoro aonyena (o, 3T0 
CBHincHHoe b ycTax ceKpeTHHKOB ctobo!) h Haxoasuicroci) 
noa KoanaKOM cneiicaywS, — 3to. coraacHTecb, nocTynoK. 

Tcm He MeHee hmchho bot mum nyreM b 1974 roay. c 
nepsoro aHa C03.aaH h n TOH — Koraa He 6biao eme cooctbch- 
Horo i. ui huh. a yseKbie c mhpobumh HMenaMH paooTaati no 
apcHaosaHHbiM noaaa-iaM aa uiKOabHbtM MacTepcKHM — Baa- 
aHMHp CoRc}»ep 0Ka3a.ic« bo BaaaHaocTOKC. 

Toraa *e npaKTHHecKH Ha nycTOM MecTe oh co3aan 
naSopaTopnio nacpHofi oKeanoaorHH. KOTOpyto h BoiraaBaa- 
ct bot yiKC poBHO 25 jieT. I IpiiHCM ncpsyio noaoBMHy 3Toro 
cpoKa 3aBaa6 saepHofi oKeaHoaormt paSoTaa 6>3 aonycKa 
( HCKaioHirreabHo cobctcko-hckhctckhh noaxoa)! 

PeujHTb yry npoCaeMy He mot hh Kannua. hh cmchhb- 
ujhh ero na nocTy pyKOBoaHTeaa ABHU AH CCCP aKaaewHK 
HHKoaafi lJJnao, toskc k caoay cscasan.. c orpoMHbtM yaawe- 
HweM o i not ii biii iiiic-H k Hay4Hoii acftTeabHocTH Coiicpepa. 

H ToabKO c npwxoaOM TopSaHeBa cTaBtuufi k tomv Bpe- 
weHH npcaceaaTeaeM RBO aKaacMHK BiikTop HabHHea CMor 
«npo6HTt» CMy aonyCK no (popMe N° 3 — HH3uias. TaK 
CKa3aTb. cTeneHbaosepHD. BnponeM. Cofitpepa. KaK hsctos- 






A OcTpoBCKHfi HepHafl Mema npocfDeccopa Coficfjepa 



25 



uiero yieHoro. Maao aaHHMinH «Hrpu» roc6e3onacHOCTH; b 
to Hpe\tn ero no, iHOBa ia xyaa oo.ice ccpbe3Kas Betub — oh 
npeaaoaam mynaTb upoueccu r.io6a.ibHbTx impKv.-isiiufi b 

iih'Caiie. tk-llil.ll. t\H l.iKIIC «MeTKH», K3K TpHTHH. KOTOpbltl 

BbinaaaeTnoc.ieJuepHbix natbiraHiifi b KHTae{npoBoaHMbix 
»ie ro.ibi BcLi.Ma pel y.urpno). Ja.ibtue na,io roaopiiTb cyrySo 
HayKHbiMH TepMHHaMH, B HeM. Hajo nojiaraTb, HeTcviwcjia: 
c xaacy :n mi b. hto w.'ich Coficpepa HMeaa i ipicjiiaHHoe Miipoaoe 
iHaneHiie. 

A b )985-M«c.TyHit.iacb»Ma>KMa.CeroJiHH MHontenioaH, 
KOTopux oei naTsr*Kit Moamo HaasaTb hc npocTo ixcriepTa- 
HH, a Hi- !> <:niMit c ne u na.™ era mh b itoH o&aacTit. roBopirr. 
mo ec.iit 6w Toraa cpasy. no ropanitM cneaaM Bipwa juepiio- 
ro peaKTOpa Ha noaBoanoii .loaxe b aok'e HaacMHHCxoro CP3 
6bLi ncc.ie.TOBaH 11 npoaHa_TH3HpoBaH, to <(epKo6binbCKOH 
KaTacrpcKJJM. BoiMWKHO, yjajtocb 6w H36eataTb, 

Ho b Hawen CTpaHe .mne.MMa «OTKpwTb» miH «3aceicpe- 
thttim Beeraa pemaeTcs b nojtb3y eropofi no3itunn. TeM He 
MeHee CoH(pep, MMeioiutiii iHUMtuioneaHHecKHe nosHaHns b 
toh oo;iacTH. rje conpiiKacatOTca noHBTHH «Mope» a «paBH- 
auH«i», He3aMeonHTe.fibHO Hanai hjiotho saHMMaTbcn h3>hc- 
HKeM noc.TeacTBtin HaacMtiHCKOro aipbiBa. 

BcKope Ha noiwoiub cmv npitima 11 ccpbeaHas noaaepaf- 
Ka: KopoTKO rmopji. oh CTaa «no.iHOMOHHMM npeacTaBHTe- 
;ieM» no HaacMe (peaepaibHoro HaynHoro ueHTpa «KypnaTOB- 

CKHH HHCTHTVT". PVKOBO.THT KOTOpMM aKajieMHK EBreHHH 

Bc.ihxob. Bo MHoroM hmchho o.iaroaapH raicoJi bucokoh 
«Kpbiuic>v naooparopHs Cofitjjepa, b xoTopoft Bcero-ro aecH- 
tok coipyaHUKOB. no ceil aem> ocymecTBJiJieT MOHKTopnnr 
CHTvamiH Boxpyr HaatMbt. 

noMorai yHenbiM b cboc spevia n KamrraH I -ro panra 
Baiepitii IUhh.ihh. owbuihh no HeaasHitx nop Hana-ibHHKOM 

CJIJTKOb! pajHaUMOHKQH 11 XHMIIHCCKOft 6e30nacHOCTH Thxo- 

ob-eaHcKoro 4>.iots. {Ilapy ,ict naia.i ,~[a.n \t. in m no Bbtciyre Jier 
ynjen b oTCTaBKy, yexaji b MocKBy, 3amHTH.i jnceep raumo h 
paooTaer cefiHac b OHLJ nKypnaTOBCKHH HHCTHTyr».) 

Ha cweny .AaHnaaHy npuwe-i A^ieitcaHap MaiccHMOB. 
oyKBaibHo MecJtix Ha3aji CTaBiiinR KOHTp-ajMnpajioM. Y yne- 
hux eTaiH BOSHHKaTb npn6:]CMbi c BO3M0*HocTbK> nonacTb B 
Mecra hx nocTOHHHbtx HCcnejoBaHtiH. Coft{()ep — nenoBex 
peiKMH. nocjie oHepenKofi CTbtHKH c BoeHHbiMif HbiHeujHeri 
BecHOH oh n.noHy.T h noexaji b MocKBy, Bcrpenuicjt h noro- 
Bopip.i c aKa.ieMiiKOM BejiHXOBbiM, rioc.ic'iHHH opraHH30Ba-i 
eviy BCTpewy c CviasKOMOM BM* UMHpajioM B.iaanwHpoM 
KypoejoBbtM. Pesy^bTflTOM mockobckkx BCTpen cTajion«cb- 

MO H3 BUCOKMX HHCTaHHMK Ha HMS KOM3HayiomerO TO«t> 

a;iMHpa.ia Mtmti.ia 3axapeHKo o tom. tto yMeHWM Hajo 
nOMoran>, a hc 6.iokh poBaTb hx ycmiHs. 

HoTCMa pajHaiiHOHHOH 6e3onacHocTn cihuikom cxo-it- 
3Kas, HToobt mii*ho obi.io oeciipensTCTBCHHo jjecb pa3ry;iH- 
aatb, CHanaJia wa CcaepHOM <|KH>Te «nocKojib3Hyacs» Kami- 
T3H Hhkhthh, yrojiosHoe aeno nponiB KOTOporo cDCB npo- 
iio.iJKaer no chx nop; cjieaoM na ila,3bHCM Boctokc B03HHKiio 
h vvkc nojxo;iHT K 3aKOH0wepH0My (t3k .hi?) kohuv mho 
KainuaHa ITacbKo. noc^eaHee, KOTOpoe sot-bot yace mohcct 
6tiTb 3aBepmeH0 BunecemieM npuroBopa. odewaer pacuse- 
cth hobmm useTOM. Hc3aBitciiMbic Ka6.3toaaTe.in VCMaTpHBa- 
K>T npSMy lo cB»3b no jihhkh ITacbKo — ilaHHJiHH — Cofld)ep. 



Tax hto BnojiHe bo3mo>kho, mu oyaeM spHTejiJtMH eme He 
oanoro rpoMxoro uinitoHCKoro npouecca. 

Tevt 6o.iee — Koraa Taxoft m.ierKp. Cneuc.iy«6w hc 
jiio6flT BbinycKarb ao6u4y H3 .ian. rio.Taram, vto Cofitpep, 

HMCtOIUHH qeTBepTbBCKOBorionbtT o6lUeHHS C 3THMI1 (ICITCL1H- 

a.iHCTaMH», 3HaeT sto .lyniuc mhothx. EC c.ioBy. o tom. hto 
Ko.ibno Boxpyr Hero cynfaerca. oh KasepHSKa jora^ibiBancs 
— b 2000-m rony ero b onepeaHOH pa3 ( ! ) .ihlih.ih aonycxa. 
CeRHae B.iajniMHp f I hkh mchii'i HaxojHTca b MocKBe (k 
cnacTbio, c Hero noxa He bis.ih noaniicxy o HeBbie3.ie). FToCjie 
npoBeaeHHbix o6uckob. noc.ie Toro xax ero aocTaBH.m b 
HiBecTHoe i,iaHne na AnevTCKOfi. OTo6pa.m nacnopT ti «no- 

HMCTH» DCCeay, VieHblH C MtfpOBUM HMeHeM, rOTOBSlUHHCfl 

icpes nojiro^a OTMeniTt 70-.ieTne. noHVBCTBOBa,i peaxoe 
yxymueHHc caMonyBCTBHM. 

Oho ii HeMyapcHO. cent ynecTb, hto yiKC mhoio .ict 
B.ia.niMnp CoRtpep cTpaaaer ot caxapHoro aHa6era, MecT- 
Hbie apaHH paisciH pyxawH H BW.ia.iit cmv Hanpaa:iewte b 

MOCK0BCKVIO K-IIIHIIKV Aha.KMHit liayK. TOM. HTO OH COC- 

*a.i. roBopHTb hc npitxojHTCii — JlyGsHxa-To noa 6okom... 
...HcTOpiia 3Ta 6yaeT Heno^Hofi, ec.in eme pai hc bciiom- 
niirb Hcioaexa. KOTOporo Mbuinmbc.ierKa KOCHy.THCbBHaHa- 
.ie: opaTa B.iajHMHpa HnKo.iaeaHHa — Ha.icptis Cofltpepa. 
,'JaBHht\i-.i;iHHo oh yexaji B ClllA, npo(()CCcopcTByeT b Ba- 

UJHHrTOHC, BBflSeTCH O.THHM H3 BeayUIHX KOHCy.lbTaHTOB 

/IiKopnata Copoca b Bonpocax BbiaencHHs rpaHTOB .xis poc- 
chkckhx yncHUX. KcraTM, 6e3 jthx rpaHTOB. npocTo h rpyoo 
roBopa. poccHHCKas najKa aaBHo 6w ywe noaox.ia — cnacii- 
6o poaHoR cipaHe. (K npHMepy, tot ace TOH. b kotopom 
paSoTaer B.iaaiiMMp Cofitjiep. paHbiue 3amtMa.i Beaymee no- 
noateHHe no pa6oTaw Haa sn^ptmiMM xtumoL riocaeaHHe 
*e 3 roaa hhcthtvt hc no.ivHaer ot MjiHHCTepcTBa o6opOHu 
hh KonetiKH. A 3HannT — paooxaeT ro.ibxo HaaoTKpbnwMH 
TeMaMH.) <.J> 

Mto jk, HMCTb taKoro 6pa ta. aa ewe it c aHCCHaeHTCKHM 
npouiauM, b r.ia3ax OTeMCCTBCHHbix cneucaywfiyacccaMO no 
ce6e KpHMKHan. 

B 3Tofi cbb3h no 6ojibiuoMy ceKpeTy Mory COoSuilITb 

MeCTHUM HCKHCTaM, HTO B pejiaKUHH ra3eTbl «B.iajHBOCTOK» 

Toace ecTb.iioaH. HMeHJUiHc poacTBCHHHKOB 3a rpaHHueii. B 
tom Huc.ie h a AMcpHxc. Koraa iipttKaaceTe auaTb oobicKoB'' 

Bnepwbie onyO.iuKoeaHO e itidamtu 
«B.iafiueocmoK-noeocmu» 




rOCy£APCTBEHHOfl BE30nACH0CTH 
npM COBETE HHHKCTPDB CGCP 

rap. Mama 



» 



^0 flpaBa HenoBeKa. SnwfieMm ceKpemocm. 



O 4>a6pMKai\MM <DCB «uinnoiiCKifx» flen 
m HacaMfleHMM b CTpaHe wrmoHOMaHMH 

M3 pe30JiK>unM BcepocciiHCKoro Hpe3BbmawHoro Cte3fla 
b 3amnTy npaa ne/iOBeica 



<...>He cnpaBJi»ncb c 3aflanaMM no 6opb6e c 
Koppynmieii m reppopusMOM, yjewow KanwTa/iOB, 

3aKa3HWMM noriMTMHeCKMMM y6HMCT8aMI4 M fipyrMMM 

onacHbiMn npecTynneHMHMH, OCB wsSpano b tone- 
CTBe «/ierKOM ao6bNM» 3KonoroB, wypHa^HCToe. y^e- 

HblX.flMnilOMaTOB. 

Bnac™ npwflyManw KOBbiii cociae npecTynne- 
hmb — «aHanMTH4eCKMH ujnuoHa* »> b Ka^ecTBe opy- 
)kma, HanpaBneHHoro npOTMB nto6oro Mbicnamero 
rpa>KflaHMHa Poccmm. 

CoTpyflHMKw<PCB,3aHMMaiomnecfl0a6pMKaMM- 
ePi luhmohckhx man, noompfltoTcn, noBbtwawTCfl b 
3BaHHHX n aonwHOcrnx. Cpean rocyflapcTBeHHwx 
CJiywamHx noompneTCfi HaywHtmecTBo. 

H36e«aBUJMe npMHuwnnanbHbix petpopwt cneq- 
cnyw6bi cnocoSHw Ha Juo6bie 6e33aKOHMH m roioBbi 
k noBTopeHHio npownoro. 

C"be3fl c TpeBorort OTMenaer onacHbie nocnefl- 
CTBMn HarHeT3HMH LunnoHOMaHMM b crpaHe: pocr 
HeysepeHHOCTM cpeflti rocyflapcTBeHHbix cnywatuMx. 
CTHiviynMpoBaHwe 3Mnrpaunn TanaHTnHBbix wccne- 
floaaTeneH, or pa hums Hue Meatfly HapoflHbix 3koho- 

MMMeCKMX, HayMHblX M KyflbTypHblX CBR36M. 

Bee 3to npeaBemaeT eosHMKHOBeHiie hoboto 
wenesHoro saHaaeca. 



C-beafl oBpamaeTcn k npe3MfleHTy Poccmh c 
npocbSoii npuMeHMtb Ha npatrrnKe «flM(craTypy 3a«o- 
HaBfln«6e3oTnaraTejibHoronpeKpameHMflcct)a6pM- 
KOBaHHbix uunnoHCKHx flen, opraHM30B3Tb npoBeae- 
Hneocpni4HanbHoropaccneflOBaHnn h HaKa3aHMBnnu, 
flonycTHBUJMX HenpaaoMepHbie apecTbi. o6bicKM, 0a6- 
pwKaunHD qOKa3aTenbCTBa, noflnorw s oTHoweHMH 
AneKcaHflpa HMKWTWHa, rpuropwq [lacbKO. Mropa 
CyiarMHa, BaneHTWHa MonceeBa, BnaflHMwpa Com- 
<$epa. B/iaflMiwpa LUypoBa 

C"be3fl npocMT npeawaeHTa Pocchm wcnonbso- 

BaTb BCIO C80K3 BJiaCTb flTIS TOrO, HT06bl pa30pB3Tb 
nopOMHbIM aHTMKOHCTMTyUMOHHblH Kpyr eflMHCTBa 

cjieflCTBMfi, npoKypaiypw n cyfloa. 

Cbeafl TpeOyeT ot poccmmckhx B/iacTeki flonyc- 
TUTb b cyfle6Hbie npoueccw llacbKo, Mowceesa w 
CyrariiHa Ha6ntoflaTeneM0TpoccniicKnxM Me«flyHa- 
poflHbixryMaHMTapHbtxunpaBosaLUMTHbixopraMwsa- 
umm, a Taicwe BbinojiHeHMsi Me*<AyHapoflHbtx corna- 
ujeHMiS o nMKBMflauHM cnemiacirraTopoa OCB, 

Ctesfl oSpamaeTcn * MewflyHapoflHoti Amhhc- 
tmh c npocb6oMo6-bflBHTb y3HMKaMM cob ecru Banen- 
THHa MoMceeBa w Uropn CyTHrwHa. fl/iHTG/ibHoe Bpe- 

Mfl HaXOflflLLlMXCH B TIOpbMaX no C0a6pMKOB3HHblM 

flenaM. 

MocKea, 21 PHeapn 2001 soda 




Mewhtue vhchux- bontuie oawiwHeMMux? 





■ * - ; :.- — ... .1^:- 

fr-fr-E i^—^ -^i^, JM . ««»,„,, mua-ii 






— JMMB 



Aeno IU2 5 2 



■ Til • N*^ IB * f ^l " i ,1C * ■ jf 







tat^TJB^Th^.^,, 



4 



MHTEPHET H nPABA HEJ10BEKA 



2? 




©ra 



■ 13 CBOOOAM 




HmepHeT — ynnKaiibHoe cpencrao coooiueHMfl. KaK mh 
oaHO H3 pawee cywecTBOBaBiuMx cpeacTB. oh no3BonneT 
ntOA»M BbipaxaTb cbow nqen n MHeHwa. ofimascb nanpBMyc c 
BcewMpHoii ayflHTopweii w apyr c apyroM.' oflHoepeMeHHO 
npenocTaejinn aociyn k MHo*cecTay apynx wflevi, MHennS n 
HHO>opMaunn. HaMMoro 6o/ibujeMy, Heme/iM Morjin npeaocTa- 
Bvitb panee cymecTBOBaaujMe cpeacTBa CneAoaarenbHo. 
cymecTByeT HepaspbiBHa* CBS3b weway MHTepHerow h npa- 
Bawn Henoee«a 



OnwT coofimecTB b pa3Hyx cTpawax noKasweaer, mto 
ManOHTOMO)KeT6biTbCTO.ribyrpo)Kaou4MM Ana aBTopnTapHwx 
pexwMOB, KaK flocryn n ncnonb30Banvie cpeaCTsa coofitue- 
hub, He anaioLHero rpaHMn, KOTOpoe oneHb cjiowho nocraenTb 
nofl KOHTpont. Ho xotb TpaaMMwoHHbie MeTOflb* qeHsypw — 
3anpeT raaeT m 3aKpb«THB ™norpa<pnii - k HHTepHeTy HenpH- 
MeHMMbi. ueHsypHwe online-TexHanorwvi, KOTopwe iworyr npM- 
MeHBTb TaKMe pe»wMbi, MoryT HawectH He MeHbuiniS epefl. 

XoTd TexHO/ioiwecKw MHTepHeT 3amnweH ot nonuTOK 



MHTEPHET M 
nPABA HEJIOBEKA 



MHTepneT — AeMOKpaTHSMpyciyee cpeacTeo oCmeHMfl. 
Heo6bj4afiHo nouxoflfluiee ana npoceetueHUR a ofi/iacr** npaa 
nenoeeKa, ho eMy yrpojnaiOT orpaHiimennfl co ctopokw rocy- 
flapcTga. 

npH noMomn HHTepHera rpa«aaHe cTpan c caMWMn 
penpeccHBHbiMH pe*MMaMw Moryr HaxoanTb HH0opMauwo. 
Kacaiouiytocs npaBHTe/ibCTB 3thx CTpan » npas nenoeeKa. 
KOTopyio He ocMenmcfl onye/icmoBaTb hm oana raaeia, a 
TaK«e cooGmaTb MMpy 06 ycjicawflx. 8 kotopwx ohm Kmyi- 
MHTepneT no3Bo/ineT jiiwho 83rjiftHyTb na apyrae cTpaHbi, 
apyrwe napoaw n wx KyjibTypy, vto npeatfle 6wno aocTyrwo 
niiLUb ana HeMHomx. 3ra BoaMowHocTb no/iyMan> m pacnpoc- 
TpaHATb nH<J>opMaMMK>, CTont ea)KHaf) ans /i»6ow KOHuenunn 
aewoKpaTMH, KaK HMKoraa npewae momot 6biTb aocTwrHyTa 
npw noMomn HHiepHeia. 

KpoMe Toro, wcno/ibsys iDHCppoBanbHbie TexHO/iorwM. 
rpajKaane Moryr noaaepwwBaTb MrHOBSHHyio CBnab c riioabMM 
no BceMy Mi/ipy. ropaaao 6onee saiawiaeHHyio ot Haaaopa co 
CTopOHu npaBHTe/ibCTB m MacTHwx jinu. B MwTepHeTe rpa«iia- 
hb — h© TonbKo noTpe6nTenn eoaepataHUH, ho m ero co3flaTe- 

J1K. 

TaKMM o6pa30M, coaepwaMwe HwTepHeTa cro/ib «e 
pa3HOo6pa3HO, CKont pa3Hoo6pa3HU mwc/ih pa3Hwx jitoaeii, 
/lwan f hx cooomecraa McnoJibayioT oSpeTeHHyo e MHTepne- 
Te online-CBOooay and Toro, MTofiw cBR3bJBaTbCfi Me>Kfly co- 
6om, B3anMoaeScTBOBaTb n coBMedHO pa6oiaTb. 

rtoBceMeCTHbtii AOCTyn vi ncno/ib30BaHne3Toro rno6a/ib- 
Horo cpeacTBa coo6meHHR cJiy^ar npoceemeHMO h 3amme 
rpajKaaHCKMX vt nonMTiUHecKHx npas bo bcom MHpe. 3Ta 6ec- 
npeueaeHTHan BoaMOMHOCTb. oawaKo. Moxej yrpowaTb aen* 
TeribHOCTH penpeccwBHbix pewnwoB 



nocTaBMTb ero noa npaBHTe/ibCTBeHHw^ KOHTpo/ib, om see *e 
He HMMMynen k hum. HeKotopbie dpaHbi npone^HioT HacTo«- 
myio naoSpeTaTe/ibHocTb « aocT«raioT b a&ne KOHTpons ia 
Haasopa orpowHoii acfitpeKTHBHOCTW, no KpaiflHew Mepe B 
npeae/iax KopoTKoro npOMe»yTKa apeMeHw, 

To, hto Sonee Mo/iofloe noKOneHMe 3HaeT, Kax .BsnaMw- 
eaib* npOKCM-cepBepw m naoeraTb ueHaypbi. HeosHanaeT, hto 
Monoaewb b 6ea onac h octh. 3th aeficiBiiR aohwhw nonnMaTb- 
ch b TexHO/iortmecKOM KOHTeKCTe: pa6oTaK>iane Ha npaeM- 

Te/tbCTBO CHCTBMHbie aaMHHHCTpaTOpbl, B03MOMHO, 3aM8Ma- 

ot 0>a»rrbi -93noMa», w le. kto vix coeepLuaeT, Moryr 6biTb 
MaeHTMtjjvmwpoBaHbi v\ noaeeprHyrbi npec/ieaosaHHK). 

B to *e apeMfl rocyaapCTea acero MMpa nuTaioTCB pac- 
aiHpwTb noTeHuMan cbomx cpeacTB cmmm 3a 3thm hosum 
cpeacTBOM coo6iueH»n. eKmoMan BBeaeHwe kohtpo^r aa no- 
CTpoeHnew vi paaBMTnew KOMMyHuKauMOHHbix ceTeS 

rio 3tmm npvinHHaM npaBMTeflbCTsa m perwoHayibHbie n 
Me>KayHapoaHwe epratmtaupm aonxHu aaTb rapaHinn cbo- 
6oaw caMOBbtpaxeHHH. Buno/iHeHUR KOTopbtxMowHo 6bino6w 
ot hmx Tpe6oBaTb, pacnpocTpaHnTb KaK mohwo iunpe aocTyn 
w ncnonb30BaHne moiuhwx KpHnTorpacpunecKHx MMCTpyivteH- 
tob, KOTopbte ae/ia»oT bosmowhwm HacToniayio HenpuKocno- 
BeHHocTb nepenwcKw. m npeaycMaTpusaTb 3aKOHoaaTe/ibHyio 
3aimrrynpaBaHaHenpMKOCHO«eHHOCTbMacTHo(*mn3HM(«npaii- 
Becw*), BiuiKwaH ofiutecTBeHHWvi KOHTpo/ib aa rocyaapCTBeH- 
hwmh opraHaMH Haasopa. 
MHTepHeT h pa6ora b c4)epe npaB nenoBeKa 

HHTepHeT - oano W3 ny^iijMx cpeacTB &na o6tuteHa mh- 
cpopMayneii no npaeaM He/ioBeKa, nocKO/ibxy oh flemeB n 
mofianeH. S/ietrrpoHHafi nonTa (e-mail) aenaeT caaab Mencay 
npaBoaaiyMTHMKaMH u HenpaBmenbCTBeHHWMM opraHmsauin- 



21 



MHTepHeT m npaBa Me/ic-Beto 



Awn (NGO) aeujeaoH v\ npocTOii, 4TO noaaormeT mm nynwe 

KOOpflUHMpOBSTb CBOK) ABHTeAbHOCTb. 

KpoMe roro, HHTepneT aaeT nOTeHUHanbHyio bosmo*- 
HOdb o6pamaTbcn k mo6anbHbiM ayawTopwiflM. BK/nonafl /ikd- 
flefi. KOTopwM aaHHan wHtpopMauwH Hy*tHa 6onbuie ecex. 
MHTepHeT ea*en ana npaeoaaiauTHWKOB. nocKOAbsy MOmer 
flaTb 6e3onacHoe cpeacTBO cba3m h «oopflHHai4nn pa6oru 
npaBoaaiMHTHbix rpynn. nj03T0My npasosatuMTHHKM oahwmw 
H3 nepewx CTann bicno/ibaoBaib MmepHeT a/ia: 

• Koopannaunn aeHTenbHoc™ in 3aeaawBannfi KOHTa*- 
tob. Bo3mo*ho, Han6o/iee BaxMoe npiiMeHetnue Hh repHeia b 
ccpepe npaB nenoeeKa — 3ro ero Mcno/ibaoBaHwe «an npe- 
upacHoro HHCTpyMewTa atib NGO n anTMBMCToa, no3BOJinio- 
mero mm naftnepKMBaTb cBflab apyr c npyroM, TawHo nepena- 
Batb Apyr Apyry coo6meHMB h KoopAMHwpoaaTb cbokj abh- 

TejlbHOCTb. 

■ fleMOHCTpauHH cpaKTOB HapyweniiB npaB ne/ioBeKa w 
onoBeiMeHMF) noaew o hhx . MHorne n pa bo 3 a lam T Hue opraHii- 
3amnH no aceMy Mvipy coafla™ cnncK« aneKTpOHHOvi paccw/i- 
kh n/if pacnpocTpaHeHHfl cbohx npecc-pe/iwaoe, coo6taeHn« 
w KpMTUKi* napy weHHii npaB nenosena, MKorne via 3twx rpynn 
TaK)«e wcnonbayioT ann ny6/inKaunn CBoeii MHcpopMamw 
Usenet, w/im *b HHtpopMaqna ny6nnKyeTcn tbm apyn/iMH n»ab- 
mm. Taiotee MHorwe rpynnu coanajin web-CTpaHuqw w nyfinw- 
KytoT nHtpopMamnio Ha hkx, 

• OpraHwaaunn nojgami aanpocoa. Mworvie opraHnaauwn 
Hcnonb3yiOT3neKTpoHHyKDnoMTyflnfipacnpocTpaHeMnqcoo6- 
meHiw. npnawBa OL14HX 8 msccobom nopHAKe HanpaB/isib nucb- 
Ma c sanpocaMM no TeM win mhum reinaM b ts turn MHbie 
opraHwaauHH, 

• CfJopa nHcpopMaunn 06beubi npaBoaaujHTHOii hh- 
0opMauwn b ceTn yflHBHTejibHo bucokh — Hanaa, HanpwMep. 
c catiTa -npaBa HenoBexa a Poccnu- (http:Vwww.hro.org) 
mam ccaiflTa Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org). 
npoBOflMTb wccneflOBaHHH a o6nacT« npaB nenoBeKa ropaaao 
npome. 

^nan BoaMomHWM Sucipbtii aocTyn k HHCpopMaunn, 
HeweoneHHoe pacnpoorpaneHMe npuawaoa k npoBeaeHMO 
Tex mam mhwx KaiMnaHHft n opraHM3ai;M(o wnpoKoro Me«ayHa- 
pOAHoro aasneHHn, Hhtophot 3aMeTHo noBbiujaeT ao66hctc- 
Kwe cnoco6HOCTK npaBoaamwTHbix rpynn. 

rioaTOMy *M3HeHHo BawHo nponaraHAMpoeaTb CBOfiOAy 
caMOBupaMeHun n npaso Ha •npaiiBecM>, mmiomvieca ucht- 
pa/ibHbiMn aneMeHTaMU pa3BMTna UHfpopMauMOHHOro o6we- 

CTBa. 

flocTyn K HHTepHeTy h npocseTMTejibCTBO 
b o6xiacTn npaB se^OBeKa 

OflHa H3 Han6onee MacTo HeAOOueHHBaeMux homox aab 
BonnotAeHitti b *«3Hb AeMOKpaTimecKoro noTeHquana MHTep- 
HeTa — npo6/ieMa Aocryna. flnR AOCTyna k MHTepHeTy Tpefiy- 
eTCfl jim6o MMeTb xownbioTep w nnaraib npoBaiyiepy, nn6o 
MMeTb AOCTyn TyAa, OTKyAa momho k H6My nOAKiiOMMTbCR. 3to 
oGwhho 03HaHaeT, hto k HHTepHeTy HMeiOT AOCTyn nwnjb 
3a*nT0HHue nwflu 

ripaBMTe/ibCTsa Moryr KOHTponapoaaTb CBo6oAy caMo- 
BupaxeHun HeKOTopux cnoee HaceneHMn, aaTpyAHnn iix aoc- 
Tyn k MHTepHeiy. 3to MotteT 6brrb CAejiano KaK HanpBMyK), 
nyreM BBeAeHwn bwcokmx Hanoros Ha KOMnbeTepnue Toaapbi 
n noAflepJKxn Te/ieo>oHHwx MOHono/inii. ycTaHaB/ivtaaiouiwx 
ueHu Ha Te/ieo>OHHue ycnym Ha bwcokom ypoane (noapeMeH- 
na), hto MeiuaeT nonb30BaTbcs MHTepHeTOM. Ta« m KOcaeHHO, 
nyreM OTKaaa ot noAAepxwi o6mecTaeHHbix ueHTpoa. r^e 
moan Mornn 6w HeMaKnaawo nweTb AOCTyn « MuTepMeTy. 

OAnano Maji«4ne AOCTyna k HHTepnery 6es TexHonorM- 
necKHx m 3aKOHOAaTe/ibHbix rapaHTMii rpa*AaHCKMx cboooa 



MO»eT He math na nonbay /noanM v, coneTaTbCs c rocyaap- 

CTBeHHblM KOHTpOJTeM H CaMWMH LUUpQKldMH B03MO)«HOCTBM11 

CfWMCKH. 

CBo6ofla caMOBbtpaMeHHfl 

Bceo6LuanfleKjiapaiiHH. EBponeCiCKaa KOHBeHLivin h APy- 
rue Me)KAyHapoAHbie cornaLueHiia b o6nacTn npaB MenoseKa 
jie/iexiT npaaa na csoSoAy caMOBbipa^eHWR u AOCTyna k 
nH0opMaunn. 3th ocHOBMwe AOKyMBHTbi npnwo 3auiHLuatoT 
CBoOoAy caMOBbipa*eHMfl «BHe aaBMCMMocTH ot rocyAap- 
CTaeHHbtx rpaHnq.. 3th cfioeaoco6eHHo xopomo npuwieHUMw 

K TflOda/lbHOMy HHTepHBTy. 

•KamMbifi venoBBK MMeeT npaao na cbo6omy ydexfieHuv) 
*f na caodoffHoe BbtpaxeHwe mx; aro npaao Bunio^aeT CBodony 
6ecnpenFTCTBBHHO npuffepMUBaTbCft cbohx yfie^caewMM m cbo- 
6oay ucxaTb, nofryvan v> pacnpocrpanaTb HH&opMauwo vi 
UB.&H nio6biMiit cpescTBaMM h HeaaswcMMo or rocyflapcmeH- 
HbtxrpaHHn*- (Ct. 19Bceo6ineiiAeKAapaLiHMnpaBHeiioBeKa.) 

-Kaxgjww venose* AO/r*ew odnaasrb npaeoM «a cso6o- 
fly caMOBupaxeHMt; sro npaao aojukho awiKwarb cboSqay 
HCKarb. nonyvaTb « pacnpocrpaHRTt ^HcpopMaumo n men 
mo6oro poaa, ne3aBHCHMOOTrocyaapcTBeHHbtx rpawMy, ycr- 
mo. nncbMenno H/ivt b nesaTHoU cpopme, b smuje npenMeroB 
MKyccTsa Hrw nocpeacwoM ntodbix cpeacrs coo6iuennP no 
CBoeMy Bbi6opy: (Ct. 19 Me>«AyKapoAHoro cor/iaweHHH o 
rpa»AaHCKMx m no/iMT^eGRHx npasax.) 

•KaMMbiH venoBCK MMeer npaao na caoOoay caMoaupa- 
meHHfi. 3ro npaBOflonxHOBK/iiovaTb CBGOoaynpuaepMrnaTh- 
est MHemtu m nonyvarb m pacnpocrpaHRTb nn0opMaunio w 
wen 6ea xaKoro-nn6o BMemarenbCTBa co cmpoHbi anacTeu w 
BHe aaBMCHMOCTM OTrocyaapcTBeHHbixrpaHvm-. (Ct. 1 Ebdo- 
neitCKO^ KOHseHAtiK o aaLAMTe npaB 4e/?0BeKa m ochobhux 
cbo6oa.) 

rocyAapCTBeHHue orpaHWHeHiw Ha cBo6oAy cnoaa n/in 
AOCTyna k nno>opMauiiH, pacnpocTpaHneMoii apyrwMM jitoAb- 
mm. KaKne 6bj cpeACTBa rocyAapCTBO ann stoto hm npwMenn- 
no, RsnftK>Tcsi HapyujeHMBM 3tmx nonotteHMM. 3aiunLuaomnx 
caoGofly caMOBbipaJKeHMd. 

riOMHMo npnMoii rocyaapcTBeHHOM ueMaypw MHTepneT- 
KOMMyHHuauMM m MacTHofl MeHaypbi, CBo6oAe cnoBa a Mhtbp- 
H6Te yrpowaioT m apyrwe (JjaKTopw. T6xhwkm 6no«nposaHnn. 
0wnbTposaHMfi m KaTeropn3aunn Moiyr orpaHWHHBaTb cbo6o- 
ay caMOBupaweHMo u aocryn k wncpopMamiM 

Oao6peHHoe npaBMTenbCTBOM ncno/ib3oBaHne cmctom 
6noKMposaHHH, cpn/ibTpoBaMHH h KaTeropn3auHH Hapyujaer 
ocHOBKbie MemayHapoAHbie nono»ennfi no 3amnTe npae se- 
/ioeena TnoSanbHwe peiiTMHroBbie win KaTeropwaatiHOHHwe 
cucTeMbi nepeKpwBaiOT cbo6oahnw hotok HHCpopMamin 

nonwTKM HasnaaTb BceMy coaepj«aHM)o MHTepHeTa KaTe- 
ropn3aunio ixnvi pewTHnrti cornacHO oahom CMCTeMe K^accti- 
cpMKauHn HapymaioT cpyHAaueHTa/ibHoe KynbTypHoe paaHO- 
o6pa3ne MHTepHeTa « npweoAfiT k AOMHHiipOBaHnio oahoto 
Ha6opa no/iwTHLiecKiix hhh MopaAbHwx TOMeK spemis 

Pa3Hoo6pa3vie m HanwHiie y nonbaosaTe/in bosmowhocth 
Bw6wpaTb — ocHoaa ecero; ec^n Henoaen petuaeT npuMeHftTb 
Te vim HHue tpunbT- 
pauHOHHwe MHCTpy- 
MeHTH, Heo6xoA MM o. 
hto6h oh WMen AOC- 
Tyn k LUHpoKOMy cneK- 
Tpy TaKMx wHCTpyMeH- 
Toa. 

•CaMOperyjinpy- 

»LAMH> KOHTpO/lb 3a 

coaep»aHneM UnTep- 

HBTa, KOTOpblil H6K0- 



CcbUiKH no TgMe: 

http://www.riro.org/gilc 
http://www.libertarium.ru 

http: www.russianlaw.net 1 
http://www.ksdi.ru/ 

http: censored.newmaii.ru/ 



HmepHeT 1/1 npaBa ne/iOBeKa 



21 



Topwe aamwmaioT a KanecTBe a/ibTepHaTuaw rocyaapcTBen- 
HOMy perynwpOBaHMO, He ao/duch CTaBwTb HacTHbix npoBaa- 
aepoa Ha mccto HHTepHeT-nonnnnn. 

Hro KacaeTcq cooepwaHWfl. to, mo HeKOTopwe npeana- 
raioT noa na3eaHneM •caMOpery/inpytomero* , osHanaeT He 
to, hto npoBaflflepw Kan rpynna ao/imhw caMM pery/inpoBati, 
CBoe noBeASHHe, a CKopee, hto ohm ao/iwhw peryrikiposaTb 
caMOBbipa)«teHne cbohx nonbsoaaTenew. 3to He ecTt HacroH- 
mee «caMoperyjinpoeaHwe>. 

Po/ib npoaawaepa xyin aocTyna k MmepHeTy tamBWGH 
KpvrrmecKOii. w wa-aa 3tom ponn bo wnorux crrpanax npoaau- 
aepy ronaAaioT e none apenmfl npaeooxpaHHTe/ibHbix opra- 
hob, jttenaomHx aaciaBiut mx caenarbcn ueHsopawn coaep- 
xtaHMfl. Xoth npoBafiflepw n aonwHtu oKaawBaTt npaBooxpa- 
HUTe/ibHbiM opranaw paayMHyio noMOiub npn pacc/ieflOBaHHn 
nocneAHMMM npecrynHOii nefnenbHoCTH. nyTaHMqa Me*ay 
po/ibto nacTHbix KOunaHMM n noanueiiCKnx- Bnacreii Mowei 
npHBecTM k aaMBTHOMy HapyweHWO HnaviBiiayanbHbix rpa*- 

AaHCKUX CBOfiOfl 

wflpaftapcHu 

Bceo6u4aflaennapaunH, EBponeficKafl KOHBeHiji/iR h apy- 
me MeMaynapoaHwe aoKyMenTbi a o6nacni npaa nenoBeKa 
npvraaioT ea*Hoe 3naMeHne npaey Ha «npaiSsecn». 3th ao«y- 
MeHiw b hbhoh tpopMe sawamatOT HenpHKoCHoaeHHOCTb ne- 

penMCKM M CBR3I1 

•Hwkto ne Momer noRBepraibcn npomaonbHOMy ewe- 
tuarenbCTByBero /mwyio « ceMe&nyio mvt3Hb, npou3BonbHUM 
nocfiraTenbCTBaM na HenpuKOCHoeeHHocTb ero »vinvim,a. rati- 
ny ero KoppecnoHAeHum hah Ma ero tecrt w penyramwo. 
Ka*#ww ve/ioaex wweer npaao Ha aamwry saxOHa or raxoro 
BMeujare/jbCTBa urn ran w x nocara renters., (Ct. 12 BceoS- 
iueS aewiapauwn npaa He/ioBexa,) 

•Hhkto He Momer 6bm> noflseprwyr npou38onbHOMy virw 
npo Tuao3axOHHOMy b TopMennio b ero vac myio nrw ceMe^nyto 
M3Hb, ero *w/jiM^e, ero nepenwcK/, ttnw nporwsojaifOMWiWM 
noctfrare/JbCTBaM Ha ero neCTb n penyramtto: (Ct . 1 7 Meway- 
HapoflHorocor/iaiueHiMi rpa«aaHC«nx n nojiMTMHecKwx npa- 
aax.) 

•Kaxyibttt venoBBK HMeer npaao na yBaxemte ceoeX 
nacTHoU h ceMeiiHoii mh3hh, caoero Mn/imua y\ nepenucw- 
(Ct, 8 EBponeiiCKCii KOHBeHmw o aaiume npaa ne/ioBeKa n 

OCHOBHUX CBOfioa.) 

B MHCpopMaunoHHow oEwtecTBe «npaMaecw ■ CTaHOBMTCR 
anH rpa*aaH oco6eHHO bbjkho. BcbkhS ixenaioiiinvi MO*eT 
nereo nepexaaibiBaTb 3/ieKTponHbie coor3iaeHnn. rioaTOMy 
nocuima nncbvia no 3ji6ktpohho^ noMTe paBHOcn/ibno or- 
npaajieHMio otkputkm. 

Mnorne Bonpocbi, o6cy*aa>omiiecH e cpeae NQO, oco- 
&6HHO — b ccpepe npaa nenoaeKa, Kpaftne KOH0waeHLinanb- 
Hbi. Hwena cenaeTe/ie^ napyujenviR npaa MenoBeKa, nanpii- 
M©p, aonjKHw ocTaaaTbcn TawHOiS nn* rex, kto Mor 6w nospe- 
anTb 3twm noaflM. C/iyx6w rocyaapcTBeHHofi 6e3onacHOCTn 
penpeccMBHbix npasnTeribCTB 06WHH0 npo<yiywnBaiOT Tene- 
tpoHHwe neperoBopw npaB03amtiTHHKOB i* nepniocTpupyoT 
mx noMToayto KoppecnoHfleHLtmo BecbMa bo3mo*ho, hto 3/ieK- 
TpOHHyio noHTy ohm rowe nepexBaTbiaaiOT. 

Kaw mojkho aamtiTHTb «npaiiBecK» e MHTepneTe: b ot Jin- 
Hue OT TenetpOHHwx sbohkob \a 6yMa*Ho(i xoppecnoHaeHLmn 
sneKTpOHHbie coo6uieHMfl mowho c xierKocTbo aaujno^po- 
eaTb, tsk ^to nponwiaTb wx cMOxieT flMUlb HenocpeflCTeeMHufl 
aapecar. 

3to oaHanaeT, hto Kamawfi - HanpMMep, nenpaBMTe/ib- 
CTeeMHue opraHHaauwM, — we/iacmuM nepeaaBaTb kohcph- 
aeHL;na/ibHyio MHO>opMaMn». Mo*eT c /lerKocibio TaK vi no- 
CTyriHTb. He 6oflCb nocneacTBiiii roro, hto MHCfcopMamiH nona- 



aeT b Hy«ne pyKH, HanpHMep. a pyxn rocyaapcTBeHHbix opra- 
hob. noaTOMy mu no/taraeM, hto nonvnuxa b ofinac™ xpnn- 
Torpao>nM ao^*Ha ocHoewBaTbes Ha cpy HflaMeHTa/ibHOM npa- 
Be Ha npuaaTHOCTb KOMMyHMKauwPi. 

K cojKaneHMK), npasnTeabCTsa piMWiK cipaH y«e npea- 
npMHMManw Luarw no npenflTCTBOBaHtioaeflTe/ibHOc™ no/ibao- 
aaTe/iew h pa3pa6oTHHKOB KpwnTorpatpMHecKnx HHCTpyMeH- 
tob. TeM He MeHee, npaBoaaujuTHMKH y*e ncno/ibayioT molu- 
HyKs KpunTorpaoJjMio, w ee aanbHeiiujee paenpocTpaHeHne 

qon»:Ho HaCTObiHMBO nOAflepjKMBaTbCfl. 

Mbt npOTHBOCTOMM OOHblTKaM, noTopwe MoryT npWBeCTH 

k cosaaHMW KOMMyHHKaunoHHbix vmcppacTpyKTyp, paapa6o- 

TaHHblX TaK. HT06bJ B HMX 6wno yaofiHO B6CTM C/16)KKy. 

AHOHHMHocTb. B ueHTpe npoBneMw ceoSoanoro caMO- 
Bwpa»eHHB n 3amnTbi •npawBecw- ctout Bonpoc o npaBe 
nenoaeKa Bbtpa)«aTb no/iMTWHecKwe MHeHun, He onacascb 
npecjieaoaaHHfi, v> caMOMy KOHTpo/iwpOBaTb pacKpwTwe cao- 
evi atiHHow naeHTKHHOCTn. 3am,viTa npaea Ha anoHUMHocTt, 
TaHHM o6pa30M, nenseTCfl Heo6xoflkiMbiM «OMnoneHTOM 3a- 
mwTbt awMHbix c8o6ofl s online-Mnpe. 

npaao Ha anoHMMHOCTb npti3HaHo 33kohom h npMHRTo e 
o6mxoae. Oho 6u/io cocTaBHofi nacTb© npouecca pocTa » 
paaBiiTMfl UnTepHeia. HeKOTopwe npaBHTenbCTBa paSoTawi 
Haa paasnTneM Texnonornii aHOHMMHOCTm. Oflnaxo npeanpw- 
HMMaioTCfl n apyrwe ycunMH, cTaBBiuwe caoeii qenbio SBecTH 
Tpe60BaHi*fl o6fl3aTeabHoS caMOMaeHTn0nKaunM no/ib30Ba- 
Tenn vt orpanirtHtiTb wcnonb308anwe TexHo/iornii. aaianujaio- 

LMMX aHOHMMHOCTb. 

HanpHMep, •Eo^bujan BOCbMepwa- HeaaEHO o6cy«aa/ia 
npeanojtceHine BeeaeHHkt a6oneHTCKnx viaen™tpiinaTopoB 
ariR nonb30BaTeneii MHTepHeTa. HeKoropwe MecTHye npaaM- 
re/ibCTsa TaK*e nuianwcb bbsctw b aeflCTBHe aaKOHoaaTejit- 
Hue axTbi, KOTopwe aanpema/iH 6bi aocTyn k MHTepHSTy 6ea 

paCKpWTHH JIHMHofl WaeHTMHHOCTH. 

ripaBHTe/ibCTBa ne aofi*Hbt Tpe6oBarb caMowaeHTM(pM- 
KanH^noDbaoaaTe/ieMMHTepHeTan/inorpaHMHMBaTbaHOHMM- 
Hoe Bbtpa)«eHne no/MTM4ecKi*x y6e«aeHnw b HHTepHeie. rio- 
nuTKir coaaaHHB hobwx TexHO/iornw, HanpasneHHbix Ha 3aiyn- 

Ty M TaSHU MfleHTMHHOCTVI, aOH^KHW nOOLUpBTbCS. 

npOBatiflepw He a°.n*Hbi ycTaHaB/iMearb Tpe6osaHHH k 
MfieHTn0HKauvin cbohx K/iweHTOB csepx Heo6xoaMMbix, aflon- 
>KHb». rae 3T0 aoawowHo. aaianmaTb npaao cbohx nonb30BaTe- 
nefi Ha aHOHMMHwA aocTyn k MHTepHBTy. 

3annioHeHHe k peKOMeH^ai^HM 

(DopMynHpyn csoto noanTM«y no OTHOujeHiiw k MHTepHe- 
Ty, npaawTenbCTBa aora<Hbi py«OBOaCTBOBaTbC» c/ieaytoLnn- 
mvi 6a30BbiMn npuHu,nnaMw: 

■ 3anpet npeaBapme/ibHoro iieH3ypnpoeaHMfl online- 
KOMwyHUKaunii 

• Tpe6oBaHMe toto, mofibi 3aK0Hb», orpaHimnBaoiuHe 
coaepwaHHe onlme-nHcpopMaunvi, aeaa/in paanHHme MOMcay 
OTBOTCTaeHHOCTbto roro, kto npeaocTaBxiaeT coaepiKanMe, h 
Toro, kto nepeaaei aanHue. 

• 3amwTa CBo6oflHoro online-caMOBwpaweHUfl ot orpa- 

H«HeHM« KOCBeHHHMW MeTOAaMW. a MM6HH0 flpKO BwpaxeHHQ- 

ro orpaHW4MTe/»bHoro rocyaapcTBeHHoro unw nactHoro koht- 
ponn naA KOMnbOTepHofi annapaTypofl h/im nporpaMMHbiw 
o6ecneHeHneM, Te/ieKOMMyHWKauwoHHo^ nHO>pacTpyKTypofl 
w/iifl ApyrwwH aajKHMMM KOMnoHeHTaMw MHTepneTa. 

• BKJiio4eHneBmo6ajibHbiwnpoueccpa3BMTMfl MHTepHe- 
Ta rpaxaaH H3 CTpan h pernoHos, ncnbrrbiBaiou4Hx a nacTOH- 
mee BpeMA 3KOHOMMHecKyo HecTa6i<inbHocTb, wMetoiuHx 
HeAocTaroHHyio MHtppacTpyirrypy win /lwtueHHbix cnoKHwx 
TexHO/ioriifl. 

■ C Lie/ibo o6ecneH6HM(t roro, htoSw aocTyn k ycnyraM 
HHtepHeTa 6y/i Bceo6iAnw, npaaMTenbCTaa ao/dkhw no/iHoc- 



3D 



4 



l/IHTEPHET l/l flPABA HEJ10BEKA 



Tbio pacKpwBarij ceoa nnanw no pasBwwo MH(popMamrtOHHOw 
wHtppacTpyKTypw m noompnTb fleMonpaTniecKoe y^acTMe 
rpaxaaH bo Bcex acneKTax Taxoro passman. 

■ Ohh aoJiMHbi T3Kx<e noouyjftTb kbk mgmho 6onee ujwpo- 
Koe ncnofib3oaaHwe MmepHeTa vt npeanpMHHMaTb yen/inn k 
aflenaaTMOMy ofiyqeHHio Jiioflefi no/jb3oeaHw» HHTepHen>M. 

• KpoMe Toro. npaBHTe/ibCTBaao/wKHw nofiywaarb rpax- 
aaH npMHMMaTb aKTWBHoe ynacTHe b o6mecTB9HHbix ae/iax, 
npeflocTaB/iflfl mm online-aocTyn k npaenTenbCTBeHHoS wh- 
(fWflMftHHII 

« 3anpeTflidCKpnMMHaunn HaocHoeaHMM pacoBwx. no/io- 

BWX, fl3WKOflWX, peJlMn/IOSHHX npHSHaKOB, nOflMTMMeCKMX MJ1H 

HHyx B033peHHfi, 3THMHecKOro iinn couwanbHoro nponcxo*<- 
fleHMfl 6oraTCTaa. pox<fleHna w ap. 

• 06ecrteHeHwe Toro, mto6w nuMHan MHCpopMaqun. co- 
6paHHan b HwepneTe ajih oahom u,enu, we ncno/ib308a/iacb 
Ann ueneft, He HMeominx k hom OTMomeHun, n He pacKpbma- 
nacb 6e3 MHCfiopMvipoBaHHoro cornacnH roro, k KOMy owa 
OTHocHTcn, a Tanwe o6ecnenenne nenoBeKy bosmojkhocth 
npocMaTpniBaTb oTHocniyytocn k HeMy nvmnyio MH<popMaun»o 

H liCnpaBJlHTb OUJWOKM. 

■ PaspeweHHe nojibaosaTe/tflM cbtm ujHtppoeatb cboh 
coo6menna m MH0opMauwo 6ea KaKHx-fln6o orpamweHwCt. 

■ 8 uennx rapaHTupoBaHiw .npawBecm* npw online-KOM- 
MyHMKauMflx npaBMTe/ibCTBa flOJWKHbt BBOflHTb peanbHyio 3a- 
KOHonaTenbHyo aaiavrry ot HecaHKuwOHnpoeaHHoro npocMOT- 



pa « ucnorib30BaHHR MacTHWMw win o6m.ecTBeHHbiMw nnuawn 
w opraHHsauwflMM Hy*ow /ihhhoS iiHcj)opMaunn e HHTepneTe. 

• KpOMe roro, npaBi/rre/ibCTaa aonxtHbi npoBoannb pac- 
cneaoBanmff e HHTepHere numb coorseTCTaeHHo 3a«OHHbiM 
no/moMOHiTOM n oTKpuio ana HeaaBucwMOro topwavwecKoro 
Ha6n»fleHMfl. 

/Jpyriie MccnepoBaHMH 

B pflfle CTpaH y*e npoBoawTcs mhokj wcc/ieflOBaHwfi. 
onwcaHnS h pa60Tb* a ctpepe aamwTbi npviMeHMMOCTH Meway- 
napoflHoro aaKOHOflaTe/ibCTBa b ctpepe npaB nejioBeKa k 
MnTepMeTy. 

CpeflH miKwesbix Hcc/ieflOBaHnti no 3toS TBMe mokho 
Ha3BaTb coo6meHne EPIC/Pnvacy International ."npa&Bectr 
h npaBa ne/ioaeKa b 1999 r.: MewayHapoaHoe wccjieflOBaHwe 
3a«oM0flaTenbCTBa w paaewrvin cwTyauHH 8 ccpepe "npaS Be- 
en"*; coo6meHne CDT/GLIC «He3aBHCMMo ot rocyaapcTBeH- 
Hbix rpaHnq: aaiynTa npasa MenoaeKa Ha CBoSoay caMOBbipa- 
»eHns BO BCeMwpHOM MHTepHBie.; coo6meHvie Human Rights 
Watch «HKTepHeT Ha BjiM*HeM BocTone m b CeeepHoii Ar4>pM- 
Ke. cBo6oaa caM08wpa»ennfl m ueHsypa- n 3ansneHMe nne- 
hob GILC -B/iMHHue caMoperynnpoeaHMn ia cpw/ibTpoBaHMfi Ha 
npaao wenoseKa Ha CBofioay caMOBbipa^ennfl-, 

HcmotHUK: The Center For Democracy & Technology. 
IJepeeod c aHS.iuucKOJo: O.iez Mapmbtnoa. 



EBreHMtf KPOCCEP 



KPMnTOrPAOMfl H HAUJE 
nPABO HA nPMBATHOCTb 



3a roaw. npotueaujue nocne Btopom mmpobom bomhu, 
npon3oui/io asa HeMa^oBaxHwx CBH3aHHbix Mexwy cofioii 
cofibiTMH b o6nacTM o6M6Ha MHcbopMauMeii. 3to noflB/ieHwe 

KOMriblOTepOB IA <CM/1bHOM> KpunTorpacfcuut. 

AcwMMeTpn^Han Kpumorpa^MB, win cvicTeMH c otkpw- 

TWM K/1IOM0M , n03BOJ1flKDT 3aLUMCppOBaTb COOfiuieHHe PJ\f\ KOH- 

KpeiHoro aapecaia 6e3 npeflBapvuenbHoro o6m8H3 runona- 
mm, to ectb saujMCppoBaTb nucbMO. Te/iecpoHHbiM paaroBOp m 
T.n. c nenoseKOM, c kotopmm bw o6iaaeTecb a nepBwrt pa3, 
TanviM oSpasoM. mo nepexBaTKTb kjiioh k ujn$py np«HUMnn- 

a/lbHO HeB03M0X(H0. 

C apyo(i cTopoHw, acuMMerpMHHan KpumorpaqjiiR no- 
3Bo/tneT noaiBepanTb, mto cooomeHMe nepeaaHo o6/iaaaTe- 
new KOHKpeTHoro K/iona n mmkom mhwm (sto TaK HasbiBaeMan 
aneKipoHHad noanncb). 

OnwcaHne Toro, KaK 3to noflyMaeTcn (a Ta«)«e tot cpaicr, 
mto e *m3hh acnMMeTpn4Hatt Kpnmorpao>nfl npwMeHneTCfl b 
coHOTaHMM c CMMMerpuHHOfi), BbixoawT 3a pawKn aaHHoS 
ciaTbH. Ha 3Ty TeMy nanwcaHO HeMano aocrynnbix (h He 
oneHb) KHwr. 3aetb HaM aocTaTonHo 3Hatb, hto stm cpeaciea 
- mucto MareMaTuwecKMe. HanexcHOCTb aaiawTu MHCpopMa- 

LtMM o6ecneHMBaeTCR 
He cenpeTHocTbo an- 
ropnTMos. KaK paHb- 
ine, a hucto MaTeMa- 

THH6CKMMM CpaMBMM 
(a/iropHTMMHeCKOM 




HepaapeiuMMOCTbKJ onpeaeneHHttx MaTeMaTMHeCKMX aaaan) 
C/ieayeT OTMeTWTb, mto paccMaTpwaaeMbie saecb a/iro 
puTMy Haae«Hbi w aocTyriHw. To ecTb, HanpHwep, n*icbMo 
3aujMC})poeaHHoe aa HecKo/ibKo MMHyT na aeuieeoM nepco 
Ha/ibHOM KOMnbwrepe. anR «pacKa/ibraaHnn» noTpeCyeT mho 
rvx OHefi, a to w jieT. pa6oTbi caMux MoinHbix cynepKOMnb© 
Tepoa, KOTopwMM ofinaaaeT KFB vt Upy, name ecnw 6bin 
ncnojib30B3H <cna6bii<> eapnaHT aauinTw 

KpunTorpaoJjMMecKne MeToau roflflTcn ann nioSoro hocm- 
Te/w nHtpopMauMM — mowho awcKeTu no noMTe nepecwnaTb, 
mowho ujnr4)poBaTb ro/ioc npH paaroBope no ie^eo>oHy, mojk- 
ho aa»e Te/ieBMSMOHHoe n306paj«eHne ujwcppoBaTb, ec/in 
noHaao6«TCB. OcHOBHbie, Hanfio^ee axryajibHbie npwweHe- 
Hufl — 3/ieKTD0HHan noMTa (e-mail) m Te/ie0oH. 

flpyran cTopona TexHnnecKoro nporpecca coctoht b 
tom. hto HOBue HocwTenifl yBenwMnsaioT BoaMoatHocTb nepe- 
XBaTa MH4)opMaui«M. Cotobwo Te/ie(J)OHbi npocnyujMBaioTCB 

np«BMHMKOM COBepajSHHO H63aMeTH0. 3fieKTp0HHyiO noHTy 

mo*ho cxaHMpOBaib Ha Kpynwbix y3nax cotm ripw stom, bo- 
nepBwx, Maccosoe npoc/iyujueaHiie mo>kho ycTpoMTb npn 
coBceM He6o/ibiuMx 3aTpaTax, a bo-btopux, nerKO n36ex<aTb 
ocTaa/ienun yni*K. 

YBe^MHUBaeTCB m BoaMoxtHcwTb noaaenaTb twjaopMa- 
uhkj. HanpnMep, aBTopa 3/ieKTpoHHoro ntiCbMa hbbo3mo>kho 
ono3HaTb no nonepKy w/ivi no ronocy, noaTOMy Bceraa ectb 
BepoBTHOCTb, mo ero OTnpaBwn kto-to apyroS. Kpnniorpa- 
cpifln v< TonbKO KpnnTorpa(J)Hfi n03BOJineT Haaex<HO peujMTb 



E. Kpoccep KpyinTorpacjMfl \a Hawe npaBO Ha npwBaTHOCTb 



31 




np06jieMbl CeKpeTHOCTM M 
ayTeHTMHHOCTH WHCpOpMa- 
UHM. 

rocynapcTBO rpaflH- 
lihohho (jeper Ha ce6n 
sammy npas /iuhmocth 

<Henpt1KOCHOB6HHOCTb 

nepenwcKH, 3anpeT nofl- 
cnyLunsaHUH re/iecpOHa, 

OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb 3a nOfl- 

Ae/my flOKyMeMTOB), K 
npw 3tom ocraB/iseT aa 
co6oii npaBO HapyiuaTb 
3in npasuria b oroBopeHHbix 3aKOHOM c/iynafix ahh 6opb6w c 
n pecry nne h wn m w . 

rioHB/ieHne o6meflOCTynHofl KpwnTorpao>HH Bee weHneT, 
He/iOBeK MO«eT caMOCTOfiTenbHO ooecnennTb ceKpeiHocTb m 
ayTeHTMMHocTb cboux cBA3ei* c flpyrwMH jitoAtMM. A rocyAap- 
cTBO TepneT moimhuPi cnoco6 Bwna/ieHMfl w AOKasareribCTaa 
npecTyrnieHMit. 

TocyflapcTBo b /ume npaeooxpaHKrenbHux cipyKTyp cTpa- 
flaeT — oho jiMLuaeTCH Hac™ cpyHKiiwii, a BbtnonHeHwe Apyroifi 
MacTn cpyHKUnii cwibHO saTpyflHflercfl, Oho nbnaeTCfl 3aTop- 

MOSWTb *H3Hb U A0Ka3blBa6T HaM, HTO HeKOHTpo/lnpyewoe 

ncnoribaoBaHiie KpwnTorpacpMH npuHeceT npoS/ieMw. 

PesoHbJ, BWflBHraeMbie rocyflapcTBOM, aaynaT npMMepno 
TaKkiM o6pa30M: aaiiTe HaM aosMoxHocTb noenTb npecTynnn- 
hob (He Hcnonbsytrre KpHnTorpatpwio), a mu oSecnenuM saw 
HenpHKOCHOBBHHOCTb KiHtfcopMauwn (noiiMaeu n naKaxeM 
neaaKOHHO noncnyujidBaioiuMx). 

Mnorna rocynapcTBO He rosopviT 3Toro n pa mo. a npeona- 
raer HaM no/ibsoaaibcw cucreMaMw, npoLueflaiMMM .npoeep- 
Ky>, -cepTn4)nunpoBaHHbiMn. npw stom Mo*eT noopaayMe- 
Baibcn (xoth m oTpiiqaTbCB otpMmiaribHo). hto <npoBepeHHbie> 
cwCTeMw flCKjTynHu Ann B3noMa caMMM rocyAapcTBOM, 6yAy- 
hh npeAno/iOKwienbHO neAOcTynHw mm ajioyMbuu/ieHHi/iKOB. 
B TaKOM cnynae rosopBT, hto ewcTeMa coAepwm «back door» 
— -HepHbiw xoA', MiM npocto cneijMajibHO «oc^a6/ie«a». Ot- 
kpwto npoBOAfT TaKyw no/inTMKyCLUA (npoeKT Clipper), saBy- 
annpOBaHO — QpaHuun *t Pocchh (sanpemeno HCnonbsoBa- 
HMe 'MecepTMcfwMnpoBaHHbiX" cMcreu). 

fl yTBepMflao, hto stm apryMeHTbi He BwflepjKMsaiOT KpM- 
thrh. Bo-nepBbix, rocyAapcTBO He no/iynui awroAN Ot raro, 
hto cmojkst noAcnywKBaTb aaKOHonocnyujiHbix r\K>aevi. (Ioto- 
My hto Bno/iHe HaAewHwe cpeacTBa KpmnTorpadpiiK cboooaho 
flocTynMw (w Aaxe oecnnaTHw), h 3/ioHaMepeHHbte /i»oaw, 
KOTopwe cosHaTe/ibHO MAyr Ha HapyiueHne sskohob, nereo 
HapyuiaT eme \a 3anpei Ha KpnnTorpa<£wo. Mx-to iok pas 
rocyflapcTBO He cmomot noac/iyiuaTb. 

C APyoii CTopoHw, rocyflapcTBO Hecnoco6HO 3aiynTMTb 
nac ot nepexBaTa Haiuew HHi|)opMamiM snonaMepeHHbiMM 
riOAbMH, HvicTOTexHMHecKM. HaiSTit npneMHMK, npoc/iyujHBa- 
toiAMii coToewe Tenetponbi, npaKTHHBCKn HesosMOJKHo. Kax 
noMT/ HeBO3M0?KH0 Haw™ u nporpaMMy. cKaHwpyioiMyK) hh- 
cpopMaqnio, npoxoAflmyo nepea CeTb. 3to hs .acynoK. b 
KBapTHpe wrw «KpoKOAw^bi» Ha KneMMaxTenetpOHHoro mwTa, 
KOTopwe mox<ho peanbHo yBMAeTb m cHBTb c hmx OTnenaTKM 
na/ibueB. 

EcTb eme npMHMHbi He aoBepsTb apryM8HTaM rocyAap- 
CTBa. oco6eHHo aKTyanbHwe e Poccmm, — Koppyrmn» h otko- 
cuTerthHaa nofiMTMHecKan HecTa6nnbHOCTb. B ^*o6om rocy- 
AapcTee cymecTsyoT HeHMCTon/ioTHwe huhobhwkh, roToewe 
noAenwTbCfl AoCTynHow hm MHqbopMauneM 3a ASHbrw. A b 

POCCMW ypOBBHb KOppyflmfH AOBOnbHO BbJCOK. TaK HTO HH- 

cpopMauHn, AocTynHan no flonry cnyw6w hmhobhuky, MO^eT 
nonacTb k npecp/riHHKy. A ecjiii B/iactb b CTpaHe nepeCifleT k 



•neBo» HacipoeHHbiM pynoBOAHTe/wM. aaKOHHo cobpaHHan 
HHCpopMauwfl MO>KeT 6b(Tb ncnorib30BaHa Ann nowCKa wnaKo- 

MbJCJTflLLIMX, CnHLUKOM ooraTux n T.n. 

HaxoHeLt, cneAyeT noH^MaTb, hto a*mhh BunymeH m 
6yTbinKK, fla^e ecJiM rocyAapcTBO MCTpaTUT Kyny ycvinufi m 
neHer (ms naniHx c BaMH nanoroB, aaMBTHM) Ha to, hto6w 
orpaHHHMTb ncnonb30BaHwe Kpumorpaqbun, Hunero He bum- 
Aei. B CBoeM nporpaMMHOM BonnotneHMH «pwnTorpa0MHec- 
kmb GHCTeMbi AocTynHbi Ha Twcflnax cepBBpoa a Cero, pacno- 
noweHHbix bo mho™x cTpaHax Mwpa, w yciaHOBneHbi Ha mhji- 
/inoHax KOMnboiepoB. llpocTo Hepea/ibHO nafiTM Bcex nonbao- 
Barenevi tbkmx cmctcm u npunyflHTb vix OTKa3aTbcn ot m 

MCnO/1b30BaHMFI. 

Bu Momere noAyMaib: «Hy n hto, mho Henero CKpbiBaTb- 
Mo»eT owTb, h Henero. A Mo*eT 6biTb, 3asTpa noHaAOOHTCfl. H 
y* bo bcakom c^ynae, noBepbTe. hto noe-KOMy sto nywHO. 
HanpHwep (caMoe oneBHAHoe) — 6aHK«. BeAt KorAa y UeHT- 
pofiaHKa BopyiOT ABHbrvi, pacn/iaHMBaeMcn 3a sto mu c sawn 
MM6HH0 naiun heuio™ MAyr na KOMneHcauwo ymep5a . H KorAa 
p SKenipw 3ada BnnKDT Mara3MH n/ia-rtnb mm AaHb. sto BwrtuBa- 
eTCfl a re uenw, xoiopbie Mbi nnawM b 3tom MaraanHe. Mw 
BtiflnM. HacKOnbKO -xopoiuo. rocyAapcTBO samnmaeT npeA- 
npMHHMaTeneii ot npeciynHMKOB. TaK nycTb oho xota 6bi ne 
MeLuaeT mm satAMmarb cbom 6u3Hec caMOCTonTenbHO Xotr 
6t>t Taw, tab 3to bo3mo*ho cAejiaTt c MiAHUMajibHWMM saTpa- 

TaMM. 

OTAe^bHwii aonpoc — Bonpoc aobbpmb k KpwnTorpaqbH- 
necKow cwcTBMe. EcjiwcucTeMa -3aKpbiTaH-. ToecTbnorib3o- 
BaTe/tb ne MOxteT (noT9Hi;i4a/ibHo) wayMMTb ee BHyrpeHHee 
ycTpofiCTBO bo acex AeTajnnx, to h6t rapanTHM, hto b Hee hb 
BCTpoen y we ynOMUHaBUJUMCfl Buuje "HepHwA xoa* ■ l"ocyflap- 
ctbo 3KcnjiyaTwpyeT w 3Ty TeMy, yTBep^Aan, hto cepTH£pn«a- 
4ns noseo/iHT rapaHTupoeaTb OTcyrCTBMe 3Toro «HepHoro 
xoAa», A Mnane, mo/i, TaKoii rapaHTMii no/iyHWTb ne/ibsn. 

H yreepJKAaio, hto 3to nyxaBCTso Bo-nepawx, ectb o6beK- 
TMBHbie npeanocbijiKM, paccMOTpeHHwe Buiue. k TOMy, hto6w 
rocyAapcTBO caMO CTpeMuinocb ocraanTb -HepHww xoa> a 
KpnnTorpatpMHeCKMx CHCTeMax, mmchho una ycneuinoro bu- 
nojiHeHinn cbomx 3aK0HHwx cpyHKLiwft. Bo-BTopwx. ecTb cno- 

C06 OHBHb XOpQLDQ (He Ha CT0 HpOLlBHTOB, HO A6MCTBHTB/lbH0 

xopotuo) npoBepnTb KpiinTorpa4)iiHecKyK) CHCTBMy — ecn« 
OHa no/iHOCTbio oTKpwTa, OTKpuTocTb cHCTeww we y MeHbiuaeT' 
ee HaAe*HOCTn, nocKonbKy, KaK y«a3aHo Bwiue, caM anro- 
Pwtm ne flBnneTcn ceKpeTOM , o6ecneHHBaK3m« m 3amnTy. 3aTo 
nocne toto, nax cwCTSMy nposepflT cothm jno6nTeneCi m npo- 

(p6CCI40HanOB BO BC6M MWpe, BepOBTHOCTb Ha/THHMH B HBM 

■nepHoro xOAa> 6yaeT ctpeMMTbCfl K Hyjio, m BeposTHocTb 
oujm6ok, Hapynja»LA«x 3aiunTy, TO*e CTaneT secbMa Ma/ia 

M TaKMe OTKpwTwe cmcTeMw s bmao KOMnb»TepHbix npo- 
rpaMM, aocTynHbix b HcxoaHwx TeKcrajt. cymecTByioT. OAna 
W3 caMbix M3BecTHbix, PGP. nosBO/ifleT ujn{ppoBaTb m/h^m 
noflnwcbiBaTb /iio6bie KOMnbOTepHwe 0ai4Jiu (aneKTpOHHwe 
nwcbMa. TeKCTbi, KapTMHKH, hto yroAHo) Ann AanbHeiiuueft 
nepeAanw no cotm, i«nM na nwcKeTax no hohts, m/ih kslh yroAHo, 
flpyras. SpeakFreely, nosBo^neT wcno/ib30BaTb KOMnbiOTep, 
n oak/1 K)HeHHbifi k cbtm, b KanecTBG Tene0OHac 3aiKw(t>poBaH- 
ho« nepeAanefi 3ByKa (aha stoto aoct3tohho o6bMHoro nep- 
coHa/ibHoro «OMnbtOTepa c seyKoaoii n/iaiovi. noAK/noneHHO- 
ro k Internet nepes moabm). 

BK/iK)HeHne noAo6Hbix cpeACTB a coToabie h o6wKHOBen- 
Hue TenecpOHw, nawAJKepw m t.h. He npeflCTaa/iseT b Haiue 
apeMH TexHwnecKHx npo6/ieM h He Tpe6yeT Sojibujux 3aTpaT. 
3tot npoqecc topmoswtcb MCKJiwHMTe/ibHO yciwiMBMH rocy- 
AapCTBa. 

HHTepHer-BepcHft py6pnxn 'Mhtbphgt m npaaa ^e/ioaeKa-: 

h ttp: /www. hro. org/gilc/ru 



J BCMHA V\ PPABA HE/10BEKA 



AHflpeM BJlHHyiiJOB, Oner OPJIOB, AjneiccaHAp HEPKACOB 

Hohhh: KoHTpTeppopHCTHHECKaa onepai|Hfl HAN BONM? 

((KOHCTHTIjUHOHHblH IDpHA0K» NAN 6e33aK0HNB? 

Bo3po«AeHNe rocpapcTea nan KOiuianc npana? 



OprKOMHTeT BcepoccHHCKOro Cicsaa 3a iipaBa nenoBe- 
Ka c.'iHHo.iy mm> bijc ry ihi.i 3a TO. HTO :ih hm in BaxmeHtiiH x b 
xoae Kauiero 06c ■ y * ;ichh h ao.TMen cTaTb Bonpoc o MaccoBbix 
HapyiucHHSx npaB le.ioBcxa b xoac 6c33aKoniioit H npecTyn- 
hoh Bofmu b l le'(He. Ho noneMy, codctbchho roBops, mm 
xapaKTepwiyeM npoHcxojMUj.ee B HciHe hmchho Taic? 

Bo-nepBux, mm hc mcdkcm ocrasaTbCH paBno.iyiiiHHMH, 
tcorjia TbicsHti MWpiIMf rpaatiaH vohtm. a cothh Tbic»H npe- 
BpameHW b GeweHueB, BHtMCHM KpoBa h HMymecTBa noa 
aKKDMnaHCMCHT o<})HUHajibKux );iHTi:iciMiii o «6opb6e c Tcp- 

pOpH3M0M». 

BbictynacM .in mm b npuHuunc lipoma npHMeHemis 
rocyjapcTBOM ciuiu? KoweHMO. hct. 

PocyaapcTBO moxcct u oobisho npHMetmTb cmiy an 
lauiKTbi npaB h cbo6oj cbohx rpaavaaH. Mu paxiejmeM VO*ay 
ipeHim. cornacHo KOTopofi Poccmt neo6xoaHMO bccth ikcct- 
icyio 6opb6y c TcppopwiMOM h GaBwnBMOK. 

CieayeT npw3H3Tb, hto pvkobojihtcjih KeneHCKoR Pec- 
nyoJiHKii Il<iKcpn» oKaiajiHCb He ciiocoChij o5ecneHHTb Ha 

IIO.lKHHipo .11. Hull HM TCppHTOpHH *'H3Hb, 6e30tiaCKOCTt> H 

rpa:+uaHCKnc npaaa jjkwich. 3th auacTH Taiotce He cyMtriH 
npcccib r paoevKH, pai6on. laxBai .-irojiefi. ocywecTajiaeMbie 

HC laKOHHUMH BOOpyWeHHblMH (JKtpMlipOBaHHJtMH, KOTOpbie 

6a3npyioTC)i a Hchhc h Ha eonpejiejibHbix TeppwTOpHsrx. B 
pe3yjibT3Tc HeHHa iipeBpamiacb b hctohhhk yrpo3bi mm 

COCejHHX pOCCHHCKHX pC! llWIi'li 

BstCCTe C TCM, MM aO.lXCHM KOHCTaTHpOBaTfa, hto (fpeje- 
panbHUC B.laCTll PoCCHH laiOKC HeCyT OTBeTCTBCHHOCTb 33 

HcSnaronpHSTHoe pa3BHTHe CHTyamiH b HeiHe h b npHJiera- 
iouiiix pernoHax. 

Flocjie no.iniicaHHH b 1997 roay b Mockbc Horoaopa o 

MHpe H TipitHUIinaX HSaHMOOTHOlJjeHHH Mejiuy PoccHefi H 

MeMHefi hh npe3KaeHT, hh npaonrejibCTBo Poccmh He npea- 
npnn«;in i(J)i{)eKTHBHbix uiaroBo-ia HopMajiHiaunii cuTyaunn 
b Hchhc Eanee Toro. HMejoTca CBiueTcibCTBa Toro. fro 
(peacpajibHbie opranw BJiacTH, KaK miihhmym. hc xc;iajiii 
tTOMoraTb nonuTKaM npaBHreJibCTBS Macxaaoaa oopoTbcs c 
6aHaaMH noxHTHTextefl .nit.K-ii. 

BTopaceMHs Boopy*eHnwx <})opMiipoBaHHH e repptiTo- 
pHH HeHHH b JJarccTaH b aBrycre h ceHTaope 1999 roaa 
MMM>:iil III pyKOBOaCTBO POCCHH IlpllHHTb cepbC3Hbie Mepu, 

HanpaB.TetiHbie na o5ecneneHHe 6e3onacHOCTH h rpa3K.i;i)K - 
kiix ripaa Kace^ieHHB JIarecTaHa. Mcihh h npiueraiotiiHx 

TeppHTOpHH. B 3TOM C.iyHaC MOnU OblTb npHMCHCHa — 

pasyMceTcH. b paMKax wkohu — 11 BoopyaceHHas CHjia. llpH 

3T0M0npaB.iaHHblMH MOKHO npH3HaTbJIHUJbH36npare.II.HbIC 

h a.icKBaiHwe yrpo33M chjiobmc Mepu. 



OjHaKO noa bhjjom "aHTHTeppopHCTHnecKOH onepa- 
uhm" b Hcihc owjiH HanaTw iiiiipOKOMaciuTaSHbie BoeHHbie 
-leficTBHa, (paKTHHCCKH Hanpaa.ieHHbie iipoTHB bccto Hace.ie- 
Hiia 3Tofi pecny6jiMKH, !>ra BoeHHas onepamiB He sbjihctcji. h 
b npHHUHne He MoxceT flBJiaTbca, aaeKBaTHbiM cpeacreoM 
3auj.HTw %h3hh. 6e3onacHOCTn h rpa)K.iaHCKnx ripaa Hace.ie- 

HHM MeHHH H tlpH-TCraKHJiKX perHOHOB. 

Hmchho MCToaw npHMeHeHHM cnjtbj na CeBepHOM KaBKS- 

3B. BhlOpaHHbie BWCUIHM pyKOBOJlCTBOM HSIUeH CTpaHbl H 
pOCCHHCKHMH CH.TOBblMH BeaOMCTBaMH. Cjje.ia.lH HhlHCIM H luhi 

veseHCKyto K-aMiiamno 1 h*-kkm npecTynjieHHeM,noB.ieKUJHM 
ia co6oh MaccoBue acepTBbi. 

Mhl OOeCIlOKOCHbr TCM, 1TO BHHOBHbIC a npecTyTiJteHHJix 

ocTawTCBoesHaKasaHHbiMH.tPcaepajibHoepyKOBoacTaonoc- 
neaoBaTejibHo bubo-Tht tiponcxojauicc b MenHe 33 paMKit Kah* 
HauHOHa-ibHoro. TaK h Me»;ayHapoaHoro ryMaHHTapHoro 

IipaBa. H3-no,T KOHTpOJia HaUHOHSLTbHWX h Me*ayHapo,iHbix 

opraHH3aunfi. 

Tpy6bic HapytueHHS npaa icioseKa h HOpM ryMaHHTap- 
HoronpaBacoBepuj3.iH HCOBepuiaior ooecTopoHbt KoHtp.niiK- 
Ta. 

TeM ne MeHee. hhcjio atepTB cpejH rpa^ciaHCKoro H3ce- 
.ieHHn h pa3Mep MSTepHaJibHoro yuiepoa or jieflcTBHii (j>eae- 
paibHbix bohck HecoH3MeptiMo 6oiihuie- KpoMe Toro. jefi- 
ctbhs (peaepaJjbHbix chji — 3TO aeficTBHH eoenHbix 11 nonH- 
ueticKHX, Haxo.Tsuiiixcs noj KoMan,ioBaHiieM \itjtci)\ unpad- 
ho npiuMiHHou BJiacTH PocchRckoh OcjcpanHH. rocyjiap- 
CTBa. KOTOpoe. noanHcas uenui? pa^i MenuyHapojHbix npaBO- 
Bbix noicyMeHTOB, B3SJio Ha ce6» oos3aTe.ibCTBa co6.iKjaaTb 
np3B3 HejiOBCKa. I hi en no OOTIOHy HapyojCHHs npaB mcjjobc- 

K3 pOCCHHCKHMH (pe^epaibHbrMH CH.33MH HB.ISKITCJI OC060 
;«*K1IMI1 11 OCOOO UHHHHHblMH. 




SchlChhij b UxiyiucrHii 31 iHBapi 2001 i...;;i 



Hem-m: Kom-pTeppopMCTi/iHecKafl onepauun nnn Boi/ma? 






rtpoHcxoaamce b Heine pa3BpamaeT i pa*-, u h Pocchh 
ii Tex, kto TBOpMT npecryniieHHs h ocraeTCM 6e3HaKa3aHHbiM. 

H TeX, KTO BH,1HT 3TV 6e3HaKa3aHHOCTb, I BCCX, Ha KOTO 

oopaiueHa HauHOHa-TiiCTimecK-aji h pacucTCKaa ptiTopuKa, 
ooecncHMBatouiaH npoiiaraHjiHCTCKoenpHKpwTHe, He mojkct 
He BE>i3bi&aTb oiBpaiueHMH ncu o/ibioBattiie bohhu Kate "no- 
nHTTexHo.iorHH" b rtpciBwoopHoii 6opb6e. Mu yoe>KaeHbi. 
via Bee 3to Beaei He k y Kpen;ieHn 10 rocyaapcTBa. a k pac naay 
ero ochob. 

JleHCTBHH BoeHHbix H cjiywaiuiix MBjy Ha CesepHOM 
Kaeicaie rpy6eHuiHM o6pa30M HapyiuaioT HopMbi poccHfic- 
koh KoHCTHTyttHH h saKonoaaTeubcTBa. [kcinpaB.iaimo uih- 
poKo npiiMCHHioTCJi Mcpw, ywcMamomHe npasa rpaacian, 
taKne tcax: BBejemie KOMCHaaKTCKoro naca; m pat in win u- 
cao6o3bi rtepejBH)KeHns: HecaHKimoHHpoBaHHbic oSwckii; 
npoH3Bo;ibnwe 3ajep)KaHKH it tomv noaooHoe. B vctobhux 
o6tsBjieHHoro ipe3BbitaHHoro no.3o*eHH« HCKOTopwc m 
iTHX step Dbi.iH 6w .TOnyCTHMw. OjHaKo<}>e;i.epajibHa)i BJiacrb 
>tpe3BUHafiHoc nofloxcewic He o5wm;iseT. tcm eaMbivi coiHa- 

TCIbHQ BblBOJS jeflCTBHB pOCCHHCKHX CHJIOBMX CTpyKTyp B 

MeiHe h npn-neraromitx paftoHax H3-noa BcHKoro kohtpo.tji, a 
CHTvaunio b pentoHC b uciom — 3a paniKH npasa. 

JeHCTBiiaifeJiepa-ibHbrxcai b HeHHeo4nmHa,3bHas npo- 
naraHaa na n.m.iei «6opb6oH c Teppoptt3MOM». CTpornfl ace 

lOplUKHeCKMH aiCUHi lti)Ki: tWBafl, HTO CO LI 3C HO 110,10*01111- 

hm poccHHCKoro laKcma «0 6opb6e c Teppopn3MOM» npoiic- 

XO.lHIUee HMK3K He;tb3JI KBaJTHfpHUHpOBaTb KSK tOHTHTCppO- 

piicTHHecKVK) otiepamiH>». JXawe ecjiH OTBaenbca or Hopw 
poccHHCKoro 3aKOHOJiaTe.ibCTBa, ace paBHo oneBHaHO, hto 

I JlaBHUH OT.THHHTe.lbHOH HepTOH HOaOOHhtX OnepaLtnK aO.TJK- 

Ha BbiTb npeacj]b«ajf moitpaTe.TbHocTb nedennrit. Hep Baa 
ucjib 6opb6hi c TeppopH3MOM — cnaceHiie h 3amHT.a.rpa?K - 

J3HCK0IQ HaiCieHliU H .IHlUb 3aTCM — 3a.3Cp3CamiC HJlll 

VHimTOi« cHneTeppppiic-toB. 

OjHaKo >ito npoHcxoaHT Ha cawoM acne? 

ftpewje Bcero, oaHa H3 r.iaBHbix xapahTepiiCTHK aeii- 

CTBKK (pCjepa-lbHbJX CH-l B 4C4He 3TO — HeH36npaTe.lbHOCTb. 
MU C COyKajteHHCM JO-llKHM npH3HaTb. HTO HC TO.IbKO 
BblCUlCe pVKOBOJlCTBO Hameil CTpaHbl, HO >l DO.TMHHHCTBO 
no.iHTMKOB ne oTKaia.1 neb ot coseTCKofi TpaaimH H HCfl0;lb3O- 
BaTb HeinfinpaTe.ihHoc HacHJtiie, to ecTb Maccoa wii Teppop 

aJlK .lOCTHVKeHJIS nOJIHTHHCCKHX UCICH. 

Ha tiepaoH craatiH huhcuihch bochhoh KawnaHiiw b 
MenHc. b xoae KpynHOMacuiTaSHux bochhux cto-ikhobchhh 
4>MepajibHbie bohckb nosceMecTHo npn6era.3n k Maccitpo- 

BaHKblM H HeH36HpaTe.3bHWM OOMDap.-lliprtHKaM II apTH,3Jie- 

pHficKHM oQcrpejiaM. HTo6bi yHHTTOKtrn. HCCKo>ibKHx 5oe- 

BHKOB, HCpCJKO npHHOCHjlHCb B VKepTBy jeCJtTKH H COTHH 

MHpHbix mreadt TTpHBeaeM nwuib jBa npHMepa. 

27 OKTHopa 99-ro roaa poccHHCKHe nH<})opMaunoHHue 
areHTCTBa coo6ma-TH, hto b ttot jeHb ^cjepajibHue BoHcKa 
HaHec.iH paKCTHWH yjap no aoiwy UlaMHJiH Eacaesa Ha y.ume 

JleHHHa B I p./ iHOM. Ho-BIUHMOMy, HaaC».1HCb VHHHTOSKHTb 

3ToroH38ecTHoroTeppopHcra. Rom 6hin pa3pyuieH, noraonH 
Herwpe HJicna ero soopyjKeHHoro 4>opMHpOBaHH» y,iaHKafl 
B0C8BU onepauHg?! OjHaKonaM HecoooiutitiH,HT0 3THM>Ke 
paxeTHUM yaapoM h noc^eayiomeK 6oM6apjHp0BK0H 6btnH 
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.IBVXJiaJKHblX 12-KBapTHpHUX .T.OMOB. 03HH n«TK3Ta%Hb[ll 
30M H MHO*eCTBO OJH03T35KHMX HaCTHUX .lOMUB; yHHHTO- 

vkoh pUHOK.CTOHHKaTaKCH c vimiiHHaviH. niiji))cpaMn h nacca- 
* - npaMH. CKonbKO TaM norH6.io MitpHbix .TKi.iefi — renepb 
y*e Hit kto He cmojkct onpeae.3HTb. 

\\ 3to Ha3btBajiocb htohcvhwm yaapow»! 

A noaoDHbix yjapoa no FpoiHOMy HaHocn.iocb Be.iHKoe 
viHom-ecTBO. Topo.! 6yKBa.TbHo cTepT c juiua 3eM;m. If vhuh- 
T05Kanc» oh, KOrja tsm npo,aoJi>Ka.Tn HaxonHTt.cs Miipubie 
*irrejiH. 

A bot etue oaiiH npt^iep «no6ej0H0CH0fi» bochhoh 
onepamtH. B ,ia«HOM ciynae pocchhckoc KOMaanoBaHHe caMo 
3ase.no uencHCKHe BOopyvseHHbie 0Tp«au b «30hv 6e3onacno- 
cth», a ttOTOM y«HHTO»:ano hx tbm BMecre c wspsbmu ikktc- 

,-IJIMH, HaXOJHBlUIIMHCH B 3T0H «30He 6c30naCHOCTH». IfpO- 

H30HJ.10 3to b (J)eBpa.ie jByxTbicjiHHoro roaa. Torja Fpo3HUH 
KOHTpo.inpoBa.in MeHeHCKHc Boopy *eHHue oTpaau. a npmie- 
raiouiM K ropoay TeppHTopita 6bLia 3ansTa u)eaepajibHbiMH 
cii.Tavut. (t>eaepajibKbie B/iac™ tipH3biBa.tn ocik-eHiieH so3Bpa- 
uiaTbcn b ce.ia, patno.ioweHHbie Ha 3Tofi TeppiitopHH. HeKo- 
Topue H3 hhx, HanpiiMep KpynHoe cejio Karup-IOpT, 6buiH 
■■ n-H.iMit 5e3onacHocTH». B ce.ia »aHa.7H no jHp.niian.CH >kh- 
TeiiH, 6e%aBiiiHe orryja pawee ot 6oM6e*eK h oticipeBM. B 
KaTUp-FOpTe, Kpoiwe Toro, CKonH.iocfc MHoro ookchiicb h3 
jpyntx pafloHOB MenHH. 

Ho, KaK MW BCC n03)KC y3HajIH, B 3T0 »te BpCMH pOCCHH- 

ckhc BOCHHwe pa3pa6aTUBa.iM cneuHajibHyio cnosicHyio one- 
pauHio no BBejeHHfo npoTHBHtiKa b 3a6,iy»(jeHHe. Ohh pe- 

QJH.TH BblMaHHTI. HCHCHCKHe OTpJtJlb) H3 Fp03H0rO. JiflU 3TOrO 
OHH nOil6pOCH.nH 60CBHKaM aC3HH(})0pMaUHHJ O TOM. HTO 

BOCHHbie hko6w roToau npocTO npoaaTb oeionacHbifi bwxoj 
H3 Tpo3Horo b ropu no onpeacieHHOMy Mapuipyry, AeaHH- 
(popMauHJi cpa6oTa.ia, h oocshkii notu.iH us rpo3Horo no 
yKa3aHH0My Mapmpvry, rae BHavajie HaTKHynHCbHaMHHHbic 
worn, a hotom noaaepr-THCb apTH^jiepnflcKHM h aBHauHOK- 
hwm yaapaM. OTpaati 6ocbhkob bcc mc npouinii b ropu. xotsi 

II C OrpOMHblMH nOTepflMH- 

VjaiHas onepauHH? Hmchho Tan jtii co6uthh kommch- 
TiipoBa.iH poccifiicKHe rcHepanu. ny6jiHHH0, no TejieBHae- 

HHIO. 

HO npH 3T0M OHH yMOlIHaJIH O TOM, KaKOH HMeHHO 

Mapuipyr hmh 6w;j pa3pa6oTaH xna BUBoaa oocbhkob in 
TposHoro. 3tot MapmpyT naimi bochhlic iipo.io^inii nepej 
ce.ia AiixaH-Kany, 3aKaH-K)pT, IXJaaMH-fOpT, KaTwp-fOpT 



HeHHfl: KoHTpTeppopwcTMMecKaH onepam/ifl k/ii/i bom Ha? 




Io6t.hb.ichhuh MMH >Ke «30Hofi 6e3onacHocTH»), rexH-Hy. U 
bot, no Mepe toio Kate OTpjuw oocbhkob bxo/ulik b ttth ce.ia, 
hx cMCTeMaTHHecKH yKHHToacariH. Bmcctcc ccismh h Haxoaa- 
uiHMitcfl raM WHTejisMH. JKhtcism He npe;iocTaB.t>i.nn HHKa- 
khx «ryMaHHrapHbix KopiuopoB» xih 6e3onacHoro »i,i\iua 
TojibKO b Kan-ip-IOpTe ySHTO oko.io jbvxcot \mpm.i\ 

SKHTCieH. XopOHH/tH HX B BMpblTOH 3KCKaBaT0pOM OpaTCKOH 

Morwie.,. 

Tencpt. h3m roBopsiT. hto ace jto b npouuioM, hto boh Ha 
laKOH'iM.iaci. i< nasa.iocb cTpoHTcibCTBo MHpnofi a-ihhh. 

5to .loiKb! 

BoeHHbie icw i huh npoaojuKatoTcu. ohk npiiu>uii xa- 
paKrep napTMiaHCKoR bohhu. FopHbie pafioHbi Somdst. Con- 
aaTbi. b HHcne KOTopux ecxb 11 boch nocnywauiHC no r i pit su h > , 
npoao.TTKaiOT rn6Hyrb, Pea:i bHtie noTcpH ot Hac yranBaioTca , 
y*e necKOJibKO mcchucb. k3k reHepa.i-nponaraHjiHCT Mami- 
.iob nepecTaji cooSinan. cTpa«e oKCHeacjibnue cho^km no- 
Tepb. Cya» no AaHHbiM. co6paHHWM KOMMTeraMH cojiaaTCKitx 
MaTepen Poccmt. o6uiHe norepn cpeaH pocCNfictcm cm b 
MetHe 3Ha>iHTMbHo flume ocpHiiiiajTbHo cooSmacMux. 

Hocjie npeKpameHHJi Kpyn HOMacui i atin i,i\ 6oeBbix aefi- 
ctbhh 0c.iepa.ibn we soficKa no-npoKHeMy aeHCTByioT hch3- 
6HpaTCJibHo. Hacro, botbct «a HanaiieHHs 6ocbhkob Ha6.ioK- 
nocTU h B0HHCKne noapaiaeneuHa. tjiciepajihHwe BoficKa 
OTKpUBaK>T6ecnopsjoHHbiH oroHb npflMO b Kacejiciiif ux nyH- 
KTax. OpyatHe npitMeHstoT npn M&aciiujcM. nacro hcoSocho- 
BaHHOM m '."it ' tpciiHH . Or iio.hhIm i,i \ aeficTBHfi b nepayto one- 
pe.ib crpaaaer MiipHoe Haccjieutic. 

Ho eme 6o.ice cTpauwo to, hto nojnac .ichctbhs boch- 

HblX HOCflT XapaKTCp HeMOHCTpaillBHOH aKUIIH B03Me3.1HH, 

HanpaB-ieHHofl Ha rpa»eiaHCKoe HacMetme. 





Ha H.in.i.R'HiiN. .iHBepcHH h TeppopucTHiecKMe aKTbl, 
coBL-pmaeMbie HejaKOHHbiMn aoopyme mauat 4>opMnpoBa- 
hhjimh, (pejepajTbHbiecM.ibi orBenatoTTCppopoM npoTHBMHp- 
Koro Hace.iemfs MeHHH, 

Bot .iHWb Tpn npHMepa H3 MHOwecrBa. 

Ytpom 6 0KTfl6pn 2000 r. pocciiHCKtic BoeHHocjiyiKa- 
iuhc OKpywHJin HccKO.ibKo KBapT&noB Ha yjiHuc Eor.iana 

XMOFlbHHUKOrO B Tp03H0M H OTKpbljttt CTpeJlbCy no OKHaM 
.1OM0B. 33TCM OHM K li'piia 111 TpH faCTHUX JOMa Ha 3TOH *:e 
y.THUe. BCC 3TH iieflCTBHH COnpoBOKaavlHCb OCKOpOHTCTbH W- 

MH no «>i m in ich ii in k 'iciL'iinav BbiKpMKaMH. BecHHHCTsa 
ttpeKpaTH.nHCbJiHinbcnycTflTpHqaca, Korja Ha mccto npowc- 
lueCTBKM npHexa^ paiioimi.ni bochhwh KOMeHaaHT, SChtcjih 
nony»iHJiH c.icayioiuce pa3i.HCHeHHe: HaKaHVHC noaopBajicn 
Ha MHHe bochhwh rpyioBMK, n coniiaTW ycrpoHJiH "aKUHKj 

B03Me3JHa". 

21 HOJiSps 2000 r. Ha aoporey cejia ilaBbiaeHKo Ha MHHe 
nojiopBancs BoeHHbiH aBTOMo6n.ib, oaHH conaaT noi h6, .iboc 
6w.ih pancHu. BcKope nocne^Toro, Heaa.ieKo ot MecTa Bjpu- 
Ba. na niasax naccawnpoB peficoBoro aBTOoyca aoeHHbie 
3a.iep7KMHJKHTe.ifice.ia/laBbiaeHKoXyccHHara3HC8a.Haje- 
.ih eMy Ha rojiOBy MeuioK, nocaamiM Ha BTP h yBe3^n b 
HeH3BeCTHOM itanpaBjieHHH. 24-ro HoaGps Teno XyceitHa fa- 
3HCBa 6u.to o6Hapy>KeHO Ha OKpanne cejia. Y y6ntoro 6u.t 
0Tpe3an hoc, huko/io i i,i r^aia. Ha ruee biuhcjich r.iy6oKnfi 
ctcjot iio/KCHoi n paHeHHSt, BepxHJts nacTb ro.ioau npencraa- 
.iB.iacoooii mcchbo, khcth pyK h na.ibubi Gw.ih nepe.ioMaHbi. 

24 HO»6ps 2000 r. Ha uenTpajibHOM pbiKtce TpoiHoro 
HemBcci h MMit 6w;ih v6htu .iBa ocpnuepa mockobckoio cne- 
uiia.ibHorooTpsaa MBH. noc.ie^Toro BOeHHbie ycTpoH.iti na 
pwHKcoo.iaBy, Bpe3y.ibTaTeKOTopofi 3aiiep>ita.iH 1 7Hc.ioBeK. 




MenHfl: KoHTpTeppopucn/HecKafl onepauwn turn BOMHa? 



Hx Bi.tHcs in b HeH3aecTHOM HanpaB;ieHHn. 26-ro Hos6pn 

OOJIblllOC KOJ1HHCCTBO pOCCHHCKHX BOCHHOC.3 V5K31UHX. HO.Tht.-- 

xaaniMX Ha 6poi!e\iamiina\, oupyiKH.iii pi.ntoK BcKope Ha- 
i ta.ic)i pairpoM pwHKa — tshkh h 6y;ib^oiepu CMeraJiH khoc- 

KH M TOprOBbie pSJlbl. il(OilCH, HOnUTaBlUHXCa OCT3KOBHTb 

3TOT npOH3BOii, BoeHHbre pa3orHa.3H ofhcm H3 aBTovtaioa, 
HeKOTopbtx iuoii.ni He Mettee inajna™ m)okhhk 6m;ih 3a- 
aep-A-aHbt 11 yaeieHbi b HemBecTHOM iiaiipamciinn. O cyaboe 

HCKOTOpblX H3 HHX ^O CHX nop HHieFO He H3BCCTHO. Bee 3T0 

conpoB05K.aa.ioeb noBa.ibHbiM rpa6e»coM: BOCHHOcjiyacamne 
otkpwto aarpywajH BbicTaRJicHHbie Ha npoaaxy TOBapw b 
opoHCTpaHcnopTepw. Tak'iKe OTKpuro 6m.ih pairpa6jieHbi 
kaMcpu xpaKCHHJi TOBapOB n aa-*e KBapi iipi.i fvim.ie*aiii n \ 
jiomob. Ha c.ieayiouiHH aenb roproBwe paau pbiHKa ripea- 
cTaB.ifljiii coooh rpyjibi nepe.iOMaHHbtx aocoK, 

CoTpyaHHKa CneitHajibKoro npeacTaBHtens TlpesH jch- 
ra Pocchh no npaaaM He.ioBeica Ha TeppmopHH Hchchckoh 
PecnySiiHKH, KOTopbiM nbrrajica ocTaHOBHn, norpoM, boch- 
Hbie npocro nporHajiH. Koma /tceHuiHHbi, ToproBaBume Ha 
pbiHKc. o6pa™jTHCb a roponcKyw BoeHHyra KOMeHaaTypy, 
raM OTKaiajincb BMctiiHBaTbcs b npoHcxoasmee. 

Cjieaycr no^iepKHyTb, hto co.i.ia i w cpoHHOfi cnyTttfibi, 

CTOHBUIHe B OUCIi.'lCMHH pbiHKa, He Oao6pSJIH aCHCTBHH K0H- 
1 paKI lillKoH. yHll'll OVKaitlllllX M TT)a6HBUlHX pblHOK. 

BnoJiHe OHeBHaHo. hto noaooHbiH aeMOHCTpaTMBHufi n 
in HpoK0MaeiUTa6HMH rpa6e»c Mor ocy uiecTB-idTbcs >3Hiub npn 
nonycTHTejibCTBe poccHiknoro BoeHHOro KOMaiuoBamiB 

Oco6o noanepKHCM; hh pa^y hmkto hc nonec HaKaiaHit« 
3a nojofiHbie «aKn>i 803Me3aHJi». 

^eacpajTbH we cwnu npoBojurr Maccoawc HemoHpaTe.ib- 
Hue 3a.iep!ttaHttH jkhtcich 4chhh. JIkmh. 3ajcp>KaHHbie bo- 
CHHbiMH.coipyaHHKaMK MEJX, <t>CE napynixcK.ioBbix crpyK- 
Typ Pocchhckoh tDcaepauHii. npoaoimaior HCHC3arb. Poa- 
Hbie tii.K'p'*;iMHM\. KaK npaBHJio, aiKTejibHoe BpeMK He mo- 
ryr no.iyHHTb HHtjiopwauHio o nptiHHHe iaaepvKamis. ohh we 
3HatoT, rae qe;iOBeii HaxoaKTCH, npcxbiiBacHo.'M eMy oSsifHe- 
Hiie — HHKaKHx nojpo6HocTeH. CaMocoooii pa3yMeercs. mo 
3aaep*«aHHbie raKHM o6pa30M jjioiih He Moryr Bocnonb3o- 
BaTbcn yc.iyraMH ajBOKaTOB. 

lion (iictbo «HCHC3HyBmHx» jiKueii saieM (nepe3 He- 

cko.ii.ko Kejejib mm J.axe Mecnues) oonapy vkii Ba kitch b CJiea- 

CTBCHHblX H30.3STOpaX HJ1H H30-3»TOpaX BpCMeHHOI O COJtep- 

*anns, Kpcwe xoro. k eo*a.ieHnio, ecn. MHoro c^yMacB, 
Korja jiKJflefl, «HCHe3HyBtiiHx» TaKtiM o6pa30M. HafiTH hc 
yaaeTCB HHrae. 

Cawoe crpaujHoe 3a(CiK>iaeTC8 b tom, hto b paae CJiy^a- 
ea MecTHbie JKMTe.iH oonapv^tmaioi rena 3ajiep>KaHHbix co 

1.1C1.1M11 nblTOK H IKliH.lbCTBCHlloii CMepTH. 

ripiiBejeM nHiiib asa np«Mepa. 

27 f ionopn 2000 r. b cbocm aoMe b cejie Tohtw bochhoc- 
-lyacaiuHMH 245-ro MOTOcTpciJcoBoro no.iKa 6bL3 ia.icp-*an 
28-JieTKHH Ajih JtutypxaeB. Ha oeaytowHR aeHbcaMH boch- 

i ioc. i ViKai line npHBexiH Ha oponcMamnMc h Bi.ropocn.in y 
uamm uCHTpaibHOH paiionnoii oo n.iutin.i » ropoje Ypyc- 
MapraH ero o6eio6pa*cnni,iii ipyn. y JluiypKaeBa 6mjih 
c losiaHbi iia.ihubi h khcth pyK, no BceMy Teny HaKeceHM 
KonoTbie paHbi. 

27 iiuMopsi 2000 r. *-n ic.ii, ce^a C'aManiKii. lOcyn Bck- 
cyjiraHOB. 6biJi 3anep>KaH BoeHHOcJiyxcauiHMH Ha oiepaHKe 




'(eHCHCKHe 6e*eHUM b TpyiHM. 



ce.ia b npKcyrcTBHH CBHjieTeJiefi. Evty cB3ia.ni pyKH h tioca- 
jhjih Ha no.Ti.exaBmnH 6poHeTpaHcnopTep. 28-ro H0Jt6ps y 
fijioK-nocra ({icaepa^bHbix chji. ii.i una.moii oKpaHHe ce.ia 
CaMauiKH, 6bi;io HaRaeHo H3ypoaoBaHHoe rejio KDcyna Een- 
cy.TraHOBa. OaKT ooHapysKeHHH Tena 3a((wKCHpoBaviH npeji- 
craBHTejiH ajMHHiicTpaiiHH Anxofi-MapiaHOBCKoro paftoHa 
H COTpyJIHHKH tipaBooxpaHitTc^bHux opranoB. 

Hll OJ1HO 30-3>KHOCTHOe JIWUO, BHHOBHOC B «HCie3HOBC- 

HHH« M.icp-*anni.i\ .3ioaeH, hc npHB.3e4eHO k yio.'iOBHoii 

OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. MajtOTOrO, HH OailH H3 MHOntX It (HCC 111 1.1 \ 

iipaRiitainiriiihiM opi aim laiiiiuM C-TyiaeB 6ecc^eaHoro hc- 
HesHOBeHHH .noaefi, 3aaep«aHHbix BoeHHOCv7y%auiHMH hjih 
coTpyaHHKaMit MBJ Pocchh. hc pacc.iejoaaH. 

CTpauiHaa yrposa &\% WHrejieH Mchhh — Heo<}>Huna.ib- 
Hbie ceKperHbie TiopbMbi. HaxojuimHecJi a Mecrax itHCJioxa- 

UHH BOKHCKHX H3CTeH H CIlClIHXIhMbtX OTp».10H Mlt.lHUllil 

JIocrasiteHHue cioaa jhojh o())HUHajibHo HHrae He (jm Kcnp\ - 
iotch, hmchho 3accb. b nepByio onepeab, ntrraiOT Jirojefi, 
HMenHO OTCwaa 3a-icp"*aHHbic «HCHe3aioT». 

ConiaCHO cneuna.ii.HOMy pcuienvtio npH npoBcjeHmi 
«3aHHCTOK» HaccicHHbix nyHKTOB o6n3aTe.ibHO mamma npH- 
cyrcTBOBaTb npejicxasHiMH npoKyparypu k r.iaBa aaMHHH- 
CTpaiiHH 3Toro nyHKra. 3to npaBHJiooneHb hbcto bochhumh 
He BbinojiHseTCS, 

no-npe«HeMy « ta'iuc i mi:- Hepeaico conpoBoxaaioTCii 
ocKopo.ieiniHMit h inoiK-MHCM mi t pit i.i \ WHTCiefi, la.icp^attH- 




21 iHsapi 2001 root. 



31 



SeMHfi: KoHTpTeppopMCTMMecKafl onepamvm m/ih BOWHa? 




21 KHBapx 2001 roan. 

eM m nocjieayromHM «mc i ic ihobchhcm » jikjjch, H iiohth bcc- 
raa h xoje «3aHHCTOK» nponcxoASi i paoe*H. 

T1o-iipc>KHCMy Ha MHornx 6/ioK-nocTax, pacnojiowcit- 
hmx Ha aoporax, BoeHHOc.iy^aiuHe a coTpyaHHKH mhjihuhh 
itpaKTHHCCKii oTKpwro BbtMoraioT jieHbrH y uio<}>epoB npoei- 

*aio[!li! V aBTOMaiUHH. 

Mm y6e*aeHw, hto craSH-iHiauHn cinyamnt b HeiHe, 
it! ia*-HBanne iaM HopMa-ibHbix OTHOtueHUfi Meauy Hacejie- 
HweM if iipejcTaBtrrc^aMH (peaepajitHux opraHOB B.iacnt hc- 
Bo^MoxHbt 6e3 cepbeiHoro h o6i>eKTHBHoro paccicjauaHHs 
MHoroHHC.teHHbix npecTyniciiHH, coBcpinenHbix BoeHHOcjiy- 

WaWHMH H COTpy„1HMKaMlf MBfl POCCHH no OTHOHJeHHtO K 

MHpHOMy HaceneHHK). 

Ouhbko opi am.! npoKypaxypw Pocchh OTKpoacHHO ae- 
MOHCTpiipyiOT HewejiaHHC paccjieaoBaib npecryiweHHa npo- 
thb rpajiutaKCKifx jthu. coBcpuicHHwe <{)ejiepa,ibHbiMH CHJia- 

MHB Xoae BOOpyjKCHHOrO KOHCjuiHKTa. 

npHMepoB. aoKa3biaaiomnx ito yrBcpjKaeHHe, mhowc- 

CTBO. 

CoiiiiieMcs xots 6u Ha to, <rro opraHbi npok*ypaTypu 
noMHory Mcnuei He npHHitwawT KHKaKoro pcmemffl no 

lasifl.iCHHSflvf OT pOJCTBCHHHKOB TCX SimnfiH. KOTOpble 6bIJIII 
'.a.it'p*\ii.|.i BOCHKOCJiyMCaiUHMIt, a nOTOM HC1C3.1H. Bee 3T0 

Bpews pincTBCHiiMKH h ripaBoiauiHTHbte opraHtminm no.iy- 
hbiot oTBeTW H3 npoicypaTypbt; «ripoBOflirrcii nposepKa b 

nopHOTC CTBTbH 109- 

fi YrcTOBHo-npo- 
ueccyajibHoro Ko- 
aexca». H rro npn- 

TOM, HTO, COIMaCHO 

nopMe VriK. cpok- 

JUIH npOBCaCHHS 

iiepBHMHoit nposep- 
KH — Tpoe CyTOK CO 
JHB no.iyiCHHH 33JIB- 

JieHHfl.aBHOCIIOHII- 

T&nbHbix cnyiaax oh 
hovst 6wTb npo- 
aneH jo aecjnn — 
Hc6o.iee! — cyrOK. 
B Kana/ie ae- 
Katips 2000 r. npea- 
CTaBHTCjiii npoKypa- 

Typbl COOOIUHJIH. TTO 

3 a secb nepwoa boo- 





Co.uaTCKMt Maicpit. 



py^eHHoro KOH<t>jiHicra b McHHeopraHaMd BoeHHoii npoKypa- 
Typw pacc-ienosajiocb TpiuuaTb oaho yronoBHoe ae;to. boi- 
6yaaeHH0e no (pakTaM npccTynaeHiiH npoTHB rpaauaHCKoro 
nace^eHHS. Jim Kaacaoro. kto oojiaaaer oobeKTHBHofi hh- 
<]>opMamieii o CHTyamiH a He«iHe, ohobii.iho. hto yra un<ppa 

CMeXOTBOpHO Majia no cpaBHCHHK) C iieHCTBHTe.lbHbtM 1HC- 

-iom caMbix pa3Hooopa3Hbix npecTyn.icHHfi. coBepuieHKbix 
BoeHHoc;iy>KamnMH no othouichhio k rpaaaancKOMy Hace- 

.1CHW0. 

Rna cpaBHeHKa npHBeaeM ewe oaHy UHCppy, Tak~*e hc- 

XOJHlltyiO H3 inJtHUHiLII.HiH n Ik' n-fHIIKa. B JOKHajie O MS- 

TcibHOCTH Cneuna.ibHoro npeacTaBHTe^a DpesHaeHTa Poc- 
chh no ofiecnenen hk> npaa h cbo6oa HC-ioaeKa h i -pa«K;ian ti m a 
b MeneHCKoft Pecnye.iHke, BbinyiucHHOM b HiOjie 2000 rona, 
cooowauiocb, kto CiieunajibHbiM npejcTaBHTCjicM h ero an- 
napaioM 6w.ih tipHHJiTM oSpautcHHS ot nttTit fwcmh uiecTH- 
cot BocbMKiiecflTH jcbsth HejTOBeK. Bonee nonoBtiHbi Bcex 
oopameHHK co^epwaT Kanodu Ha OTcyTCTBHe csejieHHH o 
ta:iep-*anni.i\ h nponaBunix poacTseHHHkax; Ha orpaHiine- 
Hfie csooo-ibi nepejBH»:eHHJi; Ha KaciuiHe; Ha ockop6HTe;ib- 

HOC [lOBCAeKKe BOeHKblX H CO t pvjltf HKl'fi 1 ipaB()l)\paH I! ! c 1 !.- 

Hbix opraHOB: na npoH3BonbHbie 3ajep>KaHHfl. icwHeHiia ti 
KdaicoHHoe cantQMSBBG noaapecroM. KokraopiOB aitnapax 
CticuHaibHoro npe^craBHTejis npe3HjieHTao6paTaiHCb>TKe 

BOCCMb TblCHH CTO .IBa.luaTb AeBJTTb HCjlOBeK. 

Bot .iaiiaiiic n cpaaHHM 3T» aBe UH<ppu — 6o.nee 
MeTup«x Tbicfli aa^BjteHHH ocoBepmeKHbix npecTynneHHAx h 
TpHflua-n. ojho yro;iOBHoe aeno, 5 113 KOTOpux ywe rtpcKpa- 
meHu iiu .tMHiiL- nut. 

Mw ne crymaeM KpacKH. 3io noaTBep)Kiia<rrcji. b tom 
•ntcjie h reM. hto MHorHenpeaciaBHTe.™ icqeHCKofl tjoamth 
CTpainiH. iDH.'ihHOH K poccHHCkOH 4>ejepa.abHoii B.nacnt.Tak- 
we KpaHHe KeraTHBHo oneHHsaioT cwTvauHio c npasaMit hc- 
noBek-a, cioiKiiBiuyiocs ceroaHJi b Me'teHCKofi PecnySnuh-e. 

B pacnopji'/KCKHH npaBoiauiHTHoro ucHTpa «MewopH- 
aji» HaxojHTcs enpaek-a o CHTyaunn b KypnajioeBCKOM pafio- 
He HeneHCKOH Pccny6^HKH, noaroTOB-ieHHaa 22-ro HoaSpn 
2000 rojia r.iaBofi a,iMHHitcTpauiiH rroro paiioHa- B Hefi 
rjiaBapaHOHaMaxkajiTapaMOB.He.ioBeK. KOTopoMycropoH- 
hhkh HeiaBHCHMofi M'fKcpHH yrpostaioT cMcpTbio, aejiaer 
cjieaytomiie BMsoau: «Kpafine HeraTHBnc bjihjuot HaoGcra- 

HOBKV B pafJOHC H Bbl3blBa)OT UIHpOKHH illilllct 1 HCII Ifl.i it p«30- 

hshc npecTyn-ieHHJi n nponcuiecTBHJi, coBepnjaeMbie {Jieae- 
pa.ibHi.iMii Boifck-aMH. npeacTaBHrejiHMH pasitHHKux cneu- 
c.i>">k6 h noapa3flejieHHft. He npeKpamaiOTCs Cjiynaii 3aaep- 






HeMHH: KoHTpTeppopMCTi/mecKafl onepauwa vmv\ BOWHa? 



37 




s^A .lesaTcnbCTBa Haa hhmh bo 

Y»» BpCMH TSK HaiMBaCMblX «3a- 

'4 i \&* Wntt, yB03«T J1IOJCM, H 

aa-ibHeHiuas hx cyjboa oc- 
TaeTca hchjbccthoh, <„.> 
Ha ncex 6aoK-noerax Beaer- 
cs ucieHanpaaienHOCM ine- 
BaTe.ibCTBo Haa npoe3iicaio- 

llllt\t!tMlipiil.l\1l(/KIII0.r»\!H 
OcKOpSadtOT H yHH»'aioi 
pafiOTHMKOBMCCTHOfi MIU 11- 

miH. Hhhhmwh oecnpeaea 
co cTopOKbt <J>eaepaj]bKbtx 
bohck aeaaeT CHTyauiiK) 

B3pbIB00naCK0ff» (KOHCtl 

UHTaTW). 

Ec.ih mm aaace OTB.ieHCMCH Ha MHHjry ot npooacMbi 
cooatojeHiiJi npaa teaoBexa, to octaeica ohcbh ihmm. hto 
noaofiKbiH o6pa3 aeiiCTBtiit (peaepaabHbix cm.i OTHtoab hc 

3<t>(]>eKTHBeH C TOHKK 3pCHHM 6opt6bl C TCppopillMOM H yCTa- 

HOBJicH»fl MHpa h CTa6MJbHOcni b perwoHe. Bonce roro, oh 
Bcaei k oopaTHOMy pesyabTaTy. 

HastToro. HTo6u BbmrpaTb b jhoooh napTHMHCKOfi bo fi- 
ne. npaBme.ibciBeHHbiM cua&M HConvvniMo cbccth jo mh- 
HHMVM3 H.1H B006uie VHHHTOJKHTb 6a3y BQVKtpMKa napTH- 
jan cpean naceaeHns. H tvt bo3mokhu aiiutbaBa nyTH. 

riepflbifi — uo nyTb penpeccHH. Teppopa npoTHB accro 
Haee.ieHMJi. flyrb, Hein6eJKHO BeayuiHK it reHOUHjy. y Co- 
BCTCKoro Coiosa obw SoraTwfi onbtT TaKoro poaa. Hmchho 
Taic Bi,f iir pw Ha:iiii: i, napTH3aHCKKe bohhu Hi 3anaaHOfi YKpa- 
hhc b CpeaHefi A3HH, b toh me HeiHe b 40-e roaw. rioBTope- 
HHe noaoCHoro nyrw KbmeutHeH PoccHefi 6biJio 6w ntoe.ibMo 
aau Hee. 5ro 03HaHaao 6bi OKOHHaTeabHbtH OTKa3 ot nocxpo- 
l'hhs b nam jfi CTpaHe pea. n, no aeMOKpanmecKoro, npaaoBo- 
ro rocyaapcTsa. H npmuBaTb oSparKTbca k JTOMy onury. k 
noaobHUM MeroaaM Moryr :nnui. tc kto MCTraer o BojBpaTc 
k crariHHCKHM MeroaaM ynpaB-iCHHS rocyaapcTBOM h Hapo- 
aoM. 

Ho B03M0*eH h apyrofi nyTb, eAHHCTBeKHO ripm onHWii 
aas aeMOKpaTMMecicoro rocyaapCTBa. *>to npHBaeneHHe Ha- 
cejieHHft Ha cboki cTopoHy, aeMOHCTpamts moaaM aabTepHa- 
THBHoro, ooaee npHCMneMoroajitt khx auxoaa. ieM noaaep- 
acKa napTHiaH. Ho 3roro mowho aoSwTbcJt amah a tom cay- 
Mae. ecaH npaBHTCabCTBeHHbie ch.tu peaabHo o6ccncHHBaioT 





itpasa it CBooo;tbi 
npocTbix atoaeft. 
ec.TH Hace.ieHMe 
tie mi,[n i b np- 
aoM coaaaTC Ha- 
cit.TbHHKa, ySifit- 
tiy, tpiii'iiue-iH. a 
napTH3aHU Teps- 
kit opeoa Hapoa- 

HMX MCTHTCJieH. 

3to TpyaHwfi 

nyTb, Oh npeano- 

.naracT itaBcacHHc cTporoft aiicmtnaitHu b bohcksx. itaKa i,i- 

MiieTex, KTocoBepuiH.i npecTynaeHHJi npOTtiB mmphoto Hace- 

aaaa. 

TaK K.iKoii nyTb BbtopaH HauiitM npeiwaeMTOM it npaBit- 

TCHbCTBOM B MCHHC? 

CpejM co;uaT. otpiiucpoB n aawe corpyanHKOB iouk- 
iiiiM. npoxoamuHx cayxGy b MenHe, HpesBbiHaftHo pacnpoci- 

paHCHO MHCHlie O TOM, MTO HX Tyja nOC.ia.lH HMeHHO tilteM. 

HTOObi HasecTH yntac. crpax Ha ace Hace.ieHHe 4chhh. Htoom 
'"hhkomv we noBaaHo 6biao" noaaepwHBaTb oocbhkob. Mho- 
r He Hi hhx, ee.iH tie oo.nbiuiiHCTBO. actiCTBine.ibHo y6c>Kae- 
Hbi. hto MeToaTeppopa no oTttotueHitto k HaceaeHHio npHHST 
hx Ki'Matuonan mom kbk cpeacTBO SopbCbi c SaHaHTHiMOM h 

TCppopiflMOM. 

3HaMHraH 3to. hto KOMaHaoBaKueco3HaTeabHO Bbtopa- 

.10 HMeHHO TTOT nyTb? 

no-BnanMOMy, b paiHbix MecTax it pa3Hbix inwioaax 
HMeioT MecTO h pa i.iii'fui.ic BapnaHTbi HanaabCTBCHHoro or- 
KouieHttn k (pairraM nac ilium Haa mhphwm HaccaeHiieM — h 
paBHoayuiHe, h npccTynHoe 6e3aeHCTBHe, h noacTpeKaTeat- 
CTBO, h aa%e, MoxceT 6brrb, npawaa opraHH3auHu paenpas. 
OneBHaHo, hto Toabico oaHoro BapnaKTa hot b itom Ha6ope: 
ikH.'.ie.iuHaKMf.HOH n ueaeHanpaBaeHHoit6opb6bic npecTyn- 

aCHHMMH BOeHHOCJtyTKaillHX H COTpyaHHKOB MBA npOTMB 

MHpHoro HaceaeHMfl. 

HpH 3tom Ba*Ho noaHepKHyrb, kto aaaeKO we Bee, h, 
BiiaitMo. aa»ce «e 6oabiuHHCTBO o$HuepoB h coaaaT tbopst 
nacHaitc Haa MttpHbiM HaccieHHeM. EcTb npHMepu. Koraa 
BoeHHOcayMcatmie laiunmaaH, cnacajiH ^loaeft ot TaKoro Ha- 

CUtllH CO CTOpoHbt CBOHX RQaMT H COCa\"«KHBUCB. 

Ho ecTb TaKTKe rpoMaaHoe KoaHtccTBo npHMepoB, xoraa 
OTKpwTO. ny6jiH'iH0 coBepittatoTCJt npecrynaeHHji m 3a hhx 
hhkto He HeceT naka laniiH 




31 



HenHfl: KoHTpTeppopMCTMHecKaa onepauna n/iw BOWHa? 




24 idsapi 2 DO I luaa 



H B 3TOM CUJe OJHK CTpaUIHMH HTOr HblHCUIHCH BOHHbl B 

HefHc — c i pam Huii :i:ih Bcex rpaauaH Pocchh. KaKoii onwT 
no.iyuiiiH h npoao-iiKaioT npnoopetaTfa b Me*tHecefi4ac tw- 
cflHH mohojiux rpawaan Pocchh? KaicHMH »cpn\ ten union 
ith napHH cBHjeTenH 6e3HaKa3aHHbJx yCHHCTB, rpaGe/Kefi. 
HtHacii.niBiiHiiii'.' A KiiKiiMH b natim ropoaa H cejia BosBpaiiia- 

SOTCJl OTTyiia MKJIHUHOHCpU, ;lloaH, KOTOpblCMBTpajlOJIlKHlJ 

6yayr s.imutiuirb Hac h b mi,ch B.iacni MO*ei ok;h;hi.ch 
KaxjiuH rpa*viaH«H Pocchh? 

Mbl HC C06HpaCMCa CHHMSTb BHHy K C HCHeHCKHX HC3a- 
KOHHUX BOOpyiKCHHWX (pOpMHpORaHHH. H'l&eCTHO, HTO HAC- 

hw 3thx rpynn cosepiiiajiH 6eccyaHhie paenpaau Haa n.ieii- 

HbJMH, 

B nocjiejiHHe Mecsmw, no KpaiiHeH Mepe, MaCTb HeieHC- 

KHX BOOpySKCHHblX (JiOpMlipi.HilHIIII CTBJia npHMCH H !i. I 3K I H- 

Ky Teppopa nooTnomeHHK) k npeacTaBHTeJWM Mecmbtx BJia- 
CTefl, jios.ibHwx k Pocchh. HoapbiBaioTca 3;ianioi pafioHMbix 
auMHHtfcrpauKH, 6buiH y&HTw raaBu ajiMHHHCTpaunii pjtaa 
ecu, coBepiuajiKCb rioKymcHno na maa aarnHHHCTpaiiHit He- 

CKO-lbKHX paHOHOB. 

B Kanajie Ho»6pa HecKOJibKO r.iaB auMHHHt i pimn ceil 
nonyHHJiH "Oncpuroe nHCbMO KomtemH BepxoBHoro lloae- 
bofo lilapHaTCKoro cyaa", B itom nHCbwe km npcanaraeTCJi 

OCTaBHTb CBOH A0J1WHOCTH. B tlDOTHBKOM CJiyqaC yrpOJKatOT 

o6i>flBHTb hx "BparaMM Hap04a"H"npHcneiUHHKaMH *CB" 

H iJimil'ICCKM yHKHTOHCHTb CHJiaMH "MOOH/lbHbJX 6oEBb[X 

rpynn" no "npHroBopaM tiojieBbix uiapnaTCKHX cyaoB". 





Bno-iHe OHCBHaHo, hto 3a cuoBaMH o "cyae&Hbix npHro- 
Bopax" cKpuBaeTCfl yrrxna 6eccy,wwx paenpaa. CerojHH 
maBti ce.ibCKHx axMitHHcTpanHii b Me^He hbjIbwtcs npaimt- 

HMKH C.UIHt I BCMUOU HHCTaHUHefi, XOTb KaK-TO ■iallllilH.mi- 

mefi MKiepecw HHTCHdl cejia. Tbkhm o6pa30M, aBTopw nucb- 
Ma cueayioT npHHunny - "hcm xywe, tcm .lyvwc". 

Bcc name ot anBepcKOHHbix 3Ktob, HanpaB.ieHHUx npo- 

THB pOCCHHCKHX (JjClCpajlbHUX CH.1. THOHyT MHpHbie 'jKHTe,1H. 

floa^ac Mecro h apeMB npoaeaeHHn BipweoB BbionpacTcji 
rait, tto noa yaapoM saBeaoisio oKaibiBaiorcs MHpHbie acHTe- 
-ih, Oa«o H3 asyx: jihoo 0praHH3aTopaiu ithx jhbcpchh 
coBepuieHHO 6e3paxiHHHbi jkh3hh rpawaaHCKHX jihu. .ihoo 
OHh i ;iki(m o6pa30M naMopcHHo lanyrHaaiOT scex, kto BCTy- 
naer b hioooh KOHTarr c ijic;K'pa.-ihni,iMi! CTpyioypaMH. H b 
tom, h BapyroM cjiynaeopraHHiaTopbi h Hcrio.iHnit.Mi! Bipu- 
bob — UHHHtHhie npecTynHHKM. 

Mto **e je^aTb'.' Kjkob buxo.i H3 TynHKa Bofmbi? 

Mbi cHHTacM. hto b iiepByio onepeab Heo6xoaHMo bo- 
3o6HOBHTbno, : iHTHHecKHHjiHajiorcnpe3HaeHTOMMeHeHCKOH 
Pecny6/WKH MacxaaoBbiM, jienrrHMHocTb KOToporo 6w.ia 
npitiHaHa wesKayHaponHbiM cooGujcctbom h cbmhm npaBR- 
TejibCTBOM Pocchh. npeaMCTOM i;ikh\ neperoBopOB noflxau 
cTaTbiiocTHJKCHHc npeKpameHHgorHs npenjeHHcp«aa ryiwa- 
imrapHbix npoS^eM (cHaSxteHHC HaceneHHS. paHCKbie, 6e- 

WeHUbl K T.n.). npH 3T0M HeoSxoaHMO liH".MH,in.CM, hto6u 

no tiijik-.in mine KOH<t>:iHKTHwe curyanHH paipciiia-'ittcb 5a 
npHMencHHH cit;ibi. 




HeMHH: KoHTpTeppopwcTMMecKafl onepauj/m v\nv\ BowHa? 



Bonpocw ace (fcyHaaMeHTa-ibHux pa3Homaenfi (bk.ikj- 
laa npoueaypy onpeae.ieHMa ciaTyca HeiHH) Moryr 6uTb 
paipeuicHbi To.ibKO hjtcm aajibHefimero neperoBopnoro npo- 
uccca c yMacTHCM npeacTaaHTCieB Bcero no/timiHccKoro 
cneKTpa Hchhh oes npenBapHTertbHbix ycnoBHft, Hatajiy ko- 
ropwx jo.who npeamecTBOBaTb npeKpameHiie npHMCHCHim 

MiK-K.liln C OOCHX CTOpOH. 

MeaayHapoimoe coo6wecTRo npeanpHHHMaer tionbiT- 

KM CKilOHMTb JipaBHTejlbCTBO PoCCHH K TIO.'IH 1 KHeCKOM) > pc- 

ryjiMpoBaHitto koh<|j ihm.i. Mu cHHTaeM, hto npaaoiaiuHT- 
HbieopramnauHH io.ivkhu BeflHecKHCiueiictBoBaTh ikim\ h 
npHBCTCTBOBatb MeaayHapojHoc nocpeiiHHHecTBo b no.in- 
THvecKOM ypery.iHpoBaHHH KomtwiHirra. 

Ecjih ace. neperosopbi He aajiyT pe3y;ibTaT0B, to npoae- 
Jtenue .iio6wx ck.tobux onepamifi 30.1x110 ocytnecTB-iHTbca c 
co6.nio;ieHiieM ncex HopM MciKayinapoziHoro ryMaHHTapHoro 
npaBii, o5?naHKOcTb coti.'i io.ui 1 1. KOTopwe Pocchh casta .1011- 
poeoJibHO BoxioacH.ia hs ce6fl. 

Mm. 6c3ycj!OBHO. jiojiwku noTpe6oBan>: 

Bo-nepsux. KaKaiaTbBcex bhhobhux BnpecTyn.ieHHJix 
rtpoTHB MHpHoro Hace.ieHHs: 

Bo-BTopwx, HeMeaieHHO npejnpiiHHTb peajibHtie iuani 
no noiicKy acex «HCHe3HyBuinx»3aaep»taHHbix h apecToaaH- 
hux; 

B-Tpen.Hx, HCMeaueHHo jiHKBH.iHpoBaTb Hc.ieia.ihH we 

Tlopi.MI.I B BOHHCKHX HaCTHX; 

B-veTBepTbix, HaseCTH ijieMeHTapHylO aHCUHnjiHHy h 

BOHHCKHX HaCTSX H MII.IHIleik'KHX IIii.ipa3:kM<.'HHS\, npCCC- 

k,u i, iipaK i hkv rpaoeweH u HacHJiHfl bo BpCMS «3aHHCTOK»; 

B-n»TUX, HeMeO-ieHHO BblBeCTH H3 MeHHH Te BOHHCKHC 

■Kici n h Mii.iiiLieifCKne coeawieHHH, Koiopue CKOMnpoMCTH- 
pOBaJtK ceofl HacH.tiieM urn \nipnw\iH i pavK,i;m;iMn 

y HacTHHKH Hauiero <n>e3fla MontK 6u 06-bHBnn. o Hana- 
jie o6tucpoccHKCKOH aKUHH HenpaBKTejibCTBeHKbix opraHH- 
3auHH c ue.ibio .luoHthcs BbiiHhiHenHH acex Bbiuienepemic- 
leinn.ix Tpe6oBaHHH, a nepoyio onepeab iia>!a_i;i neperoBO- 
poB. Taxax 3kuhh, ccjih oHa 6yaeT nposoaHTbcsi. aojiwHa 

HH'Cl I ht'M C UlHpOKOH pa3T>SCHHTe-lbHOH H npOCBeTHTeJlbCKOH 

pa6oru c uc.ii.io AOHecTH jo mnpoKHx cuoes HaceneKim 
Haiueii cTpaHbi nH(j)opwauHio o tom, tto cerojjHa peaiibHO 
tiponcxojHT b MeHHe. o nai >-t>n w \ nocJie^CTBHsx 3toh bohhu 
juis Gyayiuero Pocchh. 

Mbi npmuBacM Haui ci.C3ao6paTHTbca k opraHaM CoBe- 
ra EBponw c npHiuaoM hc ocnaSnjiTb KpHTHHecKOro bhhm.i- 
HH« K COfibtTHlJM B MeHHC He yjlOBJieTBOpHTbCS jieK^apauHH- 
MH, CHMB0.1HHCCKI1MH LOaraMH H MCJIKHMH yCTytlKaMH. He 

0TKa3biBan>cs ot npHHumiHajibHOH nojHimH no othoiuchhio 
k HamcMV rocyaapcTBy b cbssh c 3THMH coobiTHflMH. 

ITo3TOMy aaaattre b HauieM oGpameHmi k CoseTy EBpo- 
ribi OTMeTiiM. hto no Tex nop, notta b Me«tHe: 

— He npeicpauieHo HacHJiite co CTopoHbi 4>e;tepa.ii,f!i,i\ 

CHJI B OTHOUieHHH MHpHOTO HaCC.lCHHM. 

— b bomhckhx Hacrsx h i'iK'iiii;t;ii.nw\ oTpfljiax Minn- 
iiini. iik lomipOBaHHbix TaM, He KaseaeHbi nopimoK n ,mc- 

UMIUIHHa. 

— He onpejiejieHa cyabGa «HCHe3HyBuiHx» 3aaep»caH- 

HWX K apeCTOBaHHWX, 

— He :[iiKiiii:iiipi>BatiM ne.icra:ibfibie TJopbMbi b bohhc- 

KHX H3CTSX. 

— He ikik;i tan i,i BoeHHOCJiyjKaujHe h coTpyaHHKH MB^, 




BKHOBHbie B TSAKHX npCCTynjieHHJtX npOTHB MHpHblX JKHTe- 

aeft, 

— He Bocco3 J aana peajibHO aeftcTByiomait itpaaoaas ch- 
CTCMa, cnocoSnaii 3aiuHTHTb npaea rpaxutan, 

iibl.lO 6bt 11I1HM1M0M TOBOpHTb O peaJIbKOM yjiyHUlCHHK 

en i \ -a i in ii c npaaaMH neJiOBeKa b HeiHe. 

Mu co3Ka.ieeM, hto He 6u;ia Bwno.iHCHa peKOMeHnamifi 
(lap.iaMeHTCKOH AccawojieH CoBeTa EBponu rocyaapcTBaM- 
H.ieHaM Cosera EBponu nepenaTb b EBponeHCKtnl cyj no 
npaBaM HenoBeKa Bonpoc o napy meHHn Pocchch nonoaceHiiH 
EBponeficKOH KonBenunn o 3auiHTe npaB ncioBeKa h ochob- 

HblX CB0O0J, npH OTCJTCTBHH nOnblTOK npCiltHBHTb T3K0H 

MOKrocyjapciBeHHbiH hck npejiocraBJieHHe npaBa ronoca 
poccHHCKOHae.ierauHH b flACE Hao.in*-aHmeH ceccnii o3Ha- 
Ha.no 6w tipiuHaHtie Cobctom EBponu CBoero nojiHoro See- 

CHjIHB. 

JaBafiTc a HaiueM nucbMe np«Mo cKaxceM km 06 9TDM. 

Mocksq. 20 weapM 2001 a 




41 



4 BOI/IHA l/l flPABA HETIOBEKA 



octpoba ryjiArA 

B COBPEMEHHOM POCCMM 

0MflbTPAUHOHHblE nYHKTbl. CEBEPHbIM KABKA3 




Ox pax a (jiH.ibrpauHLiHHoro Jiarepjc HepHOXOiOBO 
ipomo: Cepwu KapnyxvH, Reuters 



CpCtTH } itoiKUH MHiim *cmnnn 
Qomo; B h'y.iuumn. xcypHa.i ullmo^ur 



4 



BOfiHA 1/1 nPABA HEJIOBEKA 



41 




3ajqjKaHMue a 6>HKepe, (Omcbh/iho, paSon cena To/icToH-tOpi J. 
0omo: B. Ky.wuiot. xypwu tHmo.'v*. 




BXOJ1 B DUMH HI 4>H.1hrpaiIHL>HHM\ 

nywrroB. (Cheax.iHO, partem cena 
TaicroiS-fOpT). 

tfiomn B Ky.nisuoB. .m-ypiiux *Hmo€U» 




tl'nibTpanHtiHHMH .narcpb HcpHQKO'JOBO Hchhi . 
<tk>mo HTAP-TACC 



(hs!im 


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i 



<t>H.1I.TpaUHOHHUfl ,1«rcpb MepHOKOlOBO, 

Hcmhu. Mapr 2000 rojia 
'Porno: Ceptei KapnyxuH, Reuters. 





Ho*as napma yjHKKos 
<S»mo. r Kocot, acypHOA -flmv.-u- 



HKBa-IHJ H« (flH.lbTpailHK 

0omo: B. Kyiuuto*. xcypna.i «fim</su» 




HacTOTbi BCiuaHun 



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MCTOPMfl WHAKOMblCJll/lfl 



43 



14pnHa PATYUJUHCKAfl 



Ceptm — i^Bem HageasgLi 



(0parMeHTbi)* 



fi som \iena ee3ym ho nepuou «Boitee». CuasaMi, nmo 
do.uou. Ckoicuu. nmo uacosceM — ovuooowdaiom etuc- 
miw- JJajice sepuy.w nacnoptn 6e3 ottuiemKu ocyduMocmu. 
Hmenept,.iio6e3Ho ebaaa-iucb nodeeimu 6omou — e.ua uiune 
KrE, Hmo 3mo see 3Hanum? H nbimaiocb caSpanth ceou 
Mhic.iu. 3haio. la mhou Hadjiodamm. 3ua<4um — hukqkou 
pacmepitHHocmu, hukokozo npoRSieuuA jmouuu. Cm3biea- 
emcH Hembtpex-iemHHX33KOBCKCui WKO.ia— «e dosepnmb! He 
pacc.iao.isimbCRt CompydmtK KrE pado.u co mhou, eedem 
csemckyio oecedy. OH-mo3Haem. nmoceuwe npouexodum — 
deucmmme.thHoe ocsodoDtcdenue iliu oiepeduou ncuxo.iopu- 
uecKuu jmiod. f! nana ne 3Ha>o. Mue eu{e nojtvaca zmosa He 
vtamb. A ocnosamiu coMueaambCH eno.iue docmamoHHo: 
sedt cuaiaxu .we mhc mpu.uecRua Hti3ad, omnpa&vm Menu 
in MopdoecKoco lacepR. nmo » edy do.uou. A npuexaia r nod 
KoimoeM s mtopb.\<y KrE e Kuese. «Hy tmo, Hpuna Eopucos- 
na. ocsooootcdambCR npuexa-iu? Ho sedb som etue mpu eoda 
.lacepnu numb .icmccbi.iKii... rimuume npouteme o no.uu.io- 
sanuu. mocda — MojKem 6bimb...» Homhio ceoio 3,iocmb a 
jmom MOMenm — He Ha hux. kohchho. na ceou! Om hux uh02o 
u.xcrtamb 6biio ou cmpauHO. non-mo xopouia — nosepuia.' 
H deoe cymOK cneujmanoM ui m.v/w s mtopbxty exam — 
doMou. K Miopia. UMOMe, k codatKe JladyutKe... Hyne dypa 
,iu? Xopotuo. xomb ee6ucma.u ne noKa3a.ia, vmosepu.ia — 
ne depny.iacb, hu ittuo. m< eo.ioc He sbidaiu (cucme.ua 
CmanuciascKoeo). ti mom ncuxo.iopmecKuu jmiod y hux 
ttpo8a.rn.icx: He nucajia r um npouienux o noMtuosaHuu. H 
jmom nposaiumcn mojice, eau imo onepedHou ipokyc. A 
uo.ncem, ho 3mom pa3 ne (potcyc?.. Yjk 6o.tbHO nejieno — dea 
paia noemopstmh odno u mo jce 

A c dpyzoii cmopoubt. mo.io .iu ohu cpoMosdum Hejtenoc- 
meu? 

He dyAtamb 06 jihom! Boh .wembx nadaiom, jiceimbte, 
upacHbte... 

OKmx6pb. Mounxmbiu 33kosckuu OKmx6pb — Heyatce-tu 
noaiedHuu? He dy,\iamb! Boh eeQucm c modoit pastompu- 
eaem... o te.M 6uutb?0 nepeempoiike cucme.ubi o6paioaa- 
hux — u npek-pacHo. 

A 3mo umo 3a 3dauue? A 3mo. ffpuna Eopucoena, 
ttocmpowiu Hedaano. sac mozda 3decb ne 6bno. Hauo.ita.iu. 
Boh napenh c deeyutKou udym e oohumky. flpocKOHtau — ,iuu: 
ne yeudamb Ho, oohoko jtee. \uuuuna ne 3pn nemjutem, som 
u npocneum BepnadcKozo. Bom ocmanacb napa Ksapmajjoe 
do doxta. Hmodbt pym ne dpoxcaiu — jmo epynda. . . 3mo see 
y.vetom. Hy. nonmu see. A som c ny.ibcoM Hoxiep nocioDtcnee. 
Ho Heo6.xodu.uo — r menepb xydax, Kan eeaoctmed. u na wee 
ttudno, icaK KaMcdax .vctaKa 6bemcx. Jlymue scezo acno.utt- 
namb Hana.10 nepsozo nonuepma WauKoecKoeo. see cpa3y 
snympu 3aMed.wemcM. Bom max. Tenepb Mb) « no.mov 
nopRdk-e. Tan tmo ma.\t y nac. moeapuufu. 3a npoepa.it\ia? 
JJeepb omKpbisatom. 



— fJojeo.ibme, 
Itputui EopucosHa. n 
tuiM pniKuiK noMOzy... 
y sac kokou 3mavc? 

Hpaeda, kokou 
imaoK? Adpec no- 
MHHJ, meae(poH noMHK) 
— CKOJbKO pa j pa3- 
Hbw .iiodfLM daeaja. 
Ho imax... xottth 
y6eu.„ 

— TJstmbti. — 
3mo aemoMamttttecKU 
cpaBoma.io, homumo 

CO SIM HUM. UOKOSOlOCb 

eepno. Bom u dsepb 
HyjtcHox, som u 3«o- 
hok, u JladyiuKa yotce 
jaem. Bom oydem no- 
.vep, ec.iu nuKoeo nan 
do.va — KDota-mo v 




If puna rumviuuHcxas 



Men* nem. Hmty ze6ucmoe sceeda ecmb ie.u omk-phtmb? 

— Kmo maM? 

ro,wc \ui if hi 3mo ffeopx momo, ho r ee mostce momou 
som — c mex nop. kqk cumc)\ C mex nop, kok ho cyde. odna 
S3a.ie,yc.ibiuta.iaee k-puKiaxopudopa: ttflycmume, maMMos 
do*tb!» He nycmiau. Htacoso ko .\we na cyd ne nyemtau. Ho 
c mopo caMoeo k-puKa xeu — dovh. a oua une — Ma.ua, 

— Kmo maM? 

Hmo omeemumb? <tffpa»? A Moxcem. uado omeenamb 
«o6hick-»? Bedb ne 3Haio Mce r do cux nop, c te.u Menu ctoda 
npusexiu. 

— Mpa... 

Kopudop. Te xe ziuHXHbie mucku ho cmeHax. 3anax 
do.ua, JladytuKa CKavcm u laem. To .iu mchr ia6bua — 3a 
tembipe-mo c .iuujhum eoda — mo .m vyjKou 6r6r ee CMyiua- 
em. 

Ma.ua. oEMupca; 

— HacosceM? 
rosopio: 

— HacosceM. 

H mojibKO monk: »nu wtaiem. 



Hy, hukohcu. nocjiciHHfi 3TanHbifr ujmoh! UnBM^bnye 

MOH OJtOKKH OTOfipaLlH, 0CT3BHB, HpaBiia, KOJlrOTKH H 

ujepcTBHOH ruaTUK. tlpanopunma, hto ujMOHaeT, oxaianacb 
He Bpeawast, 3ob>t ee JlioSa. flpo njiatOK ona o6i.acH»eT, hto 
Boo6uie-TOHe no.io»ceHo, notoMyMTo KJiernaTWH. Tax «rro 
ewaero nponycTHT, a s hotom paMepraw ero HaHniKii.ain 

HHTOK MiWHO CBfllUTb HOCKH. HOCKH H UBCTHblC He OTHHMyT. 

/laeT mhc »iBa cHTueBux nnarbHua — bot h bcjj mo» jjkobc- 
km oje*Ka. TcrtorpefiKa h canorw y mchs «ycTaHOB.ieHHoro 



■ nepttoo pyewoa uatemn khuzu ehimno e 1959 e. e Overseas PubhcatKmlnterefiengeUti., (8 Queen AnneS Gartens London W4 1TU England) 
Onyfimwwawo m e>ienuua(ou. ippamiyicnoM. »euem(Oi*. tueedwou, &uhckom. damcxoM. mpeexemu, umanbRHCKOt*. aofifiandCKOu u «jfto«craM nihixax 



u 



1/1. ParyiiJMHCKan Cepww — \\bqi Hafle>KAbi 




TamMwa BexuxaHaaa 



o6pa3ixa». rax hto hx oh a 
nportycKaeT. noTOM, noKoae- 
oasuiMCb, cyer n moh bcuih 
TpHKOTaHCHWC cnopiHBHbie 
6pK)KH. (COTOpbie nSTb MHHVT 
H333J CaNia *'C KOH(j)HCKOBa- 

:ia. 

— BcpH, To.ibKo we no* 

Ka3blBa>1 HHKOMV. 

Jlfofia thxo icpTbixacT- 
ch naa K.iFO'iaMii n in po\i- 
HblM 33MK0M. II HaKOMeu Bee 
BOpora CKpimsT. cotpscaioT- 

C9 H OTBOp»K)TCH. Ko.TtOHafl 
npOBOJIOKa. HopOyKKa K .K'pOHHHHi>\i> AOMHk-V. Biia y 
aoMHKa oo.nee HeM Meo4>HU.HajibHbiit: 3Tak*aft .ia'man pa im- 
.iioxa. 3aTo no ry cropoHy KO.ifOHefi nposo.iOKii — BnoaHe 
MiJin[[itiLii.naa i'hib c aaTQMaTHHKOM. BoKpyr aoMHKa 
HecKo.'ibKo ocpej ii Koe-rae ywe npooit.iacb TpaBa. Bot it 
Bcc. 3aecb Miie h QbiTb eme uiecrb aeT h nsrb Meomes — no 
>Ty CTopony sopor. Ha 3tom naraHKe. fto aopowKe no mhc y*e 
iiaeT xyaeHbicas HteKuitiHa c ccjumh Biviocavm Hto-to ecn. 
b ee utile noKopwoiuee cpa3y ii Hasceraa. KaK ee momh 

CyflHTb. rVULlH CH B r.ia3a? 4tO OHH HyBCTBOBaiH? 

— 3apaBCTByfiTe. flaaaftTe aauiH bciiiii. 

IIohtii 6c3 y.ibiGKit CMOTpnM apyr Ha apyra, ho «noHTit» 
tto TaeT, Taer... Bot pacTaa.io cobccm: cjiojKHas sciub — 
nepsufl 33KOBCKHH k ji . is.i! 

Ona HeceT k homv moh toluhh y3enoK, xoTb h bjboc 
craptue Mens. TaK 3aecb itpnHrro scTpetaTb rocTefi. a a 
ceronHS rocrbs. JTio6a c HaMM b .iom hc iiaeT, noBopaniiBaeT 
ofipaTHO. "3to Ha jo nonyBCTBOBaTb: bcc. mtKaKoit oxpaiiu! 
OxpaHa 3a Koaroneft npoBoaoKofi. a 3aecb mibtco mm — b 
HauieM ii'm; C 6oilbUltlM Hanpflj4<eniiCMC03Hanna 3aKpMBam 
3a co6oh CBOio ;iBcpi.: p;n\ >i ii, taa. 

TeMHOBo.iocaJi. cTpaoiHO HCTomeHHa» aesyiUKa c rops- 
uiHMii i lLnasiii — TaHH OcnnoBa. OHaTOjibKO-ToabKO aepHy- 
nacb nocie HeTbipexMecsHHoit ro.no jobkh. 

MajieHbKaa ynhiOHHBas Pan PyaeHKO. TaKoc , , iini!> 

MO>KHO BCTpCTHTb B :iK>6oM yKpaHHCKOM CejC T3K H 

xoneTcs nosjuan, efi imaTOK c nepeaHTbiMii Ha ronoBe koh- 

■mail 

ToHCHbKaH ao npojpaHHOCTH Harauia JIa3apeBa, c ksio- 
kom bojToc. enaaaiowitM Ha jiofi. 

Ats, mto MCHHBBcia b jom, jKenuumac yiiiBHTe.ibHbiM 
aimoM — TaTbsita Be.niKanoBa. Bot ohm — Te, o KOTopbix h 
CT0;ibKO pai cibtuiajia no pajnm! Moe kmh km HHHcro He 
roBOpHT: h chjjit ohh He nepBWH roil, h no piano mchu He 
TaK-TOHBCToynoMHHajiH. Moh cpoK roBopHT hm ojHo:pa3 
cTOJihKO aaJTH — SHaHHT. cyaHnit Ha YKpaHHe. 

M onjiTb pa3roBopi>i. CMex, c-iacT;iH8a« n>TaHHua. 3 
aeHCTBtrrejibHo cnacTaKBa: no moh hom. 3to moh apy3bM. 
Bee ohh saMopeHbi, ojeibi b icaKyio-To pBaHb, ho KaK 
:u'P'*ai en ! Bee mok.iv coooii Ha «bu», xotx h aaBHO 3HaK0- 
Mbi. "3xa ,i"CTaHuna HeoGxo.iii wa, Koraa WMBeuib b TaKoii 
TecHoie. noaiepKHyTas Be5K.3HBOCTbo6s3biBaeT Hepaupa- 
>KaTbc* no MeaonaM. He Jiern, apyr apyry b ayuiy, hc ae;iaTb 

Tex CWCMH HyTH blX 33K0BCKHX OUI HOOK, KOTOpbie ofipaUiaiOT B 

aa yronosHue aareps. 



— He taK CTpauina TtopbMa. CTpaunibi a huh, — 
roBoptLia MHe Ha 3Tane no'«)i.ian TeTB Bepa. 

3aecb, b Hanicfi 3one, awaK He cTpauiHij hmciiho 
noTOMy, HTOJiBDan, nycTbMtiBcec6nTbi BoanH6apaK. nycTb 
HiiuieHCKiioaeTb[.nycTbnpnxoa>rrco6bicKaMiiiinorpoMaMH 

— Mbi.iroaH. Hae He 3aciaBnT ciaTb tia 'tcTBcpeKbKii. V tiac He 
npiiHHTo Bbino.iHHTb HjaeBaTe.ibCKiie n;in oeccMbic.ieHHbie 
TpeooBaHiis aaMiimicTpamtii, iiotomv hto mm HeoTpeKaeM- 
ca ot cBoefi CBOooati. /la. MU%i<BeM 3a npoBo.ioKon. \ Hac 
OTOopajiH ace, HToxoTenH.OTropoan.inoT apysermpoaHbix. 
ho noKa mm He coy^acTByeM b ttom aceM caMH — mm 
cBoooaHw. A noTOMy KasK.ioe aarepHoe npeamicauHe noa- 
BcpracTcs Hauiefi npooepKe Ha paiyMHocTb. BcTaBaTb b 
mecTT. yrpa? noneMV 6u hct. PaftoTaTb? fla. ecan ne 6oabHt>i 
ii He oacrycM — noneMy 6u He uiurb pyKaBmiw ans paobHHx 

— aeao hhctoc h hccthoc BbinoaHHTb HOpMy? 3to y»c 
jaBtiCHT ot Toro. ao KaKoro coctoshhs bu Mac aoBeaeTe: 
6yayr CHau — rto'-KaayiicTa, neT — Heo6eccyabre... Hocim, 
3>K0BCKyiooae*ay? Bee paBKo y Hae apyrofi hct. a npHKpbi- 
BaTbcs hcm-to naao. Ho bot pacHiimaTbxiH sac 3anpern> n« 
3ohv mm hc nofiaeM: hii npuMoe. hh KocBeHHoe cTpOHTeab- 
ctbo TiopeM h aarepeii OjIh Hac He npiieM.teMO. Ha nopuiy 
He paooracM — ?to y*c same cropoKeaoe ae,3o. 3anpeT 
aapmb hah oTaaBaTb HTo-HH6yab apyr apyry? 3to hc Bame 
aejio, HaacMOTpuiHKii h KareoHCTw. — ii aapirrb 6yaeM. h na 
BpCMH aasaTb, a Haao — TaK noc.ieaHioio py6auiKy chmmcm h 
otaaaHM. sac hc enpocscb. BcTanaTb no ctohkc «cmhpho». 
Koraa Bxoairr HanaTbCTBO? Bo-nepsux, bu HaM hc Hana.ib- 
ctbo. a saiiia TtopeMHas wepapxHH Hac hc HHTepecyer — mm 
He BauiH coTpyaHHKH. A BO-BTopwx, 3TO My%HHHaM no 
npaBH.iasi xopouiero noBeaeHim caeayeT scianai i, nepea 
■*eHiunHaMH. a He HaooopoT. y sac apyrwe ROpMN noseae- 
HHJi?/la, My y*e 3aMeTHJiH, Tpyano 6buio6u hc laweTirrb. 
Ho Mbi y>K oeraHCMca npw cbohx: c Baiuero pa3pcujeHiiH 
h.ih 6e3 TaKOBoro. Kohchho. 3a 3to 6yayT pacnpasbi, mm 
3HaeM. Ho tbk mu He noTepseM CBoero HeaoBCHecKoro 
aocTOHHCTBa ii hc npeBpaTHMCH b apeccnpoBannM\ jkhbot- 

HblX. 

lijBo.ibTe oopaiuaibcji c hbmh bc»lthbo h Ha «bm», 
Hii.i'ic Mbi hc OTBeTHM, it bw GyaeTe ao xpimoTM setuaTb hto 
BaM yroaHo b nycrory — mu Bac aawe He SyaeM taMciai i. 
He npHCTaBafiTe k HaMC BauniMH no.iiiTHacaMii.aooaaaMK 
h npo'iefi nponaraHaoii — mm npocTO BuitaeM hi aoMy h hc 
6yaeM Bac cjiymaTb. H cKa^er 6e3Haae)KHo Manoaofi ofyu- 

liep 1 1 liiiiioKiiir 

— Jlynuie iiMerb ae,io c asyMn cothhmh ypoK, ieM c 
sauJCH Maaoff MHOft, 

A coOcTBeHHO, no^eMy? Mm sceraa BeaaiHsw — it c 
HaMii, ii Me>Kay cooofi. Zlpaic ii BOposcTsa y Hac Her, b 
no6erw neyxoawM, PyKaBiiuw — h TeuibeMao6pocoBecTHO. 
HOJib npoueHTOB 6paKa.. Kopoie, iKHaeM KaK nioait — 
oxpane HHKaKofi pa6oTbi. 

— A noTOMy, — o6tiIichht h3m otkoobckhmh IHhujo- 
khh, — hto, Koraa Bxoatitub b yronoBHyto 30Hy, anacib 
HyscTByeiiib. 

OanaKo 30Ha crasKT nepeao mhoh npoSaeMy, c 
KOTOpofl s paiibtue He craiiKHBaaacb — HarpyanufoHaK.Ha 
3Tane, kohchho, BHaejia — ho Ha apynix. Mto ^to TaKoe? Ha 
nepBMH B3rjuia, HeBUHHas urryHKa — npaMoyroJibHHK hi 






M. PaTyuMHCKafi Cepbiw — qBeT Hafle>Kflbi 



45 




Tumi-HHu Ocunmta 



HCpHOH TK3HH. a Ha HCM — 

i}i.IM U ] ItH . till II (Ill.i !(.[ II BOMep 

OTpH.ia. KaKoro oTpaaa? % 

BpOJie6bl HUB KaKHXOTpBjaX 

h apranitjauHJix He coctoio 

— BOT paiBC TO.lbKO naeH 

Me*ayHapoaHoro HEH-Kay- 
6a, c Moero Beaosta h coraa- 

CHJt. Opiami iiillHH tl OTpJUbl 

— aeao ao6poao;ibHoe a.i» 
CB060.iHt.1x jnoaefi. Hy. tjt 
MOerO COI.I.K'HH hhkto He 
cnpauiKBaer: .iaifpn;t« aa- 
MHHHCTpauHH pacTacoBMBa- 
CT Bcex tak\iK>'n.-HHi,i\ no 
OTpaaaM, ay orpnaoB — ho- 
Mepa... Harpy ahhh 3HaK 3tot 

no/io)K£Ho HauiHBaTb Ha oae>Kay 11 Bceraa HocMtb Ha ce6e. 
3ko6h iLtn Toro, hto6 nerne pacnoinaTb, kto ecTb kto. Hto 
3a tryuib! B 3ohc — neTbipe HcnoBCKa, » mrraji. hwiiaiii k 
6ya>r npcMcua, Koraa n nanic>i 30He 6ojibme accsTH — ho 
HCMHornM6o,fibLue... TaK3a*ieM»ce?A — no3aKOHyno;io>Ke- 
ho... Hto me, HauibK) ft Ha ce6a 3tot narp>;nu,in inaK h.ih He 
BHBUO? 

3tot Bonpoc 3aaaioT mhc coyimiiibi Ha BTopoii »te 

JMHb, Rl.lii.fH CO MH0H IipiMltapM KMI.HO H3 aoMy. 

JI-to iHaio. HTO Majias 30Ha nai p\ jiiux 3H3KOB He 
hocht: 3to oaHo us Tex caMbix HiaeBaTe.ibCKHx h oeccMbic- 

ICHHblX TpCOOBaHHH, Ho Mbl BCJb hc OTpaa, H jihhho MCHH 
TpaHHUHH 30HW HH K HeM}' He 06H3bIB3K>T — 3T0 ae.10 MOCil 

cobcctk. Hhkto hi mohx hobux apyseft He noTpeSyeT, hto6 a 

Be.;?CeOJlTaK. KaKOHH, — MUCB0604HUC/ll0flK. ^TOTOBOpHT 
MOB COBeCTb? nOHSTHO. HTO OHa TOBOpHT, a yace 3HaK) OTBCT. 

ho ot MeHH hhkto He >KaeT OTBeTa CHto ceKyHay. CeHHaf 
roBOpHT TaTwma Muxaii lOBna: mhc. KaK h bccm na 

CTpOTOM pCMCHMC. POJIOWeHO TpH CBM.iaHHH C pO.lHblMH B TOa. 

Ojho — uiHHHoe, ot cyroK ao Tpex, Ha ycvioTpeHHe aaMH- 
HHCrpauHH. JlBa apyrax — o6«aTejibHO c im icpsa.um b 
noaroaa — KopoTKHe, asa naca. ^>th cBinamis — nepe3 
(rroa (Hc.ibjR aasKe nouejioBaTbCJi ). a Me*tay HaMncnaHT 
kto-toh3 oxpanbi. aeon mw rosopHM «Henoao»ceHHoe» — 
cH.i.umnc npepbiBserca. . i.Ttiiuioe CBHaaHHe a Mory noay- 
HHTbtipaMO cennac. KaKoe ito 6yner gjiaxeKCTBo — xoth 

6bl CyTKH B KpOXOTHOH "KOMHaTe CBHaaHHH» B.lBOeM c 

HropeM, h 6es nocTOpoHHHx! H KaK MHe Hy«Ho ito cswaa- 
hhc aeab b rajioBe y mchs ue.ibiH HOBbifi c6opHHK cthxob — 
nepeaaTb 6u ero Ha cBo6oay... H KaK HywHo 30He sto CBHaa- 
hhc, oHcpeaHyro HH^opMaumo aaBHo nopa nepeaaTb, Beab 
3a3To BpeMJi irroTonbKo He npoH3oujao: H HeTbipCXMeCS'lHaH 
roaoaoBKa Tanii Ochhoboh, h b UJH30 hotth bcc nepefiwBa- 
ait, h 3a6acTOBKa 6waa... 06 ttom TaTbSHa MMxafi-ioBHa. 
BnpoHCM, mojIhht, aasi raKHx pairoaopoB co mhoh eme He 
npcMs. Ohb o6i>jrcHJieT MHe c.ieaytomee: -iioooro H3 canaa- 
hhh aaMHHiscTpauHfl Mo*eT mchh .iituiHTb — «3a Hapyiue- 
HHe pe%HMa»K rioKa n eme hh b KaKHx «HapyuieHHnx» He 
wMCHcua, h npneab Hropt ceroaHa — no laKOHy HaM 
CBHaaHHe ao.T*nu aaTb. Ho npHeaeT oh hc paHbiue neM 
nepei Heaeaio — noKa no/iynnr moc nHCbMo c aapecoM 
lOHbi, noKa aoSepeTCS... A c narpyaHUM 3hskom peiuHTca 
3aBTpa, h ccjih a ero He HaaeHy, to cbhj3hhs BnoaHc inoryT 
aniuim., Beab iia.iinio «HapymeHHe»... 



PoaHofi moH, iK'nn\i),iii. npocTHmb nn tm mchji, tto h 
CT3B.1IO Haiuy c toooh BCTpeHy noa yrp03y? Ho tw we 
3Haeuib, hto MHe HHane HeJitsa. hto hc ao/r>KHa % aa*c oann 
pa3 iTpwrwyTb nepes 3Ty TiopeMHyio naaoHKy... KaK 6bt tw 
nOBea ce6a na mogm MecTe? Mw Beat aaaH apyr apyry caoao 
Koraa-TO; b cnynae apecra He no'JBoauM uiaHTa*HpOBaTb 
ceoa apyrapyroM! PoaopK): 

— HeT, KOHenHo, 3HaK ji hc HaaeHy. 

HaTauia 113 -leHHHrpaaa. Chaht 3a inaaHHe «eHCKoro 
JKypHa^a «Mapnji».caMH3aaTCKoro,pa3yMecTC*. T7po6^eMU 
aBoiiHoro weHCKoi o paSonero ans — boccmi. hbcob Ha pa6o- 
tc, a iiotom eme tacoa nHTb-tuecTt no onepeaJiM 3a npoayK- 
t3mh. Ha KOMMyHanbHoff KyxHe 3a iipm imob icHHcM o6eaa, 
Haa tasoM co cthpkoB h;i acto ceMbio — noTOM, roay b 86- 

M, nOSBSTCS B 0(J)HHHa J TbHbIX COBeTCKHX ra3eTax. Ho B 82-M, 

Kin :1a HaTaujy apecTOBajiH. 3to cHHTa-iocb aHTHcoBercKOH 
at MTaimefi k nponaraHaon. y Haiaiun HiMyseHHue rjia3a h 
BeceauH pot. 
<„.> 

3aBipa Harauia aowHTca b Go. i i,n»u\ : hto- to y Hee c 

KHUieHHHKOM OT 33KOBCKOH IIIIUIH. Ill 6oabHHUb[ IV 

BbiroHST ia o6meHHC cxo3o6cayrofi, k-'ilmiiim «ma hhk;imm ,> 
we no.iyHHT, ■ ao Hataia 84-ro roaa ee 6yayr o6i>flBjiirrb 
CHMyaaHTKofl h ornpassT BlIlM30.K84-My MUKoaaeKTHB- 
HbtMH rojioaoBKaMH ao6beMcs a;ui Hee .ichchhh. Eeo6cjieay- 

K)T H 06Hapy>KaT 3anymeHHbIH M3BeHHbIH ko.iht, KOTOpbti) s 

narcpHbix ycaommx Bbi-ieHHTb ywe hcbo3mo*ho. Ho noKa y 
Hac MnpHbifl. BeccabiH aenb. OaHH H3 HCMHomxcnoKOHHUx 

aHefi, HTO HaM OCTaaHCb. npHHOCST VAI1H — STO 3H3HHT> 

njtTbnacoB.B cojTchoh Boaen.iaBatoTKycoHKHHeHHuieHHOH, 
c nOTpoxaMH h Heuiyefi. pu6b[ h HechoabKo KapioiunH. 
PaeHKa oepeTCJi 3a aeao: OT.iaBJiHBaeT pu6y k KapTouik-y H3 
oaHKa. hhctht (aynuie no3aHO. hcm HHKoraa). KpouiHT Bee 
3to c necHOKOM h 3KOHOMHO noaHBaeT noacoaHCHHbiw 

MaCJIOM H3 1 1> ) l,J pi, Ka ■ 3TOTO Macaa H3M Hi); I nweiio no nuTHaa- 

uaTb i pa m moh b aeHb. a o c;ihbohhom Ha o.iii-A'aiiiimc roau 
aynuie 3a6biTb. Ca.iaT «Maaa» 3ona» totob. Y/khh .ictkhh. 
«HacTo»uiHeaeaH nocne laecTHHacoB hc eaJrr», — cMeeMcs 
Mbl. JX& h Hcnero 6oabuie cctt., tsk hto aynuie cMe^Tbcn. 

TaH» OcnnoBa BKaionaeT TeaeBH30p. Oh y Hac 
crapenbKHH, HepHo-oe.iuH.KOHeHKO. h Bee apcMs aoMaeTca. 
Ero npnxoasT hhhhti., h oh paooraeT eme napy aHefi — ao 
c.ieayKimeR cropeamefi .iii\iin,i Byayr ootom iioiiw ikh 
aaMMHHCTpamiii BbiBccni BbiK.iW4are.ib Tciesinopa 11a Baxry 

C TeM, HTo6bl OTK-llOHaTb ero no CBOeMy yCMOTpeHHK). Ho Mbl 

c Tanen ismkhcm hvjkhwc npoaoaKH. a aaMiiHHCTpaiiiis 
caciaeT BHa. hto itoto hc 3aMeTHaa — ne Bee TyT imam, KaK 
HoaycT. h naeBaTb hm. b KoneHHOM chctc, hto h icoraa mi 
cmotphm — ;iHtiib6btHe nocaeoTOos. Mepw npHHSTM — 
h T04Ka. mowho 0THHTaTbc» nepea KoMHccHefi. Ho ceroaHfl 
BenepoM HaM hhkto roJioBy He MopovHT, h cmottjhm mi..i 
cnckTaK^b no Pocraiiy — aoopbtft crapbiii CttpaHo ae Bepwe- 
paK.CKpaHoyMHpaeT, h TaHn n^aner. OHa T3Kan, nania Tans 
— mowct ii.niKaTb Haa (pnabMOM Haw KHHrofi, a Moacer 
neTBepo cyroK 0TKa3biB3Tbcx ot Boau Han nnuiH. oana b 
KaMepe, 6c30 bcukoh noaaep-*KH — noK3 eft He Bepnyr 
OTHHTyKj Eh6.thk>. H lin6.hiHi.KaK6o6iiKn. npHHOCBT06paT- 
ho: iwrrbiG cyrKH «cyxofi roaoaoBKK» — aepHas CMeprb, a 
aonycTHTb cMeprb noJumaK.TKmenHofi h-j-33Eh6jihh — 3to 
a.TJi hhx "HOKe.iaTc.ibHaji ooacKa»... DpaBaa. noaacpwKa 



4t 



14. Pav/iuviHCKaR CepbiH — uBeT h-a^e^bi 




HamaibH Jarapeno 



TaneBTOT pajowaa c BechMa 

H CO All, "1.3)1 I toit CTOpOHbi: B 

coceamix KaMepax cuaeaH 
yroaoBHimbi. m bcc ohh npo- 
sean oaHOjmeBHyio roaoaoB- 
kv b noaaep5KKV TaiiH. Cook- 

pajlHCb lOJUUIil. II .M.lhlMC. 

ho caMa Tans oxroBopiiaa — 
c yrojioBHHuavm pacnpaBa 
npome, ieM C noaHTHiecKH- 
Mil, il OHH 61,1,111 w.i He b paB- 

HOM noaOWCHIIH. 

Mbl c TaTUHHoB Muxafi- 

.10BH0M RMMVIHM nOCMOT- 

peTb Ha mci.n.i. h HiopKa 
VBJtlblBaCTCH C na'-m. Fobo- 
pJtT. KOUIKII HC paSJIHHaiOT 

ueeTOB, it h HHk-oraa He yjHaio, KpacHas Bereabrefoc h 

wearas Kaneaaa ,~un HiopKii o.iHoro uacTa nan hct? Mu 

rOBOpilM )i 00 MOM. II 1 1 nil 01 1 1 1. ic, K O C ! pall HO 1 1 HCIlpHH Hill 

TarbflKbi Miixaii-ioBHtii k My;tbT(j>H.ibMaM, ii o Tex. kto Ha 
CBoSoae: hm cciinac TpyaHee, neM HaM. V' Hac-TO ceroaHS bcc 
cnoKOHHO, aoHHTa\(iaHacnepe*itBaioT. AnoKa HanmuetDb 
ntfcbMo. nofca oho npoiiaeT ueniypy h aoiiaer — ciiTvaiiHs, 
mojkct 6i,! 1 1,, iKisicHHcicM Ohh 6yayr ayMaxb. hto see h 
i mpH.'iKc. a Hac pacnnxaioT no KaMepaM mipafpHoro H30jih- 
TOpa — LUM30. ITHCbwa npo 111 1130, BnpoucM. uemypa 
He nponycKaer: «Hhk3khx ynoMHHaHufi npo h;iku j.huih" ■• 
OHitTaKtieiacTeHHHBbie, Haii]nre6ncTbi: MopaoaaTbHac ohh 
roTOBU ao SecKOHeHHOcTH, ho rax. mto6 06 3tom hhkto He 

lHa.1 H HTOO Mbl C3MH CKpl.IBU.lll, a TO HHCbMa HC ttJXMtyCTJIT. 

Hct y*. aoponie. mu eaeaacM tek, htoow Bee 3Hanw, hto 
npoHcxojiHT b Hatuefi Kwe. JlHUjaihe Hac CBiuaHHii. nepe- 
KpuBairre nepenHCKy — HH4>opMauHH bcc paBHO aofiaeT 
icyjia Hajio h Koraa hmo. KaK? 3to ywe Haiun 33kobckhc 
ceKperbi. 

Hayrpo Pac»iKa Pvhchko HaHMHaer xjionoTaTb. *no6u 
KaK-Hii6yjb mchh npiioaeTb, — KpnBN MHe aBacirrue- 

BblX TUiaTbH XBHO HC TO CC30H/. 

Tojia 3a riojiTopa ao Moero npHe3aa itauiiiM noneMy- 

TO BUfla-lH <OKCae3H0a0D0>KHblC» TiaaTbfl-KOCTJOMbl 113 

ruioTHofi XjionnaTKH. Ha hhx WBtBSBBPKBBm nyroBimtj c 
nepcKpctueKHbiMH BKHTOBKaMii. HbH 3T0 cpopMa nonajiacb 
30He — ocTaeTCH TOJibKO raaaTb. 3anac J iHBafl PaeiKa(oHay 
Hac aHeBaabHas ) npHbeperaa oaHy Taityio po6y, Koraa kto-to 
ye3waa s ccuaKy. — «ajist Tex, kto npHeaer», 3 Mory aea 
pasa b hcc sascpHyrbCfl, 3HaHHT, noaHas cBoooaa ^acoHa: 
MaTepnaaa xaaTHT. Cmciuho, Ka3aaocb 6w, rae ywe "ryr ay- 
MaTbo4>acoHc! Kto Hac vbjuht? flan a cava ce6s fBtymoKf. 
caMoeQojibuioe 3epKajio b 3ohc — no pa3MepycaecepTHyio 
TapejiKy. A bot noaw >k tm — xceHiUKMa — Be3ae»ceHujHHa. 
H h ofiayMbiBaio csoto Gyaymyio loSicy — HerbipextoiHHKa 
h^h uiecTiticiHKKa? — co seen cepbe3H0CTbK). Hy, Mosser 
6bm>. — He co Bcefi cepLe3HocTtio: Beab caMa *e CMeiocb. 
Ho TeM hc MCHee... C oWbtuoii oxotoh Gepycb nepeaejiaTb 
TaKyro *re po6y svm Pae^KH. Ha CBOooae h hcmhoaki> ujHJia 
(noan naH,in HTo-Hi«6yab npitnHHHoe aa moh koiichkh!). h 
ccii'iac naibubi HCTOCKOBanHCb no htojikc 

I'actKj. BHilH i a Koii moh 3Hiy3Ha3M, TauiHT MeHH «b 
KHHo6yaKy». Korjia-To panbuie b 30Hy npnB03H.in ^KabMbi ii 



Kpynun hx pa3 b Hcacaso. Bwna KpoxoTHas npncTpofiKa k 
aoMy 0-th Bcero 3Toro o6opy,ioBanns, Motom (piMbMaM npn- 
uie,3 KOHeu. oSopynoBaHiie yBeiiit, a b KHHOoyaKe BaaHKiTCH 
CTapue reaorpeicKH h «6a6yuiKHHbi TpanKHw. HoneMy «6a- 

6yUIKHHbIM? 

A OKaTUBacTcn, b 30He 6i,i.iii MteHiiiHKfai, okh.tckuihc 
paHbiue no 20-30 aeT, a HeKOTopue ii nooo.nbiue b apyrnx 
aarepjrx. Ohh H3ceKTbi«HCTHHHO npaaociaaHbix xpncTHaH» 
— Tex eme, KOTopue nocae MyneHKHecKOH cMeprit naipH- 
apxa TnxoHa o({)HUHa.ibHyiocoBeTCh'yio UepKOBb npaBocJiaB- 
hoh He iipniHa;iH h HonoMy naTpnapxy, nocajKCHHOMy Cojtb- 

UieBltKaMH, He no 1'N 1)1 1 1. IIIC I, V'm.TII B KaiilKOMObl. KUK 

nepBbie xpiicTiiaHe — xpHCTKaHeitocaeaHiic. aepHbiey6HCH- 
HOMy naTpttapxy ii paccTpeufiHHOH UepKBH. )Kim> ohh watm 

B MHpy (KTO 6 HM n03BOJ1IL3 MOHaCTbipH?), HO C pS.IOM 
OrpaHHHeHIIH: Hit B KaKHXO^KUHajTbKblXCOBerCh'HX VHpOK- 

acHimx He paooTain.coBeTCKHxaeHer iiaoicyMCHTOBBpyKH 
hc opajiH — moji, 3to bcc ot caTaHU. rioapaoaiyBaaH 
nacTHbiM nop«aKOM y aoopbix aioaefi. a Te n,iaTnan hm 
xaeooM ii oacjKaoii. KOTopas cbmhm hc HywHa. JXnn 
rocyaapcTBa ohh. kohckho. 6bian xtocthumh HapyuiHTe- 
isMii nacnopTHoro pe*ima, yKaoHsioiniiMHCH oTTpyaoBofi 
IIOBHHHOCTH. aa eiUC K TOMy we He3aperHCTpnp0BaHHuvtH 
BepyiotiiHMH. Hcho npH 3TOM, hto no.iyMa.iii cpoK 3acpoK0M. 
A B aarepux. onHTb we, Ha paSoiy He Bwxoanaii. 

3HaHKT ■ — He Bbuie3aaH H3 KapuepoB. CBQIDUtO hx 
yMepao no .larepsvt — hhkto. KpoMe KPB. He 3Haer. A 
HCKOHipi.lc BblAIIJIII, HOI 113 HHX-TO II 6btJlH Hatiin <(5a6yuj- 
KH». TaK HX HajblBa.H1 B JOHe — B QoabUJHHCTBe OHH 6bt/3H 

y-ACCTapue iifuvibiiuic'liii npoiero33KOBCKoroHaceaeHns 
h aas oxpaHW — Ha Bcex iTanax ii nepecbiaKax — Swjih ohh 
«MOHaujKH». M Hac noTOM no HHepunn TaK Ha3biBa.ni: 

— OrKyaaeaeiub? 

— C «tdoRkh», c iioam iihcckoh 30HU. 

— A-a, MOHataiKa, 3HaHHT... 

l.llloMHH.UICf. HM. RH.1IH'. 3TH THXKC, HO yiH.pHhIC, 

BcwaiiBbic wciiiuiiiibi. ,1a ii KaK He taiioMHinb: nopMaabHax 
33MKa, ecaH mo He TaK, HiMaTepnaa 6u c Hor ao roaoBbi, a 
3Ta: 

— IlpocTH Te6« Bor, cwhok! 

H o aawe oc Bo6o)Kaanc b hoc ae o h epeanoro cpoKa , c npaB- 
xy ooocBoooJKacHHH b pyKii He B03bMer. TaK h yfiacifics 
caimoH oyMawk'H. Ha houlii'i sepHbiii cpoK. H c ee tohkh 
jpeniiH. 3T0 HOpMaabHo: a KaK we, oHa 3a Focnoja cipaaaeT. 
A HeHopMaabHbie KaK pa3 MU bcc — catanc iiOKopaeMCfi I 
Bjiacm caTaHKHCKOH — ToabKo htoSu OTcraaii h HewyHHan. 
A rae w 3to aiuano. hto6 caTana OTCTaa? Oh tOBUBa ryme 
B03bMeTCs. aaabuie n.i>ui> sneiei... TaKas 6biaa h ocraeTcn 
hx aoniKa. HeKOTopue hi hhx eme whbu. ciiasT no 
ccuanaM. V' HauiHx «6a6ynjeK» HeKOTOpux ywe n ccuaKa 
KOKMiiaacb, ho cHOBa b 30Hy ohh i e ripHexajiii: TaKH OTCTaa 
tanma, oTMasacs. A apyrnc eme chsxt no aarcp«M — c 
SCHMMH anuaMH, toTOBbie yMepeTb 3a Tocnoaa — hct necm 
Bbime. 

HanaabCTBO, BnpoHCM, k kohuv caeayiouieii ihmi.i 
1 1 u >\ n.i i ii. icc i. : K3KOC TaKOe mi* hcc oe. i i,c ticyc iantmacn no- 
ro oSpanta? HHMtHee 6eabe wchiuhhc no/ioweHO oaHO — 
xaonnaTbiH mciiiok iia HWRSX, in toh we iKaun, m KaKoii 

npOCTblHH. A BCeOCTaibHOC — H31,HTb II CWCHb. A TO H 

snpaBay hc 3aMep3Hyr. KaK we Toraa BocnnTaTejibHaa pa6o- 
Ta? H it ii,h:ih, h coHcraH. Xopouio xoTb. «6a6yiiiKKu hc 



4 



i/lCTOPl/lfl HHAKOMblCJlHfl 



« 



3HaiOT, hx K tomv BpeMeHH b aarepe y*;e He ou.io. BepiiT. 
HaaepHoc. ao chx nop (kto 5khb), ito xoti> hcmhoto Hac 
ooorpeait. paayroTcs. 

H nycTh hc snaioT. MosKer. 11 aav«. titTaTe.ib. man. 6m 
?Toro hc cnc.ioBa.io? Bee paBHO hc ocTanocb yacc Ha cfieie 
«6a6yuiKHHoro>> auiiiKa. n hc npouiHoeT Bac Haa hum cae3a. 

13oHa Hama Tenepb laxpuTa. ho MeMopitaa Taw CyaeT HecKO- 
po. 

Ilpnexaaii HOBeHbKtie: JljBiira EeasycKeHe h TaibSHa 
B.ia.iHMHpoBa. flaBiira in JIhtbu. poBecniiua Moei't \iaTepn. 
3ro y Hee BTopoii cpok, nepBbiii ona no.iyin.ia eme wico.ibHH- 
iiefi. Koraa coBeTctcite aoficKa <cocao6oan.m» JlHTBy. Toraa 
no Bceft ripit6a.iTiiKC w.ih noBa.tbHwe apecTM. Cama.ni He 
TOJibKO Tex. kto QKaibiBaa conpoTifaieHvie (nycTb aaate 
Mopa:ibHoe). ho it Tex. kto b npHHumte Mor 6bt ero 0Ka3arb. 
Hyropa-UM.ioxe flaanry laHsibHa iiiko ikhi.ix cnopTHBHbix 
copes ho Ban max BTopoe mccto c KOHua no crpeaboe! 3to, 
bo.is sauja. noaoipirreabHo: 3aieM OHa crpeaim> V'ihtcji? 
CnopT? 3waeM mm raKoii cnopi! H ^astira no.iVHH.ia hh 
MHoroHii \ia:io aBaauaTbnsib.ieT. H iacTO ayMaaa: a tto 

*' OblJlO C TeM napCHbK-OM MvlH TOM aeBHOHKOH, KTO 33HB.1 

nepaoe mccto? no aoriiKe Toro BpeMemi — npwroBOp 
ao.i*eH 6biJi 6brrb emc Kpyte? Ho no KoaeKcy Toro ace 
BpeMeHit — ooabuiero cposa He 6m.io: 3a «HeTBepTaKOM» 
uiea cpa3y paccTpea... 

H jam a Hama. oaHaKo, bcc asaauaTb nuTb He orctueaa 

— TO.IbKO BOCCMb. ripOIU.ia It HCpC3 IIODOH B TK>pbMC M 

tepei Cn6itpb. it Ty6epKy.ie3 3apa6oraaa. I"Iotom hs cBo&oae 
JieiHjiH anTii6itoTKKaMH — Hcnopmm ch neneHb. K hbm 
OHa npnexaaa y*e c Bbipe taint mm a-l'.tihmm nyiupeM. Ea- 
TtouiKit! A HCM WX mm ee KopMHTb 6yaeM? Beab HywHa 
aneia, a rae ce B03bMeuib? Ch «K0M6it>KHpa». KoiopbiM HaM 
•janpaBaajoT oaaanay, h 3aopOBa»-T0 3a5o.ieeT! Bot PaeMKe 

HVlKHa .IHCTa — T3K OHa TO.lbKO OfopoaHMMH OBOIliaMM H 

■*itBeT... JJa MHoro jih SaBHre ewaerb? OKaibiBaeTcs. 
nopflaotKo: 4+3. 3a hto? A, OKaibiBaercn, Ma.io efi 6biao tcx 

BOCbMH JICT, H TTO CtSjIMH CC CBOCH CMCpTblO OCBo6oaH-1 — 

BOBce ne HacTaBHao ee Ha nyrb crpoirrcafl KOMMyHinwa. OHa 
b Bora yBeposaaa! H, peBHOCTHaa KaroaitHKa. noMOraaa 

MSTOKHUM .1HT0BCKHM CBHIUCHHKKa.M B0CnHTbIB3Tb B Bepe 

aeTefi h Moaoacwb! Y huh h TeaTp 6wa caMoaefrrcabHuii. h 

COBMCCTHMC HTCHHIi... A TVT aO BJiaCTH aOpBiLlfJi CTapufl 

teKHCT AHaponoB. » noacrcan pa3Hap«aKH Ha hobmc 
apecTw. JloKaTH-iocb n ao ripn6a.iTHKn — bot Haiua naHH 
flasiira it uecb. 

BbicoKaH.xyaaa.oHCHb npHMoaepacamaiicfl. flo-pyccKH 
roBopHT, xot» ii c TpyaoM noHaHaay noa6npacT c.ioBa. OHa 
hc iii.'|in:i« b 3ohc H3 . liiTBhi, ao nee cHaeaa Hiiiioac 
Caaynaiue. no vvkc yui.ia na caoooay. V flasum xopoiuaii 
yauGxa h. KaK noroM OKa3a/iocb. see yMeiomnc pyKit 
TaaBnas ee 6o.it, — Te uiKo-ibHiiKii uiecTHaauaTH-ccMHaa- 
uaTH aer, kotopmx 3anyra.iH KaicoeiuHiiKii h npiiHyanaH 
aasaTbHa HecnoKa3aHHH. ToBopHT, HeKoTopwc njiaKMH Ha 
cyae. npocii.in y Hee npouiCHHfl. KaKOHHTenepb — c tbkhm 
HaaaoMOM sayuie? Bmctost an 3th aent (ona hx HasbmaeT 
aeTbMH!) b coBeTCKofi MscopyoKe Haw HaBCK noTepsioT bcc 
4T0 aaaa hm loiHuuecKan Bepa? H MoaHTBbi ee 3a hhx — 
nycTb rocnoab hm npociHT MaaoaeTHioio oiuiouiHocTb. 
nycTb noMoacer noaHSTbcs! Eme nepemiBaeT 3a cuHa: oh 
trryaeHT. Kaic na HeM oTpasHTc* ee apecT? 



II CTonaa iiaiua Maaas 30Ka, h pa36nsa J iacb o nee bch 
BoaHa, KOTopyio rHa-in cobctckhc opranhi c oaHofi ucibio: 
cioMHTb! II BucToaaH mm aOKOHua: hh oaHa «tioMitaoBKa» 
He 6Mjia HanHcaHa its Haiuero .iarcps. He yaa-iocb hm Hac 

noCTaBHTb Hit Ha KOaCHM. HH Ha HCTBepCHbKH — Mbt HC 

ateaaaw ocKOTHHiiBaTbcs! Mm 6buiH hc isepit. Ho 11 we 

Jill C tt.t flpOCTO — fKi.lll 

AHaponoBCKHH noTOK Mevnay TeM ToabKo HaHKHaacs: 
apecTU huh no Bceii CTpaHe h aoKaTit.iucb. kohciho, jo 
Hauien lOHu. npHBC3jin Taaio Eapau. Ohh c MyweM 06a 
poaoM H3 3ahapnaTh». poauaHCb, coBctbchho, a ABCTpo- 

BCHrpHH TIOTOM 3TO CTa.10 HaCTbK) YKpaHHM. a OHH — 
COOTBCTCTBCHHO — VKpaHHliaMH H flOaaaHHblMlfCCCP. BbUlH 

06a KOMMVitHCTaMH, JKii.iii b nocaeaHitc roau b Mockbc 
HMe.iH MauiHHy h boooujc 6bian ooecneHCHU. Ho bot h ih.ih 
HyBcpoBaiH b Bora.aa eme nouiJiHKcaMbiMripecaeayeMMM 
BepywuiHM — nuTHaecsTHincaM! OTKaiavincb ot [tapT6nae- 
tob (npeacTaB-iHere CK3Haa.i?) h aawe Hannca-in iiiici.mo 
saraaHMM kommvhhct3m: mm. Moa, ne xothm hm cTpoHTb 

K0MMVHH1M. HH HeCTH 33 HCr'O OTBCTCTBCHHOCTb. A HI. I. 

naooopoT. xonrre. TaK He noMCHSTbca ,ih HaM MectaMH? 
Bbt. aoSpoBO.ibHO. — a Hauiy mockobckv to xsapTHpy . a m 1.1 
na 3anaa, npo*tb hi CCCP. 

KoneHKO. oaHoro TaKoro 3aflBJieHns xsaTiwo 6w. hto6 
iiocaaitnit. A ohh etue h b mo.ichhhx ynacTBOBanK, h c 
ititocTpaHHMMH KOppecnOHaeHTaMH BCTpenaiitCb. Bcchoh 
83-ro B3S.1H oSohx; Bacto — nopaHbine. Fajiio — nono3»ce, 
CyaMJiH He b Mockbc a b PocToae-Ha-XloHy — ito6 oraacKit 
nOMCHbtue. npitBe3aa raau cpon: 6 + 3. IJi.il ok m. KpynHa^t, c 

ClUlbHOH lipOCeabK). CnOpntBHMH KOCTIOM. B KOTOpOM OHa 

npncxa-ia, c Hee tvt ace coapaait, a npitneceHHbie B3aMen 
KaicHHue ii.iaTbHiJJKit Ha Hee He Ha-iesatoT! A apynix Hd! 
JlyMaeTC — oomee Bo;ineniie, K0H(|)y3, Bepny.iH efi Tyi me ee 
oae>Kay? KaK 6m hc tsk! floBepity.iHCb ce6e n yui.iii. 
ocTaBitB Ta-iK) b ipycax 11 .imJiHitKe. To.ibKO mm ycnejni ee 
xOTb hcm-to npHKpbiTb in h.iiiici o oapaxaa — noaycTTyT KaK 
Tyr: 



Focnodu. K3K oh maul Hpucuompu 38 hum, 

4mo6 c yua m cowan a nycmou 33Kyrme xeapmupb). 

Ycmtiidu eso 6onb, om cwDva«Hb» oxpanu — 

4moSw c ncHtitu nuypM — 3a deoux ~ 

On Bcman neped mjpou. 

nodhiMaio nauiy — Ca Sydem eon* Tbop! 

Boduu/b. pytw cnoxoQHw. nesico Cepy u «e mpyuiy. 

Ho na wepHo-GanoO auy/ibcuu 6btmwt — 

YKpenu eso dyttty! 

Mho cBemnaa. veM amy. u dopoaa uoa npocma: 

OmiunuQoaaHa CHWibnuMu' Bt&yGpeH Kaxdhiu noueHbt 

Una na mpydno na hou — znttdul fluiut, aao na ocmaab 

8 cyuacw&duiuM ysnax. paj*w«MMfcix nayxanul 

To/ibKO pyxy hb omnuMu om eao nnaua. 

Totfhxo na tiuwu onopbi — Taoeu maepdhiHu. 

d oweOnux oh cxyam na namy navant, 

Ifa SeccuepmHoeo ennaaa aepnocmu u sopdbiHu. 

A Koada mm auecma acmaneu nped ToSou, 

Hu o mm ne npocx — mno 6om,iue. xozda mm pstdoit? — 

Hu KTujHKou ne pBSHnmt,. hu apxaHBenbCHOtQ mpy6oi>! — 

Mm omeeimiM Te5e, Me onyocan esa/mda. 

oKm. 1992, mmpbMB KTB, Kuea 



V\. PajywmcKan Cepwii — i^BeT Hafle>Kflw 




Hdtsu^a EeAxycxette 



— HiacBaiiTC narpya- 
Hbiii 3h:ik ! 

— Kyaa? K .iH(j>HHKy 
uenjisTb? Bu t'u xoTt. paHb- 
me oneayiy aaaK, a hotom 
npo 6npKy roRopH.iH. 

— He moji saSoTa — 
Kyaa licnjidTb. a To.ibKO hto6 
KarpyjHbifi 3HaK obLi! TyT 
Fans eft mrraTofi in flHcaHHs; 

— «Bu Kyn.ieHW aopo- 
roio uenoio. h aa hc 6yaeTe 
paoawit HeaoaeKoa!» 

— TaK He nii.'ictic 1 e '.' 

— HeHaaeHy! 

— Hy. neHRKTe Ha ceos! 
Cnacibe, hto y Hac ou.i 

(Jjohj (inn Tex, kto npHaer». » mu iipno.ie.iu Tajito H3 cbohx 
pecypcoB (3aoaHo naHH Haani a Haynuaa mchh. KaK bctsb- 
jum. pyKaaa h merojibCKK o^MeruBaTb neraH). 

He ycnena ooJKMTbca naHOBOM MecTcFaaa — npiiBei.iii 
3aHT>* A6pyreHe. Ohh c mjokcm — jihtobuu. h aa*e rtpaBo- 

laillKTKHKaMH, CTpOrO TOBOpjl, HC DUJIH. flpOCTO XOTMH 

iMHipHpoBan.. A c Hero 6u 3T0 jiHTOBuaM no3Bo.i»m> 

3MHIT)HpOBaTb? OTKa3a.H1 HM B OTT>e3aC, OHH — aoSHBaTbCH, 

aKTHBHHHaTb. I lofiuit.'ii! ee My*a mi TpH roaa no I90-H 
craTbe ( k .leBerHHHecKKC m iMmhi iemin na coaeTCKHii cTpoiH 
Xmia. ociaBtuMtb c MaacHbKHM cmhom, npoMwm.3Ji.ia cay- 
HaHHbiMH 3apa6oTKaMH. b tom Hmae h cneKvnsuHeH, Ho 
0Tbe3aa npoaoawaaa aoSHaaTbca. OTcwaea cboR epos 
BHTac A6pyrwc. BepHy.ics aoMofi — h Hepe3 TpH HeaeaH 
B3MJIH 3anTy, muayjBH eft 4+2! B 3ony ohs npHexajra b 
ronoaoBKe. KOTopyio ofeSMStt eme b nopbMC KFE. — 
aoGnaa-iacb nepecMOTpa acia. y hcc ywe h rojioca ne 6iii:m 
— eae npomejiecTtfta ohs hbm cbok> hctophk> (xots. KaK 
hotom OKa3aaocb, ot npHpojibt o6.iajia.ia SorarbiMH roao- 
coBbtMH aaHHWMH). Hepe3 aeHb ee vbcxih: ro.ioaaiouiHx 
nojioweHo ino.nipoB.ni.. Heaeaio cnycis oHa BepHyaacb — 
cHsaa roaoaoBiey. Hto-to t3m cfl Hao6emaan (h HHiero. 
kohchho. He Hwiio.iHii.in '). Ho Beat, y hiix raicoH noaxoa: tm 
chhmh rojioaoBKy, a Toraa mu cae-iaeM ace. hto Tpe6yeuib. 
Mto Bepim> 3tmm 6acHSM Hen bin — 3a«Ta He 3Ha.ia, bot h 
nonanacb, a B03o6noB;ian. io.io.iobkv hoium -, Hee ywc He 
6biao chji. OT;ie>KHBa.iacb OHa. rtpHxoaKJia b ce6s, h k pa6oTe 
ee noHanajiy hc npnB.ieKa.in ona e.ie Ha Horax jepataaacb. 
3to etue 6ujio BpeMs. Koraa jiarepHaa aorropuja Bo.iKOBa 
nocne jjiKTe.ibHOH ronoaoBKH aaaa-ia c Heaenio «ocbo6o>k- 
aeHHf) ot paoon.D) Ho hotom 0Ka3aiacb y Hac npoGneMa: 
3s.wra He JKeaaeT paooTan. Boodtue! 

— 51 na mn mi aHJt 3a cbom aidiii, He pa6oTajia! 

Mu, necTHO rosopji, HcnyrajiHCb: Bent 3aiacKatOT no 
KapuepaM Hauiy 3aHTy ao cmcpth! H ym k3k mu 3a Hec hh 
3acTynaHCji — npn.i.3H ot nee OTuerurrcfi. He xaaiHT jih c wee 
o6iuhx 6ea 3a HarpyaHbiH 3naK (OHa ero To»ce He Haaejia)? 
Ho, c apyrofi ctodohu. y ne/roBeica — cboh npHHUHn. h hto 
Mbi ijimiwm caeaaTb? fymm-jQ/WUm — HCxinptuiHCb 
Ha KOMtipoMiiccHbiH BapnaHT — rrycrb OHa y Hac 6yaeT 
aHeBaJibHOK. ^HesajibHaa, b kohuc kohuob, paSoTaer He <ma 
hkx», a iiacaoHMKc coy3HHU. TeM 6oaee, HToPaeHKa 6biTb 
.iKOHiii.noii ycTana, y Hee cycraBbi Ha pyKax 6aisT ot 
nocTosHHOfi bo3hh c Boaoft, w etue span Bo.ikob;i nouuia 
npHanpaTbcu — Tyr nayrHHa, TaM 3aHasecKa we naeajibKo 



oe.ian. caHiuapHoe coctohhhc 30HW Heyaoa-ieTBOpMrejib- 
Hoe. 

— Ocnnoaa h Jla3apeaa — b 11IH30! 3a otk33 ot 
HomeHHS Harpy aHoro 3H3Ka — aeefm. 11 ipHHaauaTb cjtok! 

B o6meM. 3Toro c^eaoBano o^Haait.. TauiHM ece 
Tenjioc, hto TOjibKo ecib. Bot xoraa rip hi o.iH.iiKt. «6a6yui- 
KHHbi» .iHtpHHKti! H icaKoe cHacTbe, hto mw ycne.iii 
pacnycTHTb na hhtkh tot uiepcTSHofl n.iaTOK, KOTopufi 
MarKOcepaeHHaji Jliooa imtiinin.i,: MHe ttpHKecTH u 30Hy! 
3aHTa yacccB«3aaa h3 3thxhhtok «uiH30BbieKO J iroTKH» — 
TaKHe 1 iiiHHwi.'. hto Ha iiiooyio H3 nac Haae3yT. Ha MaaeHb- 
koB TaHe ith kojifotkh co6itpaiOTCfi rapMouiKOH, ho 3to 
epyHaa! Tenjiee 6yaeT. Mu cHapa*aeM HauiHx noapyr Ha 
coBecTb; ceflnac-To Tenao. ho MOpaoBCKtiii asrycT — Mecau 
KoaapHbiit. KaKoao hm 6yaeT tbm, b ctipoH KaMepe? 

Hacnex cTapacMcs HaKopwHTb HanocaeaoK — hm TpH- 
HaauaTbcyTOKHCaoejaTb. FopHHaanHiuaB UIH30 — nepei 
aeHb. JJanw — fiananaa, hohtk oaHa Boaa. Hoaycr. 
KOHenKO, cyerHTca i! naTopananBaer, ho mw ee KecibiiiiHM. 
HaKOHeu oana H3 aencypHMHeK He Buacp'*HBae r : 

— "A'emiiHHbi! Ha «KyKyuiKy» onoiaaeM! 

■k">K\lIIKa» — 3T0 MajieHbKHH napOB03HK, KOTOpblH 

B03HT noe3aa c HTK-3 ao HTK-2. To ecTb ot Haiuero Jiarepn 
ao coceaHcro, rae UJH30. TaHa, Kopo/ieacKH: 

— H3-3a Mens Karefieui 11 1 1 kh Ha aBa naca caMoaer 3aaep- 
*nBaiH, TaK noaowaeT h Bauia «Kyk*ymKa»! 

A H3M, OCTaBUJHMCa, HTO atMaTb? V HaC 3T0 .toi 0110- 

peHO aaBHo: LUH30 — shehht. 3aGacT0BKa. Bo.ibHaa b 
U1H30 — roaoaosKa. A Haraiua. 6e3ycaoBHo, oo.ibna. 
3h3hht. mu 6yaeM roaoaan. Bee apeMs, noKa OHa b LJJH30. 
TaHfl h HaTauja3T03HaK>T.npoBO/KaeMHxaoBopoT,ueayeM. 

3to 17 asrycTa 83 -ro roaa. FojioaoBOK «kctbth» h 
Boo6me-To Ha cbctc hc ouBaei, ho 3ia Gojiee hcm hckct3th. 
Heao a tom. hto b ceHT»6pe oyaeTMaapnacKaJiMOKayHa- 
poaHaji KOH(t>epeHUHH no npaBaM neaoBeKa h no npoaepKe, 
KaK BunoaHaeTCfl XejibCKHKCKoe coraatueHKe. Mu-to 3Ha- 
eM. hto a Hamcii CTpaHe oho HBKaK He BunoaHflCTcn. Ho 
HauiH ann.ioMaTbi gyayr 3ayneKHo eparb, 3anaaHue hx 
Koaacra 6yayr 6.3aroayiiiHo himaib, a kto h hc noBepHT — 
KaK CMQwer aoka3aTb (pairr HapymeHHa? Beat TeM, kto b 
Hauieft crpane He 6ohtcs ck:i m 1 >- npaaay. b Maapna exaTb 
hc no3Bo.isT! Ktob CCCP npoBepa.i BunoancHHc Xe^ibCHH- 
KCKorocorjiaujeKHs? CaMoaeareabHue xejibCHHKCKHe rpyn- 
nu, hm 6m b MaapHac h aoKjiaauBaTi,. Tax hx Bcex 
nepeca/Kaan Baarcpa ■< ncHxyiiJKH, hx hc to hto a MaapHa 
— 3a Koatotyto ttpoaoaoKy hc sunycTUT! 

CaoaoM. peumaH mu a 3hbk npoTCCTa oouh bii i b Bocb- 
MHancBHyio roaoaoBKy, a Ha MaapnacKyro BCTpeny ompa- 
BHTb CBoe CBHaeTeabCTBO. H Hanaao 3TOH roaoaoaKH no ma ■ 
neHO Ha 7 ceHTsops, h tckct wamero o6paiueHHu ywe ymen 

B MaapHa HaillHMH CekpCTHbJMH KaHDLiaMH. IlcpeMeHHTb 

3to HHKaK He-ib3fl. Bot h CHHTaeM: ceroaHa HaHaTaa rono- 
aoBKa npoafiHTca eayHuicM cayHaeao30aBrycra(3To ec-m 
Hatj me He aofiaBST cpoK LUH30). He ycneeM buhth hs 
ncpBofi — HaHHHaTbaTopyio. A KyaaacHeujbca? OaHy Mepy 
mu, BnpOHCM, npHHHMaeM: peuieHHeM 30HU lanpemaeM 
nanH ilaanre b 3T0Tpa3 ro^oaaTb. ripocTo hc BbixcHBd, ccjih 
aee 1 o.io.iobkh noapsa O. KaKHe MarnHecKHe cuoBa — 
pemoline 30 mm! llna'ic naHH >I:iriii \. c ee KpeMeHb- 
xapaKrepoM, nowa-iyfi 6u,h He OTTOBopiuiH. OHa cpasyjKe 
HaHHHaer yxawit Baib 3a naMH, ro.noaaiouiHMH. CvieeMca: 



1/1. ParyiniAHCKaa Cepbiw — uBeT Hafle>KAbi 



— J.a hto bw. iiann flnBitra, Beab ro.ii.Ko nepawfi 
aeHb! Mm eme » »e nporojioaanHCb KaK cjieayer! 

Ona ynopcTByer: 

— HiiHero, HHHero, ny>KH0 c ticpBux nacoB jKOHOMHTb 
ciuibi! 

Hiopxa b HejoyueKHH: rae ee ofiea? Mbi oomhho 
yaeji«eM cii bcc. hto xoTb san-TO CT>eao6«o a;is koljkh. H3 
coScTBeHHoro nafiKa, a Tyr Bee oTnpaB.T»eM oopaTno Ha 
kvxhk). H b jo.Me xoTb iiiapow noKBTH, napbKa-To H3C B 
aBrycTCJiHtiiaiH! 

Mbi nuTacMCs ootHCHHTb Hiopxe, 110 tskoc roaoaoB- 
ica, ho OHa OTBenaeT Bonpoc)iTc;ibHbiM «M»y?». Hotom, 
cooopa3HB, hto TOjiKy ot Hac He aowaeuibc*. Haao.nro 
ncne3aeT. BenepoM a CBXy Ha rpaBKe. crapascb hc 
4V BCTBoaaTb. KaK HannH3eT cocaxb noa .ioskchkoh. H cawwy 
3a co6oh .iHicyioiuee «Mp-p-p!» 3to HiopKa rae-To pa3ao6bi- 
.Taoo.ibiijymMbtujbHTeiiepbK.TaaeTee. 3aayiueHHyto. nepe- 

20 MHOK. Mb! OOblHHO Mi, I Ul.tll 

HiopK-y 3a HcnojineHite o6«aHHoe- 
Teft: k noxBanaM OHa oncHb hvbctbh- 
Te^bHa. H s, co Bceii aoopocoBecrHo- 
CTbio, axaio: 

— Ah aa Htopo'iKat AnaayMHH- 
ua! Ax.oxoTHimaTbi Hauia HeHarasa- 
hbs! /Jaoea Te6s 6u Hac ysne 3aeaii 
mi mwiusi' Aa rae jk th Taxyio 
cepyio pa3jo6bi.ia? repoitHs! Kpaca- 
Bfiua! rinoHcpKa! OTJlimtMUIAl 

OatiaKo HtopKa, Bbic.iywaa no- 
.TOSKCHHwe aocToprH. eme Hero- to ot 

MCHS XOHCT. H aaCT ITOHStTb BeCbNia 

HeaBycMuc;ieHHo — Hero hmchho. 
OKa3UBaeTcs, oh a He H3 XBacTOBCTBa 
npHKecaa MHe cboio aoCbiny, OHa 
xoneT MeH» HaKopMirrb! KaK Mory, 
o6t.schsio cm, hto b ronoaosKe He 
noaoaceno ecrb flaacs muuich. IIohs- 
.Ta? IjOHSJia. Eeper cboio acepTBy b 
3y6w h yHocirr. ITotom OKaibiBaeTcsr, 
hto OHa npUBOJiOKJia ee b aoM 11 nw- 
Ta^acb yromaTb bccx no onepciH! 
BucnyuiaB MHoroKpaTHwe Beacan- 
Bbie oTKajbi, coo6pa3HJia. naKOHeii, 
hto rooojtoara — aeno cepbe3Hoe. h 
aeaitKaTHO cnonajia cboio Mbiuib b 
cTopoHKe, cTapaacb. hto6 hhkto lie 
notes. 

— PyaeHKO. Bc,iiiKam>n;i, pa- 

rytiiHHCKaJi! B oojibHimy! Mbi ao/iwHw aac »30JiHpoBaTb 

K3K lii.Hl,KllttlllH\ . 

3T0 BBa.THBaiOTCJI OtpKUepbJ C aejKVpHJIHKaMH. 3ro 3Ha- 
HKT, OHH peUJHjlH Hac TpOHX HaCHJlbCTBeHHO KOpMHTb! 

3aicoBbiBaTb pyicii b HapynHHKH. pa35KHMaTb poT skcjioom, 
Koouia 3y6w, 3aroH«Tb a rop;io uuiaHr 11 ia.niBaTb jea JiHTpa 
KaKoro-TO pacTBOpa. Flpoueaypa, 3,topoBo cuaxHeaiomaj; 

H3 H3HaCH,TOBaHHe, HO T3KOB «ryMaHHbifi COBCTCKHH 

MKOHW. 

MHe npo 3Ty npoueaypy paccKasbisajia TaHii Ocunoea 
— ee Tax MopaoBajiH nepe3 aeHb bcio HCTbtpexMecsHHyio 
ro.TojoBKy. Cnacni wHJHb roaoaaiouiero? EpyHaa — h c 



Kosda-+tu6ydh. KoeOa-nuGydb 
Mbi Monva saaepmuM ceoii nymt 
14 cGpocuM e doHHuic pioioaxu U dOdbl 
H, HeeecoMo pacnpnmno,, 
/7ope©« MysumenbHyio ce«f3b 
Memdy C060O u daniiHuu noeopomou. 
M Mbi yeuduu. too npuiunu 
K mamtty 6epeey Seunu, 
4mo Hem 6e3uonaHeii, shixxeHHeQ u vume 
3a cmenbio cnwbi pacueemym. 
Ho Haute capdup dpoznem mym: 
Kbk 3mo zpycnmo — naxodumb, vmo umsul 
Ham Oydem cmpawwo 6e3 donzog, 
fioGpoxenameneu. apasoe. 
HyMHhix nupoa. ocamaneribix cxa^K 
Mb) paccsOnaau daHb — nacmucb, 
Mb) ydepxamb necon a aopcmw 
He nonbtmaeuoi — menapb aeOb see linage 
nycxaij noS&daM nauiuu cvem 
JQpyeait nemonucb aedem, 
A Mbi ceododub) — 6ydmo nocne lUKonb). 
Mapa enaiaam, anuHem tunax. 
Ho »a ocmowiennbix nonnx 
Eme seewpm MedmimertbHbte rrna/iw. 
Pyvau hbu na pymi nom>em, 
M momho 6ydem CMbimh nanem 
AOPOMHQU nblflU — mCKOBOU u sopbxou. 

M g npedeavepHeij cutmee 

KoHb napecmynum no mpaaa 

K uoeO pyxg — c nocnedHeu x/teSnou KopxoO. 

16 ummt, 1984 XX-385/2, HKT 



HaCH.lbCTBeHHbIM KOpM.TeHIICM HHKTO HC BblJKHBaei. eC^IH 

ae.ioxiHTCH iio.iro. Ue.Tbapyraii — pacTBHyTh MyHCHifs He na 
aBa Mecsua.a Haroa-no^Topa. Ec.lli BwaepiKHT — BccpaBHO 

VMpCT. eC.IH HC BbUepjfCHT — CHHMeT rO.TOaOBKV. a 3HaHKT — 

caacTCH. no3TOMV BceopraHinycTCSHeTaK.HToocoxpaHHTb 
CH.TW. a TaK, htod MyniiTCJibHee. B cwaBuiiiHcs ot ro.ioaoBKM 
wejiyaoK 3aKanaTb cpa3y aBa .TiiTpa — aimaa 6oab. Mm boh 
na ceabMOH aeHb c Tpyaosi BbtnuBaeM nojiiopjTKKH Boaw 3a 
pa3. yaeruieecs Sw.to hvbctbo rojioaa, caBa hto-to 
nonaaaeT BHyrpb. B03o6HoBnseTCJi c koboh ch.toh. «riycn> 
HyBCTB>eT!» llOTOMy h KopM.icHHe aea-Tpit pa3a b Heaejiio. 
4a eme nocne 3toto aepwaT MHHyr copoK b HapynnnKax, He 
aasafi BCTaTb. — hto6 He 6bi,To pBOTbi. Tojioaatotmie 
Mep3Hyr aa>Ke npn HopMa-TbHoR TeMiieparype — TaK aep- 
**aTb hx B noMetuenHsx noxo.io.-iHee! Oncyaa y 3aicj!ioHeHH0- 
ro Tenaoe oaca.™ nan tuepcTHHaji oae*aa'' IIvcti,. nycTb 
noMep3Hyr! Hy h Taic aaaee. 

Mbi COBetUae.MCH. KaK OblTb? O 
TOM. HTOObl CHBTb TO.lOaOBKy, KOHeH- 

ho. peHb He HaeT. OToiiTbcsi ot Ha- 

CIl.ThHHKOB - HCMblC.lHMO, HX UC.iafl 

opasa. aa eme c HapymuKaMH. Ho 
cnycTirn. TaKoe hbji coooti inacea- 
TC.TbCTBO?! Hy >«ce, ny «e — KaK ot- 
oiiTb y hhx oxoTy. paj 11 HaBceraa? 
EyaeM m wcaHTb^oniHecKH. Hero ohii 
oo.ibme Bcero6osTC3i?Or.iacKn! TaK 
oyaei hm or.iacKa — n hc nepes Me- 
chu. Koraa ao apy3eii Ha caoooae 
.'Miiaei iiiir|>opManiiH.a btot*c aeHb 
h nac! Bee onenb npoCTo: Mbi « 
uciirpe no. 11.HHHK11, k-yaa cboist skch- 
iuhk m Tpex .larepew. JXa. eme xo3oo- 
ciyra, wHsyuxast saecb iioctohhho. 
Bo.TbHHHKa nepeiio.THeHa. iaecbyfiMa 
Hapoay. Aa y hhx, homhmo toto, 

CBJT3H C My*CKOH VIOJIOBHOH lOHOft — 

OHa Tyr -mc, iepe3 3a6op. nonynaeTcii, 
ec.TH Mbi nepea KOpMjieHHCM yeneew 
npoKpHHaTt, koto MopayioT h ia hto, 
— 3HaTb 3To6yaeTHe MCHbine 1 wcmhii 
HeaoBCK. MHonic H3 hhx ocBoooiKaa- 

K)TCg BOT-BOT. OTfiblJlH CpOK. 3HaHHT. 

noBesyr MHcpopwauHto «a cao6oay. A 
ecjiH eme npoKpHHarb Te.ietJKiH. no 
KOTopoMy cooSuihtl, — HaRayrc* 
T3Knc, hto h aanoMHJtr. 11 cooSmaT. 
TeaetJiOH ace Hrops b KFB h 6cj toto 
H3BecreH — HiiKaKoroaonojiHHTejibHoropHCKa. Tojimco Haao 
na>iai 1. cpa3y, KaK «ryMaHHCTbi» kiihv res, — 11 KaK moxcho 
rpoMHe! llMen;n>K;i\i lanoMinin. HerpyaHO, nOTOMy hto bcs 
(KvibHHHKa 3Haer Hac hohmchho h b anno. ToabKO rpoMHe, 11 
nocTapaTbcs bcc yenerb. noKa He saTKHyr ropao uinaHroM. 
Hto oaHa He aoKpHHHT — apyraa aono^HHT, Tan>»iHa 
MuxafijioBHa Ko^eCaeTcar 

— KaK 3toh 6yay KpHHatb? flan h KpnnaTb he ynteio, 
HHKoraa hc npHxoaH.iocb. H BOo6me, KpHHaTbnoa hutkoh... 

Si y6e»caaio: 

— ^a He noa hmtkoh KpHHaTb, bw 10a dtoh nbrTKOH 
pa3Be TonbKo xpHne-Tb cM05Kere. A ao Hee. Koraa yme cTaHeT 



M. ParyiufAHCKaR Cepbiw — upei Hafleacflbi 




I tiiuHn Eapan 



SCHO. 'no ONM-I.1KH cch- 
nac ito MaiHyr! H hc ot 
6ojih »tc BinacaTb. a — 
npOKpHiari. itmpopMO- 

liHlo! Hy, K3K yXOAHIUCMy 

noe3ay npoxpHiajiH 6u... 
Paenica b .-uickvcchm 
hc yn array er — eft co- 
bccm xyao. B raKWOBK 
efi ace BpeMit ayuiHo; b 
soHe, hto6 jiernc abiuia- 
j'locb, oHa jiewaiia CHapy- 
5kh Ha Tpaae. Tyr *c mij 
MKynopeHU narayxo, h icy- 
6itHecKMX MerpoB Bosayxa 
bbho hc XBaraer. Okho. pa- 
iVMeeTcs, jaKpbiTo h 3ape- 
lueneHo. Em creicaa? 

To.ibKo xywe — pacnHxaioTBpoabnoMaTeHbkHMOOKgHKaM, 
TaM 11 CBeia hct. vi awuiatb cobccm ywe HetcM: oh 11 ogsokoh. 
KatMHaeM xaonoTaTb BOKpyr Paemai h KcaHHOMy pcweHMio 
He npuxoaiiM. BnponeM. npoTHB men caMon no ceoeTafb- 
HHa MuxaiinoBHa HHieroHenMccT.OHa TOjibKocOMHCBaeTcs. 
hto Bbiiuer y Hee Kpim. 3to — hhcto ncHXoaorHHecKHfi 
oapbep. Kpvr-iaTb mrre;iJiitreHTHOMy He.iOBCKy HcecTecTBeH- 
ho, 3HaHHT, Hajo ce6» 3acraBHTb, Ho bcci aa ;ih yuaeTC* 
3acTaBHTb ceos, ec;m aaace Haao? 

BocbMoft a.enh rojioaoBKii. Mu c yrpa HyacTByeM ce6» 
Herwoxo. Hy, cjiafiocn., kohchko, no y* hc Tak-as. hto6 
coBceM 6e3 cmh. npHHOCHT ofiea. craBrr noa hoc. Oro-ro, 
icro HaroTOBHJiw! OSuhho ojhoto 3anaxa 6a.iaH.ibi aOBonb- 
ho, <rro6 OT6nTb annerHT, a Tyr... .laaHo. kjk npHHocsT. raic 

H yHOCST. 

— Bc.iHKaHOBa! Bpas BbnuBaer. Xoner sac oScieao- 
san,. 

Tax. Hananocb. KaKofi-To rpoxoT. 3BOH6HTorocreitfia... 
3to, Kate noTOM OKa3ajiocb, Hauia cicpwaHHaa TaTbana 
Mnxafi.ioBHa BbicajiH.ia .ioktcm CTeKTSKHytoaBepb, 3a hto h 
ee noTOM 6yay jpaiHutb «xy.TKraHKoft». KpHK. fla eme 
KaxoS! Bh.iuo, b ctdcccobux CHiyamiMX Mbi ciiocoSkw Ha 
TaKoe, Hero caMH ot ce6s hc o»aiaa.TH 6w. B stom mhc 
npeacTOHT jihmho yocjHTbca nepej nccKOvitKo MiiHyr. Paen- 
Ky TpaceT. y mchh Tostce cepauc peercs (HacKo;ibKo yacacHee 
6ujim 3th MHHyTbi Toro MOMeirra, icoraa B3HiiHCb 3a mchji ' ). 
Ho crapaiocb lanoMHHTb. hto ona yenejia ttpatayth, hto — 
hct. 3a .iHcpMo Bee CTHxaer. 3h3hht. oaoJieaH. 

— PaTymiiHCKaji! 

Hy, aoponie, ccfinac mu c BaMH nojaGaBHMCs. MeHH 
hccct Haa oojiom HHKoriia cmc hc nc[ii,nannaH apocTb: 
TaTbHHy MuxaftjioBHy?! Bu oocmcih naibucM TpoHyn. 
TarbSHV MMXafi.ioBHy... Hy. By y mchu nonnsuieTe! 

IIlecTepo mvvkhkob b bochhoh qiopMe. Bpan Bcpa 
A.icKcanjpoBHa Bo.iKOsa. H, kohciho. HoaycT. Kax a hh 
B36euieHa. ho mchji nopa»iaeT h Hascerja ancHaTUBaeTcs 
b ceTHaTKy ee mx OHa B036y)KaeHa HcoownaHHo: rnaaa 
ropjrr, hhuo b KpacHbix njjTHax. Ho3jjpii apo*aT H pa'UVHa- 

KJTCS — BCM OHa B HOpblBC ilHKOra. CaaHCTCKOrO BOCTOpra. 

HHKorja a TaKoro He BHje.ia. ronbico B khhhcksx npo 
(pauiHCTOB Hura-ia, ho ii to ciHTajia xyaoscecTBeHHOH Mera- 

(popoB. 



Bepa AneKcaHjipoBHa: 

— PaTyuiHHCKas, no iiucipyKimu mm .hvi-a-mw wa 
cejbMoii aeHb KOpMKTbrojiojaiouxHX. MwHTaK>5KeHajeHb 
3aaep»!ajin,., Mokct, Gyaercccrb cemh? 

— ft He aatocBoerocoraacHS Ha KopM/ieHiic. ft ronooaio 
b latmrry Jla3apeB0fi. Bw *e Bpav — KaK Bbi noarmcann cfi 
UIH30? 

— PaiyninHCKaji, mh ,-io.twhu 3a6oTHTbCJi o Baiucfl 'mui- 

HH. 

— A o JlasapeBofi. JHasin, Bbi yxce no3a6oTmiHCb? 
3asB;iHK), ito Mory nporojionaTb rptiHaiiuaTb cyroK 6e30 
BcsKoro BMcuiaTe.ibCTBa. 06c.ieayfrre mchji — h yfieaHTecb. 
(Ion ji npii sac Mwjia — bw He npoTecTOnajiH? 

— PaTyiuHHCKas. SyaeM kopm» n,! 

H ryr Ha moh n.ieiH Hasa.iHBaioTcii caaan. JIokth m 
khcth pyK Bnepea! Mtoo hc cpa3y ycne.iH HaaeTb tiap> mh n • 
km! 

— |j(»;n,nH'(Ka, SoJlbHHHKa! 3anOMHHTC Bee! 

H ji KpHny Bee: HMCHa, 3a ito 10. lo.ioaKa, kto b UJH30. 
CKo.ibKO cyroK h koto HacmibCTaeHHO kopmht. OpaBa 
niitne 1 Ha mhc ho ». bii.thmo, b tom coctojwhk, koraa 
BbmocsT cer(4>bi«3 ropsmero 3jaHnsitt n.iesoM ocTaKaB.TK- 
eaioT aBTOMooHjib. J] racKaio hx Ha ce6e no Bcefi KOMHaTe h 
KpHny. KpHny — noBTopnto Bee yace no btopomv pasy. 

— Te.TeiJjoH HeTbipe-HeTbipe-TpH-TpH-aeBSTb-njiTb! 
Kites! Hropio! HeTbipe-HeTbjpe-HCTbipc-Tpn*TpH-jeBSTb-nHTb! 
3aniHUHTe cpasy! 

H eme. H eme! ft He «tyBCTByio hk 6ojtH (pyKH y*e 
ckpyneHbi). hh aeca hx Ten. TojibKo ^vbctbvio. hto pyxa. 
cH.ibHce npoHHX npHXBaTHBiuaji MeH« 3a njieno. apojKHT. 

Hei. HcnpiiBbi i riian paooTCHKa Bbina.ia ccroaHs napjuy 
BHyTpM^iarepHOHOxpaHbi! HcTpcHiipoBaHbi oHHHarro jcjio, 
2i h OTnopa TaKoro ne acja-iH, ja >< noTpjiceHw npcabijytueH 
cueHOfi.OHH aaate Hecpaiy coo6paacajOT, hto h Keicycatocb. 
He.iJiraiocb — npocrro BUBopaHMsaiocb HinxpyK. HcTuaHo 
mm (y hhx-to hct cajitcTCKOro paxca). H TOpOHJITCJI — 
nocKopefl, nocKopcfi npeKpaniTb mom kp«k! iloraaaiHCb, 
HaKOHeu. hto hc HasajiMBaTbCH Ha MeHH na;io. a npocTO 

OTOpBaTb OT TOHKH Onopbl — H. K3K nepbtllIKO, BCKI1HV.TH 

BBepx. CKopec, cpa3Maxy — us .Tcpcnniim,iii TonnaH! Tae 
y« tvt copaiMepwTb ciuiw uiecrepux mvjkhkob c mohm 

rOTOZlOBOHHbIM BCCOM. 

Bmocij ro-TOBec rpoxoTOM nonHyn KpacKuft map. hhto 
SbiJio ja-ibuic — a. 3Hate TOJibKo no paccKasy TaTMHia Mh- 

XaHjTOBHbl. 

Ho caMoro naBHoro cooutti ji b 3th rojioaOBOHHue ahh 
Mbi.oKa3biBaeTcs, eme He inaeM 1 Tojimco Tenepb, KOraa ace 
b cfiope. TaHB m I la r ama KaHHHaiOT paccKa3bi8aTb. H neM 
jMbine — tcm MCHecMbi cnoco6HH caep*aTb BocTopweH- 
Hbiii ctoh, a noTOM h xoxot. Beab GeaKaji rioaycr tsk 
ToponH,iacb 3aKaTaTb HeHaBHCTHbix JIasapeBy h OcHnoay b 
UJH30. ito ene noxctaiacb KOHua Hauiero CBHaaHHa! 
HHane, kohchho, BMUi: a sapyr s nsnHy Hropio npoHc- 
uicctbhh? Toraa — Ta caMas ornacKa, kotodoh ohh tsk 

30 CMCpTM 60HTCJI... HO CBHaaHHe-TO Hauie KOHMHJIOCb B 

BoceMb Beiepa. a noeneaHjm «KyKyujKa» yxoaHJia H3 Eapaiue- 
bo Ha IfoTbMy nacoM paHbme. 3naHHT, npnujjiocb Hropto, 

A.TbKC H HaillHM 06OIM MaU'pHM (OHH. .'Ka sa nvi,. TOJKe 



\A. PaTyiutAHCKan CepbiM — uBeT Hafle>KAbi 



SI 



[ipiict/KaiH, ja >ix ko mkc HenycTHJiHlTyi we laHoneBaTb. 
a yTpoM HanpaBHTbCM Ha nepsyio «KyKyuiKy» — Ty caMyio. 
HTo.io.iiKHa6bi.na bc3tii Haiutix noapyr, B BapanieBo npaBbi 
npocTbte: BoabHbic h hkh eayr ojhkm noesaoM, TOJihKo b 
pa3Hbix BaroHax./la HHerocTecH)iTt>c», ace BoabHbie saccb — 
TiopeMUJHKH. Hto ohh. hkob He BriaeaH? A Ha cBtuaHim 
croaa npHdwaiOT peaKO — He jaKaihiBaib me oTaejibHbiii 
noeaa aaa caynaitKbix iiocerHTcacH! Mw c HacaaaiaeHiteM 
npeacTas.iaeM ceoe. hto owao aaabwe: bot BeayrTaHKi c 
Haraiuetl aaa aimnianiiKa BbiBoajrr hj iohw — it k 
TuiaTqSopMe. rae Hropb c ccMbeii h KVHKa coTpyaHHKOB 
a are pa. eay nine b cbowuhmh aeHbOTOBapHBaTbcs Ha llm i.m> . 
a to h b MocKBy. Ha hto 6wji pacneT? Mto He yiHaior apyr 
apyra? KaK 6bt He tbk! Kohchho, ohh HHKOraa He BCTpena- 

IHCb. HO, p33 HCT HarpV JHblX IHaKOB. — JICHO. HTO /KeHCKaM 

no.iHTHMecKaa ioHa. Hropb ywe oTKpwa owao poT. HoTaHtt 
cro onepe.iH.ia: 

— 3jipaBCTByRTe. Hropb! 

Ona-TO 3Ha,ia cro b .ihiio, KaK ii s ee lUaHa — CKo.ibKo 
Mbi mice i e JipocH>KMBa.iii Haa (}»OTorpa(JnuiMH Haumx My- 
xcfi! Hropb kHHy.ioi k hhm: 

— Kyiia Bac Beayr? KaK tpa milium'.' 

H TaHS OTHeT.iHBOHCKoporoBopKOfiHeKaHHTeMy: Koro 
BejyT b HII HO. 11 la hto. k kto roaoaacT h Sactyer. Ha 
CKo.ibKo cvtok Kaacayio — if to He jaowaa! Hto jeaaTb 
aBTOMaTHiik-aw? CTpeaHTb'.' TaK Herace iioiiutkii Knooery! 
Tvt. HaKOHeu, aarepHas nyo.iHKa Ha naanpopMC ( b ochob- 
hom 6a6u). aapoM hto He npii iicnoaitcHHii oomaHHOCTCti. 
aoraaanacb KitHVTbca Ha Hropa. ottcchsh era ot Hauitix. 

A OH. CTpflXHBaH MX C Ce6s — OCTOpO/KHQ, MT06 1THX 

Kpacaeim He noBpeaHTb, — ace pBaaca k TaHe. Bapyr eiue 
hto-to ycneeT KpnKH>Tb? Ho hh (pop Mann so TaHM yace 
(irrapaoanii-ia h Tenepb no3BoaaeT ceoe Hanoc.ie.ioK: 

— Mw sauiy HpoHKy oneHb hoShm! 
II HaTama: 

— OneHb-OHCHb! 

3a 3TM JBa ClHHCTBeHHblX C.TOBa Ha 1 aula 1 i;il 11 .1.101, 

TaK >b*e. ksk 11 TaHH ia ace B03MyTHTcabHoe pa ti which no 
aarepHwx aea. — o6enx a Human onepeaHoro ceiuauits. 

Boh Ha Harnett 30hc 6w.ia oCbSB.ieHa, ho Kpowe aByx 
cropoH — Hac h KfE — 5waa cure ■ TpeTta b uoii bohhc: 
Bee Te aiojui. hto 6opo,iHCb 3a Hac co CBoSoaw. Hi Pocchh, 
V'KpaHHM. JIhtbu, AHmnit. HJbcuhh. CLUA... Ox, KaK xohct- 
cji nepeHHCiHTb bcc cipaHbi 11 Bcex — hohmchho ' Ho itc.ti. t« 
— HMCHa o.ihhx b ccKpeic ot KPE, tiMCHa apyrnx b TaK 

HKKOI.iail HCyiHaiO(TblCS'ttl MX llHCL'M.OTTIpaB-ieHHhlX KHain 

b .larepn, c<v*--*cni.[ ucniypoii, h hii ojho He aoiij.io! ), nvtena 
TperbHx caMit no ce6e lana,™ 6u jiBa-Tpit tomb. Ha tRanns 
cipaH? OTKpofiTe reorpatJjHHecKHH aT.iac noHTH Ha jhoooh 
ci pa 1 in iic — it 6yabTe ysepcHU: t3m TO»te 6bi.ni Te. kto 
ctobji y coBercKHx noco.ibCTB. co&Hpaa noaiiHCH b wauiy 
3amirry. mo.imjIch 3a Hac. H KaK pai na TpeTbH cTOpOHa 
peuiHiia hcxoji BoitHbi; nepea HaMH. o6eccn.ieHHbiMit. hco- 
xotho OTKpbiBa.iHCb BopoTa jiareps. BbtnyCKan oany ia apy- 
rofl. noKa Matias 30Ha He ncpecxa.ia cyutecTBOBaTb. Ho 3To 
He 3HBHHT eiue, hto bcc o6pe.in cBofioay. /Jo chx nop cHarr 
no ccbiviKaM TaTbaiia Be.niKaKOBaii EjicHa CaHHitKoBa. H a, 
ywecapyroH cTopoHucoBeTCKOHrpaHHuu.cpwBaio roaoc: 
noMOWCM mm! Ho6beMca a.i« hhx cBoSoau! BepbTe. /iioan 
Tperbeft ctopohu: see saBHciiTOT Bac, h bu Moweie ropa3ao 
ooabuic. nevt caMH ayMaere! 




Pouch Pydenxo 



Hoc.icaHtiH aeHb 
roaoaoBKH npHHec hsm 
ciopnpiii: HarHaaji yro- 
loBHitu c nmcaMH npo- 

na.ii.iiiaif. Tpaay Ha tan- 

peTKC KoiteHHO.MblObl.TIl 

no paiHbie CTopoiibi npo- 

B0.TOKH.H0 KOCHjlHCbapyr 

Ha apyra c noHSTHbiM kh- 

TepecOM. Ooiiia i i,c h c 
HaMii ii m 6bM0 i hi i pom c- 

HO — II Mbl He lillOHa- 

pnBa.ni. moo HenoaBec- 

TH HX noa HenpilBTHOCTH. 
II B.ipyr, JO/K.iaBUIHCb. 

Koraa acsKypHJiHKaaeHH- 

bo [tpoTotiacT Ha apyryio 
cropoHy ynacTKa. asoe hi 
hhx noacTynaioT k npoBoaoKe: 

— JteBOHKIt! 

HoaxoaHM. Bbicipo-GbicTpocyioT Haw H3-noa (popMeH- 

HblX 6.1 >' 3 KaKtie-TO CBepTKH H OTCKBKKBaiOT liaia.i. H y*c 

oTryaa. oepscb sa TftnKn: 

— Mw iHaew b oo.ibHKHKe, hto bw roaoaaeie 3a npasa. 
H hto Booome Bee itpeMa toiojom cwarrTe. Bot mu coopa.TH 
xia sac — TaM ace no.iC3Hoe. CKyuiaHTe. Koraa roaoaoBKy 

CHHMCTC! 

B aOMC pa3Bopa i iHBacM CBepTKH, MopKOBKa. oejtbiil 
XJieo. napa kvoiikob cm rohhoio Macia... Ue.ibnl Ky.ieK 
caxapy! Kto ith wemunHbi. hto co6Hpa,tn anfl wac no 
KpoxaM rtepeaaHv? Hto noSyaiiao hx, to^ikom hc 3Has hh Hero 
o Tex caMwx «npaBax». — noaaepscaTb nac, pHCKys 6wn» 
noHMaHHbtMH? H nero CTOJTi Toraa ace ith Teopun, hto Ham 
Hapoa ca%t He nyacTByeT csoero 6ecnpaBiut h niiKaKiic 
rpawaaHCKHe csoooaw CMy He Hy^Hbi? H h casta Koraa-ro b 
MoaoaocTii, CHiiTaa ceofl oaHOHTaKofi yMHofi HaoeaoMCBCTe. 
TaK n i> Ma ia npc icx. kio pacTH.i mhc x.ieo it ujh.i .nCTHHC 
n.iaibst (eme He iHas, hto KaK pa3 nm lUbiOT b .larepax). 
Toraa it xoTeaa iMitrpupoBaTb — «BbipBaTbcs H3 3Toro 
6o;toia». Tenepb, » hi,ih\ ^.k-hhoji imih pauiiti. I naio m, 
nero He 3Haaa Toraa. CnacH6o, rocnoan. hto MHe npti- 
mjiocb npOHTti iTana.MH. npHTaTb cthxh h khhth ot KFB, 
rHHTb no KapuepaM k roaoaaTt. To/ibxo awiiaa Ha OTKpbiTyto 
6opb6y« x yBHacaa, KaK MHe noMoraioT nyib hc bcc kto 
BCTpenaeTcji Ha nym. 3ia rnxas noMomb BUHocK.ia moh 
cthxh Ha CBo6oay, noMora.ia Hropto pacnenarbiBaTb hx Ha 
m.iiiiiihkc, pa3MH0>Kana b (pOTOKonHtix H oinpan ih ij B ca- 
MHiaaT it 3a rpaHHity, '>th TaKHe pa3Hue pyK» — Monoaue 
■ CTapwe — noacoBWBa.iH HaM KycoK x.ie6a. Koraa mw 
aoxoan.TH ot roioaa, jth iviaia HaM yauoaaHCb — cepwe. 
Kapne, roayowe... H omyujaji yaHBHTeabnoe: ace 3a Hac h 
upoTHB Hamitx na-ianeH. — h OTXoaHaa ot cboch hdkom 
ropawHH, H Taaao bo MHe to BbicoKOMcpiie. hto mohio 6u 
nory6nTb moki ayuiy. A Hropio b >to bpcmh noworajiH 

KHCBCKHe paoOTSnt, C KOTOpblMH BMCCTC oh opyaoBaJi 

Hann.ibHHKOM.pacKOKBOHpoBaHHwe 33KH, mockobckhc npo- 

(peCCOpaHaa/KCMOHTIOpCMUIHKM;. CpeaHTKjpeMIUHKOB Beat 

To*eoHeHb HewHoro ydewaeHHux caaHCTOB. oo.ibtuiiHCTBO 
— TynoBaTo-nyKaBbie cayacaKH. hto He bchkhiI npHKaipaau 
Bbiiio.iHBTb. Pae-To b neapax hx laTBHyrbtx dcmhsmh aym 
ecn. b lapoabiuiax h cTbia. H coBecTb, h tKaaocxb — eceTO, 
hto cnaceT Koraa-HH6yab moh Hapoa. 



52 



\A. ParyujMHCKafl Cepww — UBei Hafle>Kflbi 



CnacitCo bsm. jkchwhhu in yro.iOBHOH oaibHitHtui! >! 
He mam, 3a hto bw nonaaH b Jiarcpb He 3Haio. mhofo jih 
6biao Bac, coanpa»[iiii\ and Hac City. Ho, kohchho. HaBceraa 
ianc>MH>i,7a KMCHa tcx jbohx — ohm 6ujih Ha hx HarpyaHbix 
iHaxax. Bm ywe 3HaeTC, HWWCrtb, noHeivty ft hx He itami in v. 
BbiHHCnjjfi-BwiHCJiHH, KareocwHMK, cocTaBJiJUOUiiiH peqie- 
paT no moch KHwre; CKOJibKO cotch npowno Hepei oo.ibHHH- 
Ky oceHbio 83-ro? OcoSbie ripHMCTbt? nosKajiyficTa. Ohh 
6bUH B CHHHX .lltHJLlUX tiaaTbflX. HCpHblX 4»opMeHHbix 6;iy- 
iax(n.in ito iMihiHacTcs — acaKeTM?),6evibixKocbiHKaxH 
h-»p30Bbix canorax. 

npitexaaa Jlar.ie IlapcK Bcccian cbci:i<>b<UHGM 

SKeHiuHHa, co cpoKOM mecTb natoc n«iTb. Ona n cc apy3ba 

in.KIHU IH B 3CT0HHH C3MH J.UICKHIl 5KVpH3J] — BI10.1HC 

aocTaTOHHO aim Tasoro cposaEe HeyHbiBamuiHii xapairrcp 
npuiiK-.u-H Bttopy nam eit 3one, a cnoKOHHaji it Tsepaaa 
iHMiiiiiig — ox, teak* He no BKycy KFB. 3Tan iTOTaaflKeeSw.i 
Ke nepBbifi. 3a menaMii y nee ow.ia (ocTOHCKas ccw.iKa». 

DOC.ie BOHHbl 3CTOHUCB IMCS'IUMIJ [pylH.lH B TOBapHbTC 

BaroHbi h OTiipaB.ia.iH b Cn6)ipb. Ma ie>u.Mtii MywecTBCH- 
Hbift Hapoa, HMehiuufi onbiT aeMOKpaTHKCCKoro caMoynpaB- 
.leHiis. hii Ha hto apyroe npn CTa-iime paccHHTbiBarb n hc 
Mor. HpoKaTH.iacb 3Ta pacnpaBa h Hepe3 eeMbio Jlame: OTua 
paceTpe.iH.iH.MaTbOTnpaBH,iH B.iarepb, a 6"a6yiiJKycaBYMs 
BHVHKaMH norpyju-iH B tweaoH Jlame Obi.io Toraa iuecrb 
,ieT. Ohh c cecTpofi aa«e hc noHHMaiH, hto npQHcxoaHT. 
O cyaboe poaHTcieH ohh etue He 3Ha.in, a nocneiiiHbie 
c&opbi. nepcBepHyra* BBepx aBOM KBaprapa h nepcncKTHBa 
nyreiuecTBiis — ace 3to hx cKopee saoatuaao. H, ye3>Kas 
H3 aowa Ha rpyjoBHKe. acBOHKit CMes.tHCb. a Myapatt 6a6ytu- 
ha He Meuiaia jcthm BeceaHTbca: ropJt hm eiue XBann. 3tot 
HcowtiaaHHbiH peosvHfi cmcx nocpeaH BceoSuiero pa3ope- 
hhs npoioBeji TaKoe BtieHaT'iemie Ha coceaefi. hto ohh 
pciHH.iH — crapmaa aeBOHKa comjia c yMa! H TaK h cooSuih- 
;m rn.pi i \ BiiFeik-H icpei ro.iti iti.iarepn MaTepii Jlar.ie. CiaBa 
Bo ry, oh a He noBepma. 

EadyuiKa Tew BpeMeHeM yjwyapitJiacb jobc3th ooenx 
.leBOHeKJoCHOMpMMvHBblMII.H, CTOJI no K0,ieHO b CHery. 

ohh c apynmii tctohubmh Bbic.iyiua.iH npaBHTCibCTBeH- 
Hbifl yKai — «8CHHa» CCKXB». H HaBceraa janoMHii.ia.'lai.ie 
'. Iblfik*} riau\niKii: 

— Ohh ayMaiOT, hto pacnopaiK'aioTCH aeHHocTbto? 

flocjie CMepTH Cra-iHua cociaHHan npuGa.i i ii^a. xoTb 
h He cpa3y, ho B03Bpatua.iacb homoh. BepHy.mcb m Jlarjie, 
h SagyuiKa, h cTapiuaji cecTpa. Ho3aaH ocTanncb pyccKaa 
uiKaia, cnfiKpCKHe K03bi, KOTopux Jlame ttacjia bmcctc c 
jpyrHMH peSjiTHiiiKaMH, xo.iox bihh itrpfiib. Hoaocainoro 
aHjponoBCKoro BpeMCHH, ao cBoero apecTa, Jlar.ie He ttia. ia 
HHMcro aocTOBepHoro o cyabBe OTua: npHrosop o paccrpejie 
oHa yBH.ie.iaTojibKo Ha cbocm c.TeacTBHH. HpaHbiucSwno 
ACHo.tiToy6H.iH, ho Koraa? 3a HT0?O6b«cHJiTb3THaeTaJiH 
ocHpoTeBuiiiM ceMbUM coBeTCKas Bnacn. cHHTaaa EBisDB- 

HHM. 

HarpyaHbifl 3hsk Jlame hc Haaeaa, ho ao nopbi ao 
BpeMeHH aaMHHHCTpauHH ee hc Tporaaa — hm xBaTaao 
jaSoTCHameR 3a6acTOBKoii. 

CB03H.iHeme paasCapaHCK — na Kare6euiKoe«nepe- 
aocnuTaHHen. Ha itot pa3 b3s.ih h Jlarjie, h Mens. Onatb 
nyaHbie moho-idhi: h>- xon. KaK-HH6yab 3auenHib sa 



ncHBoe. 4to6 xoTb KaK-Hn6yab 0TBCTH.ia! H r.taBHbifi mothb 

— xoTHTcaoMoft? KMysKy, HacBo6oay?nnuiHTe lanB^eHHe 
c mammd b KanecrBe o6pa3iia coBajin HaneiaTaHHoe 
b raseTe jasB.icHne O.iecd EepaHHKa, Gwbiucio M.iena Ytfpa- 
HiiCKOfl XeabCHHKCKOH rpynnbi. Oh Tain Bbino.iHjr.i bck> npo- 
ipaMMy: n ot hh ih.ihh cbohx oTpeicajicst, mo^, bo3omhhji o 
cc6c. aTcnepb caMBHatfT.HTo Kyaa KaKMymue no.io»ttiTbcs 
bo bccm Ha npaBHTe.ibCTBO H HeyMKH^aTb, HoSyrpoie bohhw 
paccy*aa.i — accKaTb, ncpea jihuom TaKOH onacHoctM 
hc spcMJi a.iJi BHyrpiirocyaapcTBeHHbix paiHor.iacufi. h 
npouieHna npociti, n 6jiaroaapn.T 3a CHHCX05KaeHHe, h 
KJieHMin ObiBiuiix ,ipy3efi, oroeapKBan npw ?tom HCKpeH- 
HtoK) cbok) HaaeiKay Ha to, hto h ohh «nepeBocmtTaioTe»>>. 

C ay ui h BopOTtuo see no HHTaTb. NoMiiaoHKa homh- 
.lOBKe poaHb Bbieaex. hto He mMfifBtOtt hciobck bccx inac- 

BaTC.IbCTB. OrOBOpHT Ce6s H T3K0H IR'Hoil HbipBOTCH H3 3aK- 

iioHeHHJi. Ho 3aneM *e Ha apyrnx-To K-ienan,? TojitKo 
noTOMy, hto ohh OKa33Jincb HpancTBeHHo cHJibHce Te6»7 
Henero CKa3aTb. xopomnfl pe30HaJi«i Toro, hto6 ctuiiobiit i,ch 
b piiabKinepeBocnHTaTe.ieHB! 

JJeHb poacaeHHH Jlame Mbi npa {.inoHa.ni b iioij.miiuc- 
Kofi nepecM.ibHOH TiopbMe. Hhh-hhhom paccrciHaK Ha 
roaux Hapax m.iiimiyio CKaTepKy n nnpOBa.iH TaK *e 
nece.io, ksk b .tkjoom apyroM mcctc. Jl BcnoMiiHa,ia. kuk 
HOHCBa.ia b ttoh * - e castoH Kavicpc aBa roaa Ha jaa. Koraa 
mchji ae3-iH b narepb. llo.iyHajiocb. hto 3a sto apevta y Men» 
npnoaBH.iocb *'H3HepaaocTHocTx. yaajroe 33KOBCKoe «bcc 
hhiiohcm» ne noanycKa.ioo.iH3Ko k cepauy i (opeMHbie 6UTO- 
Bbie nacKyacTBa. II Koraa BcnepOM na Hac aamam Haciyn.ie- 
Hite no.iKii 3HaMeHHTbix noTbMHHCKHx KaonoB — Mbi yt'Tpo- 
H.1H H3 3TOro ue.iyio KQMeanto. Bsway Huc.ieHHoro npeBoc- 

XOaCTBa npOTHBHUKa OTOHBa.lHCb Mbi OT HHX BCIO HOHb, c 

iiepeMeHHtiMycnexoM.CBeT BKaMepesoBce rmMTBapsMHe 
\ieiiKi.i. ohh npnBUK,iH, H mm petiiH.iH aoBecTH dto acio ao 
MeaynpaBvieHHJi. BbiBecTH K,ionoB M3TtopbMbi — npeanpw- 
hthc, KOHeHHo, oesHaaejKHoe. ho noneMy KjIohu aon^Kbi 

nopTHTb KDOBb OaKHM TOJIbKO 33K3M? B CyiUHOCTH. HaM Obl.l 

HHTepeceH caM npouecc — KaK paiHbie itHCTaHHHH oyayr 
oTBepratb oeccnopHoe KaonHHoe cymecTBoeaHHe? Mbi 

TBCpaO BOTHaMCpH.lMCb. B ^yHUlMX TpaaHUHSX MapKCHCTCKO- 

.leHHHCKoro MarcpHajiH3Ma, aaTb hm Ha 3tot pa3 k^ohob b 
ihu> mctiiiHV nepBofi atepTBofi Su.i ni.nnamti.ni BttW no 
iTOMy noaoay Hana-ibHHK' TtopbMhi.JJ,o)«aaBiiiHCbaeyKypnoH 

{fipa'Jbl O TOM, HTO HHh'aKOH JKHBHOCTIf B THjpbMC He BOaHTCS 

h Bee 3T0 ToabKO HaM MepeuiHTCa, mu noKaia;tH CMy 
creKaBHHbiH nyibtpeK in-noa Baauao.ia c ocooo pi: t hum it 
0To6paHHbiMH 3K3eMtt.3spaMH. HaHH pyKOBOaKJia HHCTO HC- 
cieaosaTejibCKajt ,iio6o3HaTeabH0CTb — 6yaer;iHOHyTBep* 
5Kaan>, hto ny3wpeK nycT, kjih miscTbcs, hto b »ch3hh hc 
BHae.i iciona, a noTOMy He MOJKer ero HaeHTHCpHunpoBaTb? 
Okajajiocb — hk to hh apyroe. HaxoanHBWH TiopeMiuHK 
b bi a bh h y .i Be pc h to, h to m bi n p h BejJi h K-ionoB c c 060 ft . Tyr y jk 
mu oonaciiicb 3a KrE — Henero Ha hhx K.ieBeTan., hm m ot 
npaBau XBaTaei OTpnuaTe^bHUx 3mouhh! CapaHcxiiH 

H30.1HT0p KPB 6b!.l K3K p33 OHCHb H1IC PCIlliKllit. H aa>KC B 

oauro Hac TaM ho.im.ih He pa3 & sicic. i io, a Kyaa .iHSepajibHee 

— CT0HJ10 H3T.SBHTb WCiaHltC OneillHB OT T3KOH HL'OKII.iax - 

hoh lamtiTW, HaHa.ibHHKTiopbMbi3a6pa.i nysupeK ouionaMii 
h yme.3. aopna, hto Hac naoxo ooi.icK'a.ni, pas He tHi.s.iu 
cTeKjfHHHbic npeaMeTbi. HaHBHbiR He;iOBeh'! Oh penjHii, hto 



V\. ParywMHCKaR Cepbiw — upei Hafle>KAbi 



53 



othh.i y Hac BciitecTBCHHoe jOKaiaicihCTBo... Ho .icpcBHU- 
Hwe Hapw ithmh rBMHHH jOKasaTe.ibCTBUMii ktiiiio.ih h 
TieHM.-mcb. Htmero He ctoh.to qt.tobh rb erne CKO.ibKO yro^HO. 
Ohii caMH raK it .tcxih: ii.ich m.th nooeaa — Obl.TO km see 
paBHO. .niuib 6m 6biTb na jnoiiax! Mbi, KaK mot.ih, 
yjOB.ieTBopHJiH KBGfltUioe Tiuec.iaBue — oaitH hi hhx, b 
aKKypaTHO 3ana»HHOM imacrHKoBOM naKCTHKe. owji HaMH 
Ko\ian. mpOBa ii b MCjy npaB.icHiic aarepHoro ofibejimcHifa c 

COOTBCTCTByiOUlHM COnpOBOJHTe.TbHblM aoKVMCHTOM. ^py- 

roH noexaji npeacTaB,i»Tb non>MiiHCKoe K;ionnHoe cociobhc 
b npoKyparypy PC*CP. rpeTufi. caMwft coiTH.THbw, — b 
flpoKyparypyCCCP. Pa3yMeeTca. ith KOHBep™ mm nocbuia- 
;iti hc c IloibMbi (ohm h iiK via 6m He yni.itO. a vvkc in Hauicii 

30HH. nOCKO.lbKy KtJKaKHX VKaiOt) H3 HaUiy COOCTBCHliyK) 

a.lMHHHCTpaUHK) B jamiCHHRX He conepwajTocb — TO HX 11 

oTnpasiuH (ionaina i tcnnK). h LUajiiH c Beccnoii ycMeuiKoff 

BMja.T H3M KBHTaHUHM o6 OTHpaB^eHHH. 

Wepei tiapy MecaueB n pit man otbctm. Hhkskhx K.'tonoa 

snepeCbL-TbHOH TK>pbMCHanOTbMeHei1MeeTC». II lamiCNIIH 
HaUlK COHTCHbl Heo6oCHOBaHHbIMH. BoT H I10HMK TTHX MaTe- 

pna.incTOB! 

HeiionowcHKbtM OKa-jajicH Tjjecb » moh HaTCJibHbiH 
Kpecr. Bbi.i oh Mne b.ibohhc jopor. norouy hto cjiejiaH 
pyKaMu Hropa. B namefi 30He h Ha «.iBOHKe» ero npH ecex 
o6bicKax npejnoiHTajiH He laMenaTb — we 6u.no npitKaia 
KFB. 3aecb cpa3y iipimcsiH.iHcb. 

— Hto ito y Bac na uice 3a BepeBOHKa? 

— Ha Hefi xpecT. 

— HeMejyieHHO caaTb! 

— M He Nil .!> Mall) 

— Bbl KlUOM iiapH.l H COpBCM CHJIofi! 

— Hy-Hy... A Bee *e nynujc «e Gcpnre rro Ha ce6a, 
nocoBeryHtecb c itana;ibCTBOM. 

ApryMeHT cpa6ora.n 6e3OTKaiH0. KoMy oxoia .thhho 
iaBoanTbCH c «noJiirniHKaMH». a hotom .thhho ate OTBenaTb 
3a noejieacTBHJi? 

3a m hutch ini'ia. ii.ii iik pc-Aiixia 3yfiKoB. 3tot 6wji, no 
KpafiHCH Mepe, cmctum conjaTOM h 6pa.i Ha ce6s cawocTos- 

TCilbHblC pen ICH IIH . 

AMy,3eTM. K-peCTU, Ta.THCM3HM jaK.TtOHCHHblM HC 

nonmKCHbi. 

— Her raKoro aasoHa, hto6 janpeiuaib .twjsm Hoeim. 
KpecT! 

— EcTb HHcrpyKumi! 

— Taic KaK mc Mbi 6yaeM jkhtt. — no laKOHy h;ih no 

HHCTpVKUHH? 

— CnymaHTe, PaTyuiHHCKast. bh He jjyMaiiTe. hto bm — 

nepBas nojiHTimecKas, c Koropofi s hmckj je.io. H He raKHx. 
KaK Bbi, oi"ua\».ina_iif H 3HaeTe CKOjTbKO .tct npopaooraii B 
yupaBjieHHH? 

— A b KaKHe roiibi? 

— Bac Toraa eme ijiecb Heduiio. C ceMbjecjrr jeasToro, 

H «6a6ymcK» aauiHx iiomhio. h Be,iHKanoey 

— Hy h hto, laoHpajiH KpeCTbi? 

— 5! hc noMHK), htoG 6bt.ia TaKait npoo.ieMa 

— He6ocb, nonpo6oB£L3H 6u — homhh.th 6w. A TaHio 

OCHHOBy nOMHHTe? 

Tyr Ha cro ^nue OTpawaeTcs paSoTaMbic.iH. MpcKpacHo 
oh noMHHT TaHio c ce «cyxofi» ronojOBKofi aa bno.iHK). 
MeTBcpo cyTOK 6e3 Kan,iH bojw — rro iTepeno.ToujHJio 




Jla.'M llaptx 



Toua Bee ii x V'npaB.ie- 

HHC. H KaK KM npii- 
lU.TOCb C'tat'bCS — 

Toace no m hut. Xo po- 
ui aa Hi' II II. •<(.'. liWk-i- 

k;is naMnTb! 

— TaK Bbt... 

— Mero Tyr pac- 

f>*;i;in.. .lanaine no- 

npofvVCM, 4TO lIOJiyHHT- 
CH, CCJ1H COpBaTb CMC4H 

KpeCT. 

Uiikiih miavta- 

TCJlbHO CMOTpHT MHC B 

ma3a. Oh Bbi.iep'/KHBa- 
erao.Tbme. hcm ohk bcc. 

H HaKOHCIl, OTBCpHVB- 

tiJHtb. oypHHT: 

Ec.THOXOTbBe- 

peB04KH BII.TKO He 

Cbi.io! 

Ho ryr yw ji hh^cto He Mory noaejiatb — He a 
npoeKTHpoBa-ia miooBCKiie koctiomw c TaKKM BupeioM! TaK 
TaHHHa ro.ioaoBKa inSaBHJia mchs ot Heo6xoaiiMocTK no- 
BTopcHits. ii Bcyxyio mhc rononaTb hc npmunocb hh pasy. Hc 
3Ham. KaK 6bi 3to y mchs Bbiwjio. Xoth — KysA 6 h ae.iacb? 
Ho TaHs, paenBTaj) Ha TonnaHe, c huh'ichhmmh b HorH 
Kane.TbHnua.MH. — OTBoeBajia toma h HaiiJH Bmo;ihii. h btot 
moh KpecT. ii ricaiMH, hto new Tajia c itann JIhjoh bo acex 
UJH30. TaHM. CHHTaiouiaji ce6n HeBcpytoiueH. 

OoucKii uj.th ace name. OT6npa;in Ha hhx bcc w.ibine, 
H bot oaHa>Kabi. Koraa BBa.ni.uicb c osepeaHbiM. — a Kyn. 
6bino hc nonajiacb. Vac npti hhx mhc npiiujaocbcrJioTHyrt 
jihctok 6yMa™ c n H(J>opMauncfi h noc.ieaHHMH cntxaMH. lyi 
YM HCHero6bi.To yaHB^JiTbcs. mto MHeaajiHHeae,TiolllH3b. 

— pa3BCT0My, hto snepBue TaK Majio. Ho noHewy oaHospe- 
mchho aajiii ry »te Heaciio O^e. Ta.ie h HaTauic? 
06-bBCHs;iocb ^to oneHb npocrro — Hepes nonnaca riocae 
Hauiero 0Ti>e3aa B.TOMH.iacb b 30Hy uc.ias Tonna: 

— yKt-HmnHbi. 3ony nepesoarr Ha crapoe mccto! 
Hac. 3Ha4irr. npocTO y6pajiH, >rrodbi 0CTaBa.ioCb no- 

McHbiue Hapoay. H Hanajica BTopon norpoM, b cpasHCHMH c 
KOTopbiM nepsbiil — 6w;i hhhto. Bee nwcbMa. bcc 3atiHcn — 
b KOTOpbifi paj Ha npoBcpicy! Hi Beutefi oroopa^H it npocro 
yKpa^TH see. hto n^oxo .leiKajio, — HaniiHaa c PaeHKHHUx 
TpycoB h KOHHaa mohmh BbimiiBKaMH. HenoHSTHO. noneMy 
othsjih Eh6.tiho y TajiH. a ocTajibHwe jn»e ocTasujiH. Pacron- 
TajiH canoraMK ocBauieHHbieoojiaTKH nanw 51jiBnrM. yTamij- 
.ih y Hee hctkh c kpcctom. flaiKe otkpwtkh c penpoayKUHSMH 
hkoh Akohhchb h AHape» Py6.Tesa, BbirtHcaHHbie 6yic.TeT0M 

HCpC3 «KHHrV nOHTOH». K0H(pHCKOBa.lll KaK pejTHrH03- 

Hue. Bcc pitcvHKH HaTauiM co*tvjH, Bee cthxh, hto npneu- 
jia.TifMHeBiiHCbMaxMaMan Hropb, — tojkc He noMonio hh 
to, hto ohh obi.™ nepenHcaHbi in khhf coBercKoro innaHHH. 
hh hto 6bt,To ncpe^i K-aatuiM CTHxoTBOpeHKeM BbinncaHo — 
OTKyaa, H3^aTC-ibCTBo, roa, tom, CTpaHima... KoTopuii pa3 
KopHH.iKCb b orne cipoKH nyniKHHa, TtoTHesa, d>eTa... 

flaHH SasHra cHHTaer cBoHM6ojibuuiM rpexOM, hto oh a 

— caa6aa h oo.ibHaa — hc cyMejia y6epc>ib ot nopyraHits 
ocsameKHbicB JlKTBeo6jiaTKH. Haujii yrcmeHHa na Hee He 



M. ParyLUMHCKafi Cepbiw — LjBeT Hafle>KAbi 



aeHcreyiOT: oTnycTHTi. eft itot rpcxMor6hiT0.ibKOCBsmen- 
hmk, a CBameHHHKOB cwaa He nycKawT. Ha liyxCKOB no.THT- 
Tone CHairr KaTo.iHiecKHii kcch.h, ho c MywiHttaMH cefinac 
hct cbs3h. M naHH flaBHra petuaer HaaosKHTb Ha ce6a 
noKasHKe — o6eT MOjTHaHHH Ha roa. VroBopfai Tyr oecnojiea- 
Kbi, m mm >to noHHMaeM. Ejhhctbchhoc, b hcm yaaeTCs 
ySenKTbHaniyHeiipeitnoHHyKinaHH.— ^TOHTo6oHaocTaBH- 
;la 3a coooft npaso b cjiynac HeooxonnMOCTH oobflCHSTbCH 
imcbMeMHo. yro HxisceMbH oojicmeHiic — aceweSyayT 
nojiynan. ot nee bcctohkh. h b caynae Go.ieiHK mm xoti> 
6yaeM 3HaTb. hto c Hefi He.iaaHo. Mworo tbkkm cnoco6oM 
see paBHo hc HaoouiacuiHCJi, Beab hhiucm mu apyr apyry 
lariHCKti, ecnu HH<popMauHji — hc an* noacjiyuiHBaroiuefi 
annapaTyphi, h huom. HacKo/ibKo TpyaHee iiiioi.mchho, mom 
ycTHO. Aaace h Ha raKoe — Bee b Ma oTHocHTcibHoe — 
« iioc.'ia6;icHne» noHaaoonjiocb nccKonbtco aHeii aiicKyccitH. 

II HCnOHJtTHO, K3K 6bJ aC.10 IMBCpHV JlOCb, CCJ1H 6 H6 weaC3- 

huh apryMetrr: 

— CeMb«-TO HiiMesi He BiiHosaTa! Hm h TaKTpyaHQ, a 
la ro.i 6ei niiceM c yMa moxcho cohth. 

Jlaano, tiHcarb naHH flaBwra oyaer. ho pra He pacKpocT. 
,Li*o CBHjamie c cwhom npoBeaeT moms, BepHaa B3«TOMy 
o6ery. 

H. aelicTBHTejibHo, Haiua naHH He CKaiajia hh eauHoro 
Cviosac 19-roaBrycTa85-rono l9-eaBrycxa86-ro. To.ibKono 
TOMy. KaK OHa oo.tbHas cTOiiaaa bo CHe (ho k bo CHe — 6es 
c.iob!), mh 1H3.IH. hto y Hee h roaoc ihmohh.ioh 6e3 
npah-THKM. cteji rtyxow h xpmi.n.iii. 

Ho nero Mbi He owiuaJiH — 3to hto t&k b iSeca ioh 
KrE h Hau1aajMHHHCTpauHJt.naHnflaBnraoTKa3a.1acb Ha 
itot roa ot rojioaoBOK h tamioiitiii npoTccTa. OHa 6yaer 

TOJtbKO MO.maTb H HOCTHTbCJt — OO.TLUie HHiero. 

Kaja/tocb 6bi — hcmhm itomojkct noMetuaTb? Ho3TOT 
ee o6er BCTaji hm nonepcK rop-ia noxyme ro.toaoBOK. 

llOTOMy JIM, HTO, OTKaSblBaSCb OT TOTOaOBOK ll laflB.ieHllfl. 

naHH JtaBHra oroaopH,ia, hto ona Bcefi ayuiofi Ha CTopoHe 
tcx. kto 3to npoao.uKaeT, h mojihtcs ia Hac — npocTO y Hee 
hc xeaxaeT chji Ha Bee cpa3y? HoTOMy jih, hto -jto 6bLi 
ncooMHHbifi mar, h ohh nonpocry hcsh&th, HToac;iaTb?TaK 
h.th (inane — Bee 5bi.no caejiaKO aaH roro. mtoow sacTaBHTb 
ee roaopHTb. npHHocjrr hsm co cK.-iaaa oaesicay, KOTopyio 
Mbi moskcm noKynaTb pai b roa: TejiorpeHKH, canorw, neasfc 
Ha iLiaTba h py6axH. Bee, kohchho, ;iHMHTitpoBaHo, ho 6e3 
3Toro h BOBce rojiofi ocTaHeiubcs! Mbt Bee Bbiimobm.ioM. 
KOMy mto Ha.10, h naHH flaBiira Toace. He t>t*to 6btno\ 

— BejuiycKeHC, lilamH pacnopttaHJicn. mtooi.i rrpnHH- 
MaTb y sac raibKO ycTHUH iaxai! MuKaKitx 3anncoK! He 
CKaiKere, hto bbm naao, — HHtero He nonyHHre BOo6iue. 
TaK mto Bbi 6epeTC? 

naHH flaanra io;ibKo y.iw6aeTCii. OcraaascT Ha ctojic 
on hook h Bbixoam boh. Mw. kohchho, HeMeaaeHHO paCKH- 
aajiH ee cnitcoK no cbokm 3aKa3aM — h HHsero SyxrajiTepy 
hc ocTaeajiocb, KaK bi,i aa 1 1, HaM ace, hto naHB H:ibh ro Haao. 
i ;iK:ts Hatua noaaepatKa BujuBaer eiue oo-Tbtuyw spocn. — 
mm nocjteaoBaTcibKocpbiBaeM see BocmtxaTeJiLiiuc Mepon- 
rum 1 it h . nanpaB.icii iii.10 npoTHB m h uv«iK<ii naHH. nonpooo- 
saa napy paa BbiKa6.iyHHBaTbca c ee JiapbKOM n HatKHyBUiHCb 
ua ty »:e raKTHKy 30HU — ruuoHyan h OTOBapHBa.m naHH 
JlaBHry no cnHCKy. flpHiuHTbeH HapymeHHe pe)KHMa Su^o 
no. 1 1. in: rae jto b laKone 0Ka3aHo, hto 33k aoaaceH SbiTb 
rOBOpflUHM? He)«ypHJtHKH 11 iM y na 1 hcs Haa ee vtvi'iaii iiom 
He 6m^h corjiaCHU. Hn^ero, KpoMe yBa*eHHJi, TaKas 



TBepjoCTb y iihx He BbubiBajia. Ohh To.ibKO axa,in: 

— OM.*enmnni,i. hcjokto ras roa 11 npoMO-iHHT?fl6bi 
aw» He Bbiaepwajia! ro.ioaarb — h to. naBepHoc, .lerne! 

K h,ihu-i> ceHTs6p*i HaTauiay*eycne.ia npocTyanTbcn, 
m Mbi noaMaTbiBajiH efi noa oae»ay ace, hto yaaBajiocb 
crauiiiTb H3 iiaiiinx oiuV iiu-hmkin mcuikob. Ocenb n Becwa — 
caMoenapuiHBoe BpeMJt: xojioaHO, a TonHTb He iio-io>koh.i. 
KaMepu OTCwpeBaioT, H Bee, hto Ha Te6e — toskc Flo cnac- 
Tbio a nKT BbiaaKtTcn raseru — aneM mm noacTH.iajiH hx 
noa ceoii. npeKpacHan loii.-ioimvimiiiH 1 A mu-to eme 
HeaooueHHBa.Tn Haiuy poanyio npeccy... 

MbiuiH b naiiicH icaMcpe OXBMB. Hm TencpbaocTaBa.iiicb 
KpouiKH ot nafiKH nKT. a 3TO xott, n noun* on nan HOpMa 
n 11 1 .in ns. ho ace ate Ka-*;ibiii aeHb h x.ie6. ■ oajiaHaa. JKwna 
hx y Hac ue.iaa ceMb« — nana, M8Ma h .ki hiiikh ToHJiTb hx 
6u,io 6ecno.ie3Ho. lOpKHyr a HopKy, a nepei napy MMnyr 
Bu.toiaioT. y-*e m H3 nocro.iH hx hi>i ipHMtnain. a oaHajKau 
Ojie bo apeMH K3Korc~TO OHepeauoro (pH3Ky,ibTypHoro 
ynpa>KHCHna muiuokok npwi nv.i npxMO b .ihuo. c xkhi.im 

H3MCpeHHCM 3aCKOHHTb B pOT. HeCOSHaTC-lbHWe jIHHHOCTH. 
HTO II rOBOpHTb. 

Hauie cnacTbe, hto 
OHtiHac oo.TbiuecMe- 
tn ii. 1 11 . 'icm p.rt.ipavha- 
in 

Haiauje K3Mepa 
aaBanacb TJi/Ke.io. H 

(jilf JIIMOOKII ohq 6bLia 

cuaoec nac. h Meji- 
khc 6brroBue naKoc- 
th aeafypHaneK npH- 

niiMa.ia u.jhao K 
cepauy, H pocioHa- 
npaxeHHC — ocbo- 

ooa«T BeCHOH HJIH 

ao6aBSTcpoK?0.m k 
6biroBbiM aeTa.iHM 
OTHOcujiacb npeapn- 

TC.IbHO. HO yjKC npH- 

ujno efi nncbMO. hto 
OTCU B MXOKM CO- 

OH'HIinU B K.iKOM 

c^ynae poaHbte hh- 
uiyr Taxoe b Jiarepb 
— jiCHO. CTajia Ojih 
ao6HBaTbcn.HTo6 ee 
nose3aH b Kkcb h 
aa.m CBii.ianHO c po- 
aiiTeajiMH, a nKT OHa 
aocHawr neTOM. H 
xyr — TejierpaMMa o 
CMepTH. H ace Ohh- 
ho rope <" 11 i'vi. b 
neTbtpex 6eT0HHbtx 
CTeHax. 1 1 opny k> HOHb 
mu nporoBopmiH c 
HeR HanpojieT. He- 
BastHO neM — yc- 
Hyrb 6w OHa see pas- 
ho hc ycHyjia. 



HsyMena* mine, 
(IbnuHbie onuniai, 
npedocenHue dena 
MomuaeM do ccbinxu! 
Cxopo, exopo na oman — 
B manjibtu cgumep cxopo, 
A ceoBoda — no mmau, 
C MamepmuHoQ nononau, 
CbKKOM da nadsopott! 
BocaMbdecnm mpemuu sod — 
Conuo, ho xna6auu — 
Bxpycm no memowtau npoudem. 
napSfioMumcn eom-eom! 
HeGopBcx/w6ami 
3a oopoma, sa npooan — 
C KBMdoO Homou ebiwal 
TuxuQ amen omnemen. 
Ham cydt&e HSKpymum dan — 
flaQme mo/tbuQ otJimmbl 
Hy, do sempevu — ndo-nu6ydb. 

33K0OCKO9 CHBCmbO, 

yntJOHUCbt CuacmmiohiO nymt>l 
...Homy am npoutambca 



9mo ediiHcme&HHoe, nmo » na- 
nucana TamtJiHaMutaunoeHB, nam 
oho 6una c Hauu Ms o nomou 
nooanmuna eQ ne cmonwto cmuxoa. 
aovutKQ Gu cnedoaano. A aadt> owe 
Gbina dim uemt e aone ace**: u 
cauuM 6nu3ituu venoeoKOM, u ca- 
mum uyOphiu coeemnuxoM. u npw 
uepou, c KaitoO oockohbihou map* 
nuMocmbio k vyMui* cna6ocmnu u 
H&docmamKaM cnadyom mt/tnb a 
30H9- H — muaou 3wt;u*uJonedoeu 
npaao3autumhoso deux&mw u oso 
mpadtmuu. Oo/jwfO paa nocne ae 
omhBSda a c 6nasooapHocmhto 
acnouuHBna mom GnasopodHbiQ 
o6wvO(3 docmouHcmea u sabombt 
dpyzux, KomoptniO ona ocmaauna 
nocrm eeSn e sohb. 



VI. ParyLUHHCKaa Cepww — UBeT Hafle>KAbi 



Onto ymeum b KOHiie OKTaopa, 30 HHCJia a aep>Kaaa 
ipaanmionHvi« uojHojHCBKy» — JcHb naiMnajciiOHeH- 
Hhix, a 3 1 -ro Hom>K>, nocae OTOoa. c mcks coapaiH oae»;ay >t 
nepCBe.iH Ha pe>KHM UJIT30. BaaaxoH iia roaoe Teao, chokok 
Ka noaoKOHHHKe h — paaocTHwft reoeuimiK Eputoa: 

— Hy hto. IIpiiHa BopitcoBHa. aonpuraaiicb? Bw xo™ 
noHHMaeTc. hto Bamc laic-tioiCHiie Moxer ciarb nowinHCH- 

KblM? 

11 cHOBa — npo :io6aBKy cpoKa, npo to, htoh3LL1II30 
MHe hc BbiHTM, upo noMiiaoBKy... TyT a eMy anoaHC Repit.ia; 
HL'.ih vMopHT, itoobijio scho. MeaaeHHo, He enema, xoaoaoM 

H rOvlOJOM.BnTbHC6yaVT.HeT — 3TO Hit KHCMy. FlpOCTO 

aeHb la .ihcm CHOBa ti CHOBa pa3aeB3Tb aoroaa ii oowapH- 
saTb .ihiikhmji .-lanaxiii. htq6 — HKMero, xpoMe SaaaxoHa h 
rpycoa! Ra ewe Tpycu npoBcpsr — Bapyr 11 HcxirrpM.iacb 
HaaeTbaae napw? J\a caywaTb mhc hx rHVCHOCTH. aa xaeoatb 
rHKJtyio oaaaHay — iep« aeHb... By ay a iiocTeneHHO caa- 
6eTb, ti Bee MCHbiue ocTaHerca cita npoTHBOCToaib inaeBa- 
TcibCTBaM. a ohh 6yayr inoopeTatb bcc hob we h hobuc. 

TaK hct saM. rocnoaa xopomite! XBarHT c mchs 3thx 
b-apuepoe h BauiHx aan! Xothtc aoKOHaTb? Tax ««m 6uct- 
pec. TeM nyone! fl yxojKy in saiutix ctch — HacBoSoay! Bw 
ay'Maere — afiyay uenaaTbca 3a *H3Hb. KOTopyw BU npeBpa- 
twjth b nuncy? H sepHy.ia mm hx Saaaaay, m MOMem-aabHo 
npHMtaancb: 

— Bw hto, b roaoaoBKe? A rae *e 3aaBacKHe? 

— S\ hx yjice cothh Hamicaaa — h tipo roaoaoBKii b tom 
HKCic. Mhc nasi hchcio ooabiue cvawn,. 

— Ho bw aoaxcHu ecTb! 

— BaM a HHHero hc AOockhoJ 

— Beab yMpere! 

— MeHH KareociuHMKii KaK pai 11 o6ewaaH yMopHTb. 
TaK BaM Haao pacTaHyrb bo BpeMemt 3to yaoBoabCTBHe? 
Htoow noaoabiue noMyHMTb? Bw BHaifTe — b Ka.stepc nap B30 
pia? CKoabKO a, no-saweMy. npoTMHV, ccan aa*c oyay ecTb 
iTy 6ypay? 

— FloMpere. a HaM oTBenan.?! 

— PaHbuic Haao SHOO Byttm. Bcc. npncM okohhch. 
ripucKaKaa ApTCMbCB. 

— llpnna BopiicoBHa! Hy hto bw BsayMaan? Hy bot 
Bpai aac ocMOTpHT. TeaorpeiiKy BaM aaayr, pai xoaoaHO. 
EpmoB — napeHb Moaoaovj. ropstMil, ho HHHero Taxoro oh 
BaM CKaiarb He mot. 

A oTKyaa * tu 3Haeuib, roaySnHK, — Beab a reoe hh 
caoaa He roaopnaa? A hto rro y Te6« ma3a t3khc ncnyraH- 
Hwe? rioHw.t Tenepb, hto 3HannT — «cKa3Ky caeaaTb Sw- 
ab 10 »?'3TOTe6e nci>cmccniM\ 33kob MOpaOBarb! Boimibcfl 
CKaHaaaa? IIpaBHabHO 6oHiubca — 6yaer. euie h KaKofi! 
Tpn>Kjbi no/iyMaer nocae itoto KfE — cawarb apyrnx b 
Kapuep Han ayniuc He najio? TeJiorpeHKOM renepb nbrra- 
eiubc« yMaciHTb? ByaTO a He 3«aio. hto ee caepyr c MeH» 
cpa3y. eaaa * HaMHy ecTb, — 11 bcc nofijer cnanaaa. Eme hc 
aoynpa»cHHancb? Xb3TMT c sac h ^toro. tpauiHCTbi! 

Bee 3to. pa3yMceTca, a e\iy hc roBopio, ho ayMaio 
HMetino TaK. BeaeT mchh ac*ypHaHKa b Kawepy h B3jbixaer: 

— Oh. Ifpmiia! Heysrro Bnpanay noMtipaTb Syaeuib? 

— 3Toy*KaKBoraacT. Ho nwTaTb OHiiooabuieHHKoro 
hc 6yayr. Bitaaaa, KaK Hac b U1H30 TaCKaroT — h crapyx, 
h bccx? Hy h XBaTMT. Ha stot pa3 cnorKHyTca. SI 6yay 
nocaeaHefi. 

— A i oHopn.ni. o Te6e no paano nepeaasaan. To an H3 
AHraHH. to an H3 Amcphkk. TaM Heoocb o Te6e xaonoHyT? 



— Mto •*. ccHnac — cawoe Bpc\ia xaonoTaTb. 11 hc 

TO.lbKO 000 MHC. Bltfllltlb. KaK H3 HaC IIOMII lOHKll MHffl 

Xyace. He%i npn AHaponone. 

— A roaipar, TopoaHeB Hacner caoooabi crapaerca. 

— To-to ia Hac h n im.ihli,. Oh ac l'k:i i.1.1. hto Her 

noaHT3aK.]H>HeHHbixBCCCP. ^TenepbocTnocbToibKOHac 
noyoHBarb ium BwnycTHTb. 

— Hy aaaHO. cnacTaHBo ocraBaTbca. y mchh cMeHa 
KOHHaeTca. Hoctoh. aaif-Ka a Te6e KapMaHw b TeaorpcHKe 
npoaepio... 

IIwM.nt aeHb. UJecToH. Heaeaa. C HacjiaatacKiieM nya- 
ctbvio, KaK yxoaHT H3 MCHB BCC HTO MOWCT 6oacTb H 
MVHHTbca. TaK aerKo-aerso. H ecn. hc xoHerca. 11 xoaoaa 
yiKC hc HVBCTByio. Eae-eac cohhtcb CKBOib peuieTKV cepbirt 
aHeBHoii CBet. Passe tskoh cbct a yBir/K>' nepc3 Heaeaio — 
apyryto? Ha ayiue ciiokohho h mhpho. it 3tot cepbrii useT 
mchb He pa3apa-**aeT: hm 3a6opbt. hh MopaoscKaa oceHb. hm 
mom apaHwfi 6aaaxoK. hh aa*-e iiiHHean naa3HpaTeaeS. 

Ha oaHHHaauaTbiil aeHb 113 Moefi KaMepw yxoaar mwiuh. 
EycbKOM. no onepean. ripoaesaioT b iueab noa iHcpt.m — h 
bot yace nocaeaHHii cepbift xboct yranyaca a KopHjop. fl 
KaGaioaaKmo.aejKa Hanoay.6e3oco6bix 3mouhh. PyKa,nio 
y mchs noa roaoBoii. aaBHO laHCMcia. huh; HVBCTByio hh 
Kopaawx aocoK. hh CKBOiHAKa H3 oKHa. Her y mchs hhkhkhx 
aoaroB. Bee cneTa onaaneHW 11 3ak-pwTw. CTpaHHoe Tenao 
oxBaTwaaeT Bee. hto ocTaaocb ot Teaa, n KanaeT. R yoaioKH- 

net, 

TaKyio aacKy aaTb Moraa 6u 

Mhc ToabKo aercTBa Koauoeab... 
Tae a cabimavia >tv neceHKy? Ax, aa, Tan.aHa MHXatt- 
aoBHa, ce pyxa y mchs Ha roaoBe.., Hropb c H3MyneHMbtMH 
oeccoHHimcii raaaaMH... TaHa OcHnoaa^c sikobckhm Metu- 
kom 11 noaHHTbiM noaoopoaKOM... Ma\ia — KaK OHa Ha tom 
CBHaaHMii. nepBOM n nocaeaHeM, crapaaacb He naaKarb. Tot 
taKCHCT, KOToporo a nonpocnaa: «OropBH xboct !» (3a HaMit 
bbho He caynaHHO exaaa MauiHHa),HOHOTopBaa. MaabHHiii- 
Ka-KOHBotip, ykpaaKoft SepymHH nacnex sataecHHbiH koh- 

BCpT. He3HaK0MWfi XHMHK H3 AMepHKH. HO HMCHM ^3BHa, 

ttpHcaaBiiiHit Hropro nwchMO c hphbctom aaa mchs. 

H, KOHCHHO. He 3H3K}, HTO IIMCHHO B ITOTaeHb CayjKBT 

noMHCMoaeoeH BHHKOraatie BHaaimoM MHOK>aitraHHCKOM 
ropoae, hto -kmyt ywe Ha cobctckhx awiiaoMaTOB. rae 6w 

OHH HH nOBBJiaaifCb. HTO npHaCT 33BTpa HOB 1,1H H;i'[.ill,IHIK 

aarepa (craporo 6wcTpeHbKO ompaBaT Ha neHCHio), 11 
oKaxcrca 3tot hobwh HaqaabHttK3yHK0BMM — TebtcaMUM. 
hto He peiuttaca na «uiecTepKe» copeaTb c Mena KpecT. H 
B030HHT 3yHK0B HeaoseHbHM roaocoM: 

— He a *■ sac b UIH30 ca*aji, hohcmv ace mhc 3a 
Hy*tyio aypocTb OTsenaTb. ecan bw yMpeTe? 

— rioTOMy hto h bw 6w noariMcaiH 3tot npiiKaj, kbk 

MMaCHbKHli. 

— Her! 06etuaio bbm — hct! HHKaKHX UIH30! Hc 
noanmiiy — it kohcu. » HanaabHMK aarepa! HaibiBaincMcna 

K3K XOTHTC eCaK H OOMaH\ ! 

H a eMy noKcpio no 1 .iau\i hh.iho. hto hc iioanHujeT 
TaK 3aneM noacraBaaTb noa yaap hmchho ero? Ctoht aoac- 
aaTbca. Koraa Koro yroaHo H3 itac ornpasai b onepejHoc 
UI1130 c poaHoii «TpoMKH», — 11 Toraa y>KC a . 1 mm \ c i, b 
nocacaHioio roaoaoBKy no.i kh\ hi o\i . «npeKpaTHTettuTaTb 
3aKaK)HeHHWx!» Kohchho. c MCHa ero HeMeaaeHHO copByr, 



HCTOPHfl HHAKOMblCJll/IFI 



KOHaujH xoTb oyayr 3HaTb — c kskhm rpeooBaHHeM anonay 
Ha 3to. CwoTpHM Mbi c 3yflKOBWM apyr Ka apyra... JlajHo, 
co.i.iaTCKaa tboh ayma, rw no-CBoeMy npaa. Ho 3Hait 6w tu. 
ao Hero MHe hc xoiercs us o.iaaceHHoro cBoero coctoshhsi 
BosRpamaTbca Hasan — ToiibKO c reM, htoom Ha-ian, npH 
nepBOMciyHaeacecHaHna! ti nocierojioaoBKK ecTb — tto 
aceraa Tax ixui.mu' He6o caoaHT noncMy-To. KaK ot o*ora. 
— Xopoiuo, iiepeBoatrre na dokhm riKT — hshhy ecn., 

— HaHMHaMreccro.iHs! Bpams onacaioTca,.. 

— noaowayr Bauw BpaHH. HycKafi b ntCT H neiaT. 

H He oOiuaHeT 3yfiKOB, npcKpaTJiTcs Ha 3tom ace moh 
UIH30, a OCT3TOK cpoica b IlfCT oh cie;iaeT xi* muhs 

«MaKCHMa,1bHO 6,iaronpHHTHbIM» HaCKCMbKO 1TOBOOOIUC 

B03MOHCHQ iUm TaKMX MeCT. Ha 3TOM. OJHaKO. BCC 11 

KOifHM.ioci,. napaji.ie.ibHo co mhoh cboh nnTbcyTOKOTcn.ie.ia 
Tails (m 06 3tom h hc ma-ia), ho oo.ibiue hhkofo h3 sohij b 
LUH30 hc ca*a,iH. h Ji03VHr moh — HaimcanHbifi japanee 
jctchkoh — npo.iewaji noa naiun\ni TejiorpeilhaMii ao canio- 
ro Moero 0TbC3aa b Khcb. 

A Ha cjieayiouiKH aeHb (tue.i Matt 1 986-eo - nptatped.) 
MCHH ia5epyT s KweB «ocBo6o5KaaTbc>i»>, h noc.ieaHnc rpH 
Mecmia 6yayTBbJMoraTb.HCTpaiuaTb.H uiaHTaacHpoBaTb, ho 

OaHOBpCMeHHO KjlSCTbCfl MHe, 1T0 B «Ma,10H 30Ke HHKOrO 

vase He ocrajiocb". xots jto Gyaer Tornaeuie spaHbCM. He 
.looHBiimcb %ejiaKHoro noicasHHJi. 3a aBa zm ao BCTpenH b 
PdiKi.HHHKc rjiaB csepxaepacas — see sue Bunycnrr. no 
ceKpeTHOMy yrcaiy 3a no.in hc 1,10 fpoMbiKO. Ha pyKH mhc 3TOT 
VK-ai hc OTaaayr. ho oohschht 3aT0, noHewy ceKpeTHbiit: 

— Bbi *e noMKJioBaHHK hc npoctum, h o<{)HUHa.ibHo 
npe3HjnyM BepxoBHOro CoBera CCXP hc HMeeT npaBa Bac 

nOMH.IOBaTb. 



— Mhc noMH.ioBaHite hc HyiKHo, MHe Hyaena peaoti.iHTa- 
mia! 

— Hy. HpHHa EopxcoBHa. He see cpaiy. MosKeT6biTb. 
nono3KC. A bot .icp/KaTb sac saecb mu hc mmccm npaBa. pat 

yk*33. COOepHTC Benin, Mbi OTBeiCM BaC JOMOJI 

CooHpaw. eme hc coo6pa*ajr. BpyT k.ih hc Bpyr? 
H bot MeH» Beiyr Ha icpHOH «Boare»... 

stumor 

Ceroana. b ceHTsSpe 87 -ro roja. b Marion 3one jch- 
cTBHT&ibno HHKoro He ocTaJiocb. Ona trpcicpaTH.ia CBoe 
i:\iiiccinoHaiiiic Jlar.ie whbci n 3ctohhh, ii;;hh .hi ,ia — b 
."lamnii. Haraiua h fajiii — b Pocchh. Pa« h O.-im — Ha 
VxpaHHC. TaH» — b AwepHKe. Ho ocTa.mcb nOKa b ccu.ikc 
TaTbSHa \ I iixaii.iOHtiy Be. mkanoBa h l : icua CaHHHKOBa, ho 
ocTimcb cothh no.iHT3aKJifOHeHHbix no apyrwM .iarep*M. 

TMJpbMaM, CCbI,lKaM II ik:h\ MIIK.IM A 13KOB-pa6oB, apccTo- 

BaHHUx ao yrojroBHbiM craTbuM. xoTb h He Rcei.ia 3a 
aeflcTBHTe.ibHbie npecryn.ieHHa — mhji.ihohu. 

HyMep BTiopbMe, hc ,io>iuaamHCb csoooau, Ah3to- 
.ih ft MapicHKO. h Ka*.iwH jcKb kto-to yMHpaeT — m cero,iHS 
\MpyT. 11 3aBipa. A a iKHBy, 11 3to. HaBepHoe. HecnpaBca-inBO. 

XpaHK) HHKOM> HC Hy*HyiO 3aeCb 33KOBCKytO (})OpMy 

paooTbi naHH Jlnaw. HHorjaixpHjKHMatocb k 3Toh JiarcpHOH. 
CTOJibKo noBKiaBUjeii uikvpe meKOH. Cepyw mom. cepwfi 
qbct! Ubct na.ie/K;ii.i ' CsojibKO eme crosTb 3tmm narepsM Ha 
Moefi leMjie? Ksk s cmcio iacHyrt cerojHB, Koraa ohm bcc 
ctoiit? 

Ho 3TO y Haiiicii johw iji,i. ia cepan r}»opMa. V' oojibuiKH- 
cTBa 3>kob — HepHan, Hm-to Ka hto HasCHTbcs? Passe 
TO.ibico — Ha Hac c BaMn. 



0ennKC KOXPMXT 



IIpH3HaHHH HpHHW PaTyiUHHCKOH 



B neroriMCM penpeccww TOTanwTapHoro pemmwa nporne 
cbomx rpainaaH cymecreyeT aocTOBepHas xpoHonorkw. 3a- 
ctmKcupoeaBiuaFi riMKOBwe - "niofloeflCKMe" — nepnoflw m TaK 
naatiBaeMbie "BererapnaHCKMe" 60-e roflbi, necoMnenHo. 
OTHOCwnwcb k nocneflMHM. KoneMHo use, b crpaHe 6toinn no- 
nnT3aKriK)HeHHbie. ho cponH ohm nojiynajiM noMHrne, aa m 
Macurra6bi nocaflOK Bbinw yme Here, M bot mmehho Toraa 
HpHHa PaTyujuHcxan nonynmna 7 neT crpororo peatMMa 1 5 — 
ccbinxn 3to 6bin caMbiii cypoBbtM npuroBop. BbiHeceHHbiiH 
»cenmnHB no nonmcTaTbe b nocTcranwHCKMM nepHOfl. 

14 ceroJIHO HpHHB &OpMCOBHa He MOMeT 06bRCHMTbaa>Ke 

caMa ce6e. hom *e 6bina BusBana CTo/ib rnoTan HeHasncTh 
pewnMa MMeHHo k Heii, He saHMMaBLueitcn aKTMBHOM anTuco- 
eeTCKOii aeBTenbHocTbio, a Bcero nwuib nucaBiuefl ctkxm. 
0h3 cthocmt ceSfl « flticcMfleHTaM, oco6o OTMeqan. uto 
flBtDKemie 3to He 6wflo OflHopoflHbJM. KawflbiM, no ee y6ew* 
aeHHio, OTCTanBan to, mto cnwTan caMWM aawHbiM m rnaB- 

HUM. 

"fl ao6MBanacb roro. HTo6bi MHe ne MeiuanM nucaTb", — 
npn3naeTCn PaTyiuviHCKaH. 

A 3to, no yoeiKjqeHiiio BnacTew, Gbino obhum h3 caMbix 
cepbesHbix rpexoB. H60 noflpwBano MOHononwio KflCC Ha 



HHCpOpMaUMK). PaTyLUMHC- 

Kan. cpH3HK no o6pa30Ba- 
hmio, nonaraeT. hto mh- 
CpopwauHo — ueHHee nn> 
6bix fleHer, Jlio6onbtTHO, 
hto m apyroii mom HeaaB- 
hmm cooeoeaHMK — Anex- 
caHflp Tneaep, opranMaa- 
Top Tax HaabiBaeMOM 
"BynbaoaepHOM BbicTae- 

K*t\ COCTOHBUieMCfl B MOC- 

xee B 1974 roay, — yee- 
p6H, 4T0 COTpyflHMKOB Mfle- 

onomMecKMx oraenoB L|K 
m KPB SecnoKowno He to. b 
xaxOM Manepe pa6oTaiOT 

XyaOMHMKM-HOHKOHCpOp- 
MMCTbl (cpeaM HMX SbtHM. 

KtrraTK, m ctopohhmkm pe- 
a/iHCTHHecKoro Hanpaene- 
HM51 b HCKyccree), a nx B03- 

MyTHTenbHoe wenaHMe 




0. KoxpMXT npH3HaHt/lfl MpUHbl PaTyUJHHCKOM 



57 



BblCTaBDBTb CBOM pa6oibi TRB h Koraa MM yroano To BCTb 
ynpaennTb HHtpopMauneii 

PaTyninHCKOH flariH eeMb narepeii nnioc nnrb "no po- 
raM". B eflMHCTseHHOM a cTpaHe Manoi* hohckom aone ana 
oco6o onacHwx rocyflapcTBeHHbix npecTynHWKOB BMecTe c 
UpHHOvi 0Ka3anncb: noxsunas nuToeKa. B03HaMepnBiuaflCB 
oTKpwTb y ce6fl aoMa BocttpecHyio KaTonwsecKyK) wrony: 
weHa yKpanHCKoro noaTa-flMccufleHia Mnxonbi PyoBHKo PaH- 
ca, nocaweHHan 3a to, hto He aoHecna Ha Mywa; nneHbt 
Xe/ibCMHKCKHx rpynn Onbra Maryceann (Knee) m TarbPHa 
OcwnoBa {Mocnea); xyaowHHija Harawa Jlaaapeea, HnniocT- 

pupOBaBlUaH CaMM3flaT0BCKHii CpeMMHMCTKHBCKMW (!) :+;yp- 

Han; acTOHxa, 6opOBwaBCB 3a HeaasMCMMocTb csoeM cTpaHbi 
m cTaeiuan b neii BnocneacTBMM mmhwctpom BHyTpewHwx 
aen... 

BoaBpaiuancb x cypoBOCTM npwroBOpa, BbiMeceHHoro 
PaTyaiMHCKOH. pncKH6M npeanonoxtMTb cneaymmee. Bo-nep- 
bwx , UpMwa , no 3aBery AneKca napa ConxceHMuwHa. He aa Ba- 
na noxaaaHMM. Bee BpeMB. npOBeaeHHoe b cneacTaeHHOM 
waonflTope nneecKoro KTE. ona He OTBesana Ha Bonpocw 
cnefloeaTenn. B xaMepe - 'imTb waroe ao OKHa. aa neTwpe ot 
ct©hu h no creHw" — coHMHflna ctmxm. aanoMMHana mx. 
hto6w notOM, b narepe. 3anncaTb Ha nocscyrxax ByMarw 
6wcepHbiM nosepKOM w nepeaaTb Ha Borao, PaTytuMHCKan 
noxa3ana hbm stm MyaoM npopBaBwwecB na Bonto n yuenes- 

Ujwe J1MCTKM... 

Ho 3to ByneT noawe. A Toraa, e M3onsiTope, ohb Monna- 
na. H6M. sepofiTHo. 6ecnna cneflOBaTe/iew. He oKMaaBWMx 
T8KOH cwnbi xapaicrepaoT Monoaow HHie/i/mrem-KM. snepewe 
nonaBiuevt a wepHOBa CucieMbi. 

Ho maBHan npwHMHa 6ecnpeaenbHoro nparosopa, »a 
Ham B3rnfla, 3aKnio4anacb a cneayomeM. Ochobom yronoB- 
Horo aena PaTyiuMHcxoS CTano CTMxoTBOpeHMe "PoanHa*. 
BepHee, nepabie ero ctpokh: 

HeHaeucmHap mop podunaf 

Hem nocmbidHeu meoux noweu. 

Kaj«at»ift, kto aoMKTaer ero no Konya, y6eanTCH, 4to 3to 
BQBce He 3no6HbiM nacKsunb {a ecnw 6w n Tax — 4to me, 3a 
ctmxm aaeaib 12 ner saxnioMeHMB?). a kpmk ayujM Monoaoro 
MenoaeKa (MpwHe B 1977 roay 6btno 23 roaa), noTpaceHHoro 
cyflb6ow ceoen cTpanbi, ceoero napoaa. Co6ctbshho roBopw, 
noaT PaTyuiMHCKan npoaonxciina TpaawuMio OTenecTBeHHOM 
aeMoxparnMecttOM cnoBecHoc™, nay men 0T ^aaaaeBa, riep- 
MOHTOBa, MaHaenbiuraMa: TlpoiuaM, MeMWTaHPoccufi!'. "Mw 
WMB6M, noa co6oK3 He nyn cTpaHw...". 

<...>B 1982 roay, B cbom 28 neT. Hpuna Bwcnyiuana ot 
cneaoBaTena: "Bot SyaeTe MorwaTb — nonywMTe 12 neT. 
Koraa BWMaeTe, aaw cTyttHBT 40. A 3to — cTapocn...." 

"Fl aewcTBMTenbHo b ayme comawanacb c hum, — Bcno- 
MimaeT PaTyujMHcxan. — a cna6o npeflcTaa/wna ce6e Toraa 
ceSfl copoxaneTHeii. ripowanacb c xpacHSOM onewaow. koto- 
pyio we Haaesinacb Koraa-Hn6yab BHOBb oaeTb, c Mojioaoc- 
TbK>. " Toraa Hanncana cTHxoTsopeHwe, b xotodom MewTana 
o "BMiUHeeoM GapxaTHOM rwaTbe" C stmm nnaTteM y PaTy- 
UJMHCKOii BnocneacTBHM cnyMM/iacb mctopmb, xoTopan 3acTa- 
Bwna ee npn3aayMaTbcn tom. 6wna nw OHa npasa, Koraa 
yrBep*aana: 

"fl eceeOa a«6uaa no33wo aa ee Kopaneecxyio 6ecno- 
nesHocmt,..." 

Hpuma cMMTana, ^ito cruxaMn Mnoro He 3apa6oTaeujb, 

4T0 OT HHX OaHM HenpMHTHOCTM. "Ho BOT. — npoaOfUtcaeT 0M3, 

— nocne Moero Bbixoaa us nareps Mbt c My>xeM oxasanMCb b 
AnmHM. BbiflCHM/iocb. 4To ctmxm o nnaTbe nepeeeaeHw Ha 
MHorwe flswKw". \A aBTop CTana nonynaTb b noaapox aecnTxw 



"BMLUHeBwx 6apxaTHwx" caMoro paaHoro paaMepa. 6onbtuwH- 

CTBO «3 KOTOpbJX paaaapUDa, Ho OaHO HOCMT M CeMHaC. 

Hpuna ppOMna H3M 3to caMoe CTMxoTBopeHHe, nonpo- 
cmb CJiyujaTenew He aapviTb ev\ nnaTbf*. H Tyr *e M3 3ana bh 
nepeaanH e noaapOK cTapuHnwe «apMaHHb«e nacw c Ljenon- 
xofi. flapHTenb npeanonen ocTaibCfl Hen3BecTHWM... 

Ctmxh OHa nwcana c aeTCTBa, ho yHMTbcn noiuna Ha 
cpw3WHecKMM cpaKyribTeT OaeccKoro yHMBepcwTeTa. H bobcb 
He ot oco6wx MaTBMaTHqecKMx cnoco6HOCiett. "3 6bina yBe- 
peHa. — paccKasbieaeT UpHHa, — mo b 0M3iiKe uapuT enpa- 
BearTMBOCTb (sanoH BoiinR-MapMOTTa n b A(ppnxe 33koh), a 
sto KanecTBO a ueHMna 6onee Bcero". 

Bbtwan b 1987 roay Ha CBOfioay 6naroaapa ycnniiBM 
npe3naeHTa CLDA Pona^baa PewraHa (oh caenan sto yc/10- 
BMeM bo3mo»choctm caoe^ peMKbflBMKCKoiS BCTpenw c Top6a- 
HeewM). PaTyujHHCxas nepewM aenoM Hanana 6opb6y aa 
ocBo6o)xaeHMe nonwTMHecxMx 3aK/iK)4eHHbix b CCCP. H ao- 
6wnacb MHororo. yroBopuB caMy "wenesHyio neflw" MaprapeT 
T3TMep, onapoBaHHyw ropSaneawM, BKjitoHHTbCfl a 3Ty kbm- 
nannio. 

Ha BCTpene npoaeyHan sonpoc: noneMy PaTyujHHCitafl 
Hanwcana CBHaeTenbCTBO a nonb3y SwBLijero reHepana KrE 
EareHMH Mapnyxa? DocneaoBan otb6t: "Mapqyxa ynpexarciT 
a tom, mto oh 6bin nanaHOM. Ho, pa6oTas co mhoS, "non/tan 
M6HH Ha noMHnoBxy (c yaapeHiieM b TpeTbeM cnore TpeTbero 
cnoea hb "o"), othochjics ko mh6 no-He/ioseMecKM. Oh noMor 
MHe — npMHocvin KHMm, paapeiawn cBMaaHwn c MaTepbto m 
MyjxeM. He 3Haio. xax on OTMHTweancR nepea Mocksoh..." 

Bonee Bcero onacaeicn HaqwoHanbHOM poshm. ysbi, 
nonaraer ona. npammecKH y Bcex ecrb MCTopMHecxne 060- 
CHOBaHMA arm Bpax<abi, ho nenbaa 3TOMy noaaasaTbCfl. rin- 
uieT poM3H "HacneannKH mhhhoto nonn", repow KOToporo — 
aeTM (pyccKwe. yKpaMHuw, nonsiKM, aspen), nepe*nBiune boa- 
ny , cnacaBtuMe apyr apy ra. ho nocne eeoKOHHawHB BTflHyTbie 
B3pocnbtMin b HaLinOHanbHbie paaGopKM... 

3Ta KHHra — CBoeo6pa3Hoe npoaonweHMe poiwaHa 
'OaeccHTw" Oaecca aannMaeT b *m3hm Upmhw oco6oe 
mbcto: 

"H 6bina a Odecce Kyane^uKou Ha pyxe...' 

3to cTpOKa M3 ee CTnxoTBopeHnn. Poflnnacb b Onecce b 
1 954 roay b ceMbe WHweKepa h y^MTenbHHUbi. >Kmjim He6ora- 
to: TenesMsop noRBMncs TonbKO b 80-m, ho xHHrw Sbirw 
aceraa O npn4WHenoCTynneHMH Ha tpwstpax Mbiyxce pacCKa- 
3biaa/iM. 3to 6binn cMacTniiBwe roaw: yqe6a. ctmxh, KBH, 
BepHbieapysbfl, npexpacHbienpenoflaaaTenn. 3HaM6HaTenb- 
ho. 4to hh oanoKaiuHMXH, hm acKSH, hm pexTop He "caanw" ee 
enocneacTBHM Ha aonpocax... 

C aeTCTBa apyJKMna co cbomm 6yaymnM MyweM MropeM 
— xweB^siHHHOM. OSeeHHaaujHCb c hum b 1979 roay, nepe- 
exanw a CTo/iMMy. yMacTBOBann b "caMH3aaTe". Uropb c 

MpMKOfl BCK) JKH3Hb. M B paaOCTH, \A B TOpe. PaCTyT CWHOBbB- 

aBoitHHWKM Koraa ae™ 6ujim ManeHbKHMM. PaTyuiMHCKasi 
nwcana ann h«x ctmxm. Tax poawncB c6ophmk — oaMH m 
MHOMecTea. Cnncox ee nwTeparypHbix npeMHii (b tom nwcne 

H C3MWX npeCTM*Hb(X) H npOH3BBaeHHM (CTHXM, np03a> SSHM- 

MaeT Tpw cTpaHMqbi. CpeaM hmx m ctuxotbophwh coophmk, 
MaaaHHWki b 1993 roay b Oaecce — Bnepewe b CHf 

MpHHa npwsHanacb: "fl pacMyBCTBOBanact.. flaBHo hb 
6bma b poaHOM ropoae.. " H ao6aenna: "4to 6w hm cnyNM- 
nocb b Oaecce — anwaeMMB, aeM/ieTpBceHne, npeaBbtBop- 
naa xaMnaHMB, — Mt>i eceraa 6yaeM B03BpamaTbc« b nauj 
ropoa". 

H nocneanee npnanaHMe: "MHe h ceroflHB chhtch oaec- 

CKMeCHW..." 

"Cioeo " 



<£ 3HAK BEflbl 



«4epTa oceA^ocTn: ao m noc/ie» 




neficax n flea 3nnb6epwaH H3 Bapa (YKpa- 
MHa). Kyna wx aacTaewnw nepeexarb, BurHaa 
Ha poflHOM flepeBHw Mx flem , see weeTepo. 
3MwrpwpoBann b CLLIA m KHKorfla 6o/ibUje 
H6 B«fle.nM cbomx poflwrejiew. 



(DpeSae (Mapwn) JleirfKHMa noc- 
ne OKOHHaHMH niMHaatiM 6bina 
OTHpaBnena otuom b Bapwasy, 
rfle okoh4 wia *eHCKne 3y6oBpa- 
ne6Hbie Kypcw n CTana 3y6HbiM 
BpanoM. Bu6op BapujaBH 6wn 
HecrtynaeM - a Pocchm cyme- 
CTaosa/iM kbotw ft/is o6paaoBa- 
hhr espeee (5% ot ofimero mmc- 
/ia ciyaeHTOB), 3thx mbct eaea 
XBaiajio on a okohhiabwhx ruM- 
Ha3nn c sonoTbiMvi Meaa^PMn 
TeM, y koto ne 6w/io Meaa/ieii, 
npuxoannocb exaTb b yMe6Hbie 
aaaefleHMR, pacnojio»enHwe b 
-nepTe ocefl/iocTM>, rae npaBM- 
jia npwewa 6wjih npoiue. 





3anMaH BeHunaHOBWM BepcowB 1931 rosy BCTy- 
nn/i a BKfl(6) h b 1933 rofly ero OTnpaBwni* b 
KanecTae -aaafluaTHnflTwTbicfNHWKa* ynacTBO- 
eatb b opraHwaauwM KonxoaHoro flBHwenna a 
HoBOCn6npcKOMo6nacTM. B 1939roay3a/iMa- 
Ha BepcoHa npusBanm b KpacHyo Apmhio, Oh 
crysicvin a *ene3Hoaopo*Hbix BOticKax, npwHw- 
Ma/i yMacrne b coseTCKO-tpMHCKoii aoi/ine. no- 
jiy<-iM/t raM MBftarib «3a 6oeBNe sacnyrw.. C 
Havana Be/in koh OxeHBCTBeHHOw any^n/i Bfle- 
HMHrpaacKOM bdbhhom ok pyre B 9 OTfle/lbHOW 
*ene3HOflopo>KHO-BOCCTaH08MTe/ibHOfi 6pnra- 
fle. B anpe/ie 1942 roaa ero apecTOBa/in ksk 
• apara Hapoaa- k 4 Mas 1 942 roaa paccrpenn- 
nid. flo HaCTosmero BpeMenw oh «e pea6eirivn"M- 
poeaH. 




fleMOHC T pauns yKpaHHCKMX 
eapeea a 1917 rofly. 




EpyHLUTeAH U>ennuare HociitpOBHa poannacb e 

1907 rofly b r. J1oa3M. 

B Xap6nne 3aK0HHn/ia c 30/iotcw Meaa/ibio i~wm - 

Haawc OKcaKOBCKOw. ripnexana b CCCP b 1925 

roay, saKOHMHna wHCTWTyr, paCorana skohqmwc- 

tom Ha saBone mm .nnxaneaa 

24 H036pfl 1937 roaaee apecTOBa/iw. 23flena6- 

pn 1937rofla6bin BWHeceH npyiroBOpnoo6BMHe- 

hmk)«b lunnoHajKe b nortbay oflHoro M3 HHOCTpaM- 

Hbix rocycapcTB*. 29 oexafipn 1937 roaa (De/iw- 

uaie 6wna paccipe/WHa. 



£ 3HAK BEflbl 



f!pedy6emdeHusi omHOCumenbHO dpyeux Hapodoe 
U xy/ibmyp HpesebivaCtHo Jwuey^u. Omu cymecmeoea- 
nu noecmdy, eo ece epeueHa. flopou amu npedy6e>x- 
demist Hocnm enoime HeeuHHhiu xapaxmep, ho 6biea- 
em, cmaHoafimcn npusuHou neucHucr>uMhix 6ed, npo- 
eoiiupywm npecne>doeanu» u zohbhuh. 

Ha npomstmenuu eceu ucmopuu venoeevecmaa 
eepeiiCHuu napod cmpadaem om nodo6»bix npedy- 
oexidemiu. Pe/iusuo3Ha» u HanuonanbHan Hemepnu- 
Mocmt> ee/ia k ducxpuMunaituu u uaonnnuu eepeucno- 
so Ha pod a. Bee j/tio coadaeano 6/iaeodamHym novey 
dmt caMbix HeeeponmHbtx Mutpoe u neaend o eepenx u 
uydau3t*e, nasaeiuuxcn nacmonbxo npaedonodoSHbi- 
mu, Htno HexomopbiM uj hux eepstm u no ceu denb. 



HcmopuR aHmuceMumu3ua~HazntidHoe doxaaamenb- 
cmao moa, xaxyto onacnocmb ma»m e ce6e npedy- 
6e#cdeHUR u nemepnuMOcmb, oco6shho eo epewewa 
nornimunecKou HecmadtuibHocmti u conuafibHbtx no- 
mpnceHuu. 

Pedaxnun *Kapiribi» npodonmaem nytnuxanuto ce~ 
puu uamepuanoe, nocemneHHbtx npo6neue nauue- 
Han-3HcmpeMu3Ma u ducxpuMuHauuu B HnmepHeme, 
Ha nopmane tflpaea nenoeexa e Poccuu (Human Rights 
Online)*, compydmixu naiueao mypnana, coeMecmno c 
pudou poccuuexux u 3apy6emHbix o6uiecmeennbix 
opeaHusanuu, HayvHo-uccnedoeamanbcxux uenrnpos. 
Mypnanucmoe, rioddepxtueatom cmpamjtiki axuuu *H 
we xoty Henaeudemb!* 

http://www, hro. org/actions/nazi 



HopMaH KOH 



BAarocAoeeHHe Ha reHOUHA. 



SacTb BTopan 



O noasneHHH nepBoro HeiueuKoro usaaHHfl «ripoTOKO- 
noB» MHoroe M3BecTHo. Knura 6wna Hane^arana a cepeaHHe 
fiKBaps 1920 roaa noa Ha3BaHnew «TafiHw cmohckhx iwyape- 
ijob*. OnySnwKosana ee Ta we rpynna. KOTopas aynycuana 
rasery «Ay$ fl>opnocrreH», — AcconnaLjnB npoTHB npe3yMn- 
uwm HeBHHOBHOCTH espeeB. coaaaHHas B 1912 n/tn 1913 roay 
c Lientio «npocBemeH^fl ayxoBHOM, counaiibHOii h skohomh- 
HeCKOii sriHTw Ha4nn». UsAan «npoT0KOnw» ocHOBare/ib 
3ToiS opraHH3aL4MM see tot we /lK>ABnr Mwnnep, KOTopoMy 
eme b 1918 roay 6un nepeaaH onaeMrmap khwh Hwnyca. 

KHura cpasy we (rrana 6ecTcennepoM, na^ann notrry- 
narb anaHHTenbHwe cpeacTBa na ee nepen3flaHHH, noHSTHO, 

M3 KaKMX KtCTOHHMKOB. XoTH no HOBOi* KOKCTHTynMM BepXHflB 

nanaTa aBCTpMiicKoro napnaMSHTa aonwHa 6wna 6biTb pac- 
nymena, ee KOKcepaaT^BHoe Kpwno npoaonwano (|)yHKmio- 
HHpoaaTb. b 4acrnocTM, pacnpeaenflH SHasnTe/ibHwe (pOHflbt 
pa3nnHHblMop^aH^t3a^nnM,Mbflflef^Te^bHOCTb6bl^aHa^paB- 
nena Ha ancKpeflHTamiio pecny6nnKM n BoccTaHOBnemie 
MOHapxMM. KM«3b aoiaop Otto uy 3a/ibM-XopiuMap sepnan 

fl6Hbrn jOnn H3aaHHH «npOTOKO/10B» H3 3TOrO KCTOMHWKa. 

KpoMe Toro. we sw3btBaeT coMHenna roTjfraia. 4to m km/io- 
weHHan anHacTws ToreHuonnepHOB BHecna cBoft Btcnaa; bo 
bcrkom oiynae. KOrqa hdoths nee 6wno awflBUHyTO 3to 
o6BHH6Hne, too6«4ho KprnaiMBan *Ayt}) <J>opnocTeH» 6naro- 
paayMHO npoMonnajia 

roreHi4onnepHbi, icoHe^Ho. 6binn aoBonbHw MaaaHneM. 
H bot no iokom nptWMHe: hs T«TynbHOM nwcre croano nocafl- 
uieHHe — «np3BMTennM EBponbis h Kpacosancs nopTpeT mx 
npocnaBneHHOra npeana, «Benv»mro Kyp0K)pcTa» c no3yH- 
tom: *riycTb MCTHTenb eoctrraHeT Ha HecmnbKO awei* H3 
npaxax. HeyanBHTBnbHO noaTOMy, hto npunu HoaxwM Anb6- 
pexi npyccKntf paaaaaan aiaeMnnHpbi mwvi o6cnyxMaara- 
iaeMy nepcoHany Tex oTenew h pecTopanoa, Kotopue oh 
noceman. 4to Kacaercn HaxoaviBiueroca e nsmaHMii ttai^e- 
pa, to, Koraa /lean Hopa Bchthhk noceTwna ero neTOM 1921 
roaa. oh Bbtpaawn efi caoe TBepaoe y6ewqeHne, hto ero 
naaenne — aeno py k *MyapeuOB» (Lady Norah Bentinck. The 
Ex-Kaiser in Exile, London, 1921, p, 99-1 08j. 



Ann Bermxoro repon repMannu renepana JlwaeHflopcpa 
«flpoTOKonw» CTa/iM «acTo«mnM otKpoBeHHeM; oh npoflon- 
>«a/i BepnTb a nx noannHHOCTb aawe Torfla, raraa «Ta(iMc» 
pa306na^nna vtx xsk (paxibiuMBKy. «Bbicujee npaBHTenbCTBo 
M3pannbCt(oro Hapoaa, — rincan oh b 1 922 roay, — paSoTano 
pyKa 06 pyKy c<PpaHunew « AnmneM. Bo3mowho, OHoynpae- 
/inno h toh n apyroM» IE. Ludendorff. Kriegfuhrung undPolitik 
zweite auffage. Berlin, 1922, S. 51 j. M 3aTBM oh BcnoMMHan; 
• HeoaBHO no»Bnnocb necrojibKO ny6/iMKaunH, nponttsiunx 
SonbLue cseTa Ha noswmno eapektcKoro Hapoaa. HeMet|KHH 
napoa. KaK napyrne Hapoaw 3bm/im, MMeer secxHe npimMHbi 
na to, hto6w noaeepmyTb naaTenbHOMy MsyMeHmo mctoph- 
necKoe pasBHTwe eBpewcuoro napoaa, ero opraHH3aunn, Me- 
Toaw 6opb6w vi ero nnaHw Mowho npeanonoxtmb, hto bo 
MHorwx cnynanx uw npnaew K mhwm npeacTasneHnqM o 
MkipOBOH HCTOpvilt» [Ibid., S. 322]. 

Kohbhho, /ItoaeHaoptJ) HcnbiTbiBan orpoMHy* Hyway a 
Koane omymeHHH. n6o. peKOMenayH ywecTOHHTb noaBoaHyro 
soiiHy, oh cae/iaji hbmmbphmo 6oribuje, He%» KTo-nw6o apy- 
ron. 4to6w BTsnyTb CoeanneHHwe LUTaTbi b sowHy npoTHB 

Ecnn /lK3aeHaop0 h Kaiwep, cyan no Bcewy, ncupBHHe 
3a6ny>KaajiKCb, to Taroi* npo0eccnoHanbHW(i no/iMTMK, iok 
rpaqb 3pHcr uy PeaeHTnoB, npeicpacHo 3nan, hto aenaeT 
3tot npyccKWM apncTo«paT, oamh H3 pyKOBoaMTenew 6noKa 
«HapoflHHKOB», wnw tJ)enbK«uj (QenbKuw —- «HapQdmiKu». 
ynbrnpawoeuHucmuuecKoe nonumuneexoe mevenue, 903- 
Hvxwee a KOHtte XIX eexa e xauaepoecxou repMa'mJu u 
aa6c6ypacxoO Aecmpuu. /Jo nepeoO uupoeou eounbt oho 
H83bieano ce6n cpenbxuujcKUM, mo ecmb wapodHMM, napod- 
HuvecxuM. QenbxuiucKBR udeonoau* cmana ttdpoM Hauucm- 
exou udeonoauu u nponasandbi, vmo ompa3unocb e na3ea- 
huu ttenrnpanbHoao opzana (paiuucmcxou napmuu «(Denbxu- 
tuep 6eo6axmep» («HapodHbtu Ha6modamenb»). B ocnoee 
smou udeonoauu nexcanu pacucmexue udeu cywecmaoea- 
Hua ebictuux u Huaujux HauuCi. B coomeememeuu c smou 
udeonoaueu ucmopun venoeevecmea — amo ucmopun cmon- 
xHoeenim paswtHbtx «o6wpocmeu xpoeu», mo ecmb pac 



H. Koh B/iaroc/ioBeHne Ha reHOLjwA 




Cepeeo Hunyc e 1905 eody On nepswM 
ony6nuitoaafi a Paccuu *npomonoflh) 
cuoHcxuii uydpeiioe» 



unu pacucmcKu pohu- 
vtaetobtx nau.uu Bamou 
6oph6e caMbiM onac- 
hum epaaoM «ebtcu>eu» 
aepuaHCKoG pact,i 
Sbina oSbptenena paca 
eepeee. — npuu. ped. 
KHuau), 6yayiUMM Ha- 

l|MCT. noCBHTMn WMSHb 

nponaranae «nporoKo- 
nOB». Oh nponaraHflH- 
poaaji mx b uAy0 cpop- 
nocteH», b coScTseH- 
Hoii ra3eTe «flep pawx- 
ceapT .. a Taxxe B rase- 
TaX C MaCCOBbIM THpa- 

*OM. T3KHX. KaK «fl0M- 

ne Tare6narr», a raraa 
*TaMMc» pa3o6nasnna 
3Ty cpanbiUHBuy, oh 
npoaonwan 3amnmaTb 
» npoTOKonbi)> c yaeoeHHOH SHeprweM. <...> 

CpeflH stcto xBane6noro xopa ronoc AccouwauuH npo- 
tub npe3yMnun« hsbmhobhoctvi eBpeee sBynan ncHee n rpoM- 
Me Bcex. 3tm npeanpMwvNMBbie iisaaTenw He npocro tooico- 
BanH o nonnTHKe. BOMHax m pesontouHBx — pa3o6na4eHne 
eBpeticKo-MacoHCKoro aaroaopa npenoflKocMnocb hmh (a 
BnocneflCTBMM m wauMCTCKOM nponaranaoft) xax noBopoTHbiM 
nynKT b flyxoBHOM MCTopuM jenoBenecTBa. 

B cooraeTCTBMH c yTBepMaeHHAMw «Aycp cpopnocTSH» 
HOBan KHwra BWflBHna 3aroBop, KOTopww WMen «uenbw yHHs- 
To>KeHMe xpMCTHaHCTBa m apyrwx penwmM h yCTaHoaneHwe 
MacoHCKO-TariMyflMHecKOM aepw k3k BceMMpnoii pennmn 
BenMxaa 6opb6a. KOTopyio fla^bHOBMflHwe n«flii npeaCK33a- 
nn necHTHneTHH Ha3aa, Hananacb. Ecnn unsunnaoaanHbie 
Hapoflbi EBponbt He noAHMMyrcfl Ha 6opb6y npoTMB o6aiero 
Bpara. to Hauia unsnnn3aunfi norn6Het ot tom we caMoA 
paspyujMTenbHOM nneceHM, KOTopaa yHMHTOJKMna apeBHKW 
liMBMnnsauMK) a Be twcrhm ner Haaaa HeaaBHo oamh 6ep- 
jiHHCKMti npotpeccop cooSmHn hbm. uto KHura. 6eccnopHO. 
npHHeceT cnaceHMe HaiueMy Hapoay. a apyrow ynenbiM ms 
IOkhom TepMaHMM HanMcan naM, hto hh oflHa KHwra, no ero 



MHeHMK). Huxoraa He coBepiuana TaKoro nepeaopoTa b mhpo- 
B033peHMM Hapoaa. KaK paSora rorreppuaa uyp BeKa. aawe 
He co apeMeH n3o6peTeHMA KHurone^aTaHun, HeT. HeT. — co 
BpeMeHU n3o6pereHMH antpaBnTa' Bee cnon repMaHCKoro 

06meCTB3. OT flBOpUOB npMHLjeB flO flOMOB pa6o^Mx. LUniOT 

HaM rmcbMa. b KOTOpbtx BbipawaioT paflocTb h oao6peHne 
aenienbHOCTH aToro MymecTBeHHoro HenoBeira, paapeujHB- 
ujero npo6neMy ot kotopom 3aBMCHT cyflb6a HeMeUKOro 
Hapoaa» l«Auf Vorposten*. 1920. Heft 1-2. S. 35-37}. 

PexnaMHbte sansneHun M3flaTeneM. kohchho, npeyae- 
nHHHBaoT, ho npMeM, OKasaHHblii o6inecTBeHHocTbK) Mionne- 
py 0oh XayaeH (unu roTT0pwfly uyp Beny) m ero rry6nnKaunn 
«npoToranoB», 6wfi nopaswTeribHWM. 3a oflMH Mecnii ohm 
bwujjim flea>Kflb* m eme Tpw pasa ao kohub 1920 roaa; Tnpax< 
BCKOpe aocTur 120 twc. 3K3eMnnnpoB. 3ra ttHnra. kohcmho, 
noAJinna Macna b oroHb HauvicTCKoro 6e3yMMp yme 8 nepwoa 
fleMOKpaTtmecxoro n nn6epa/ibHoro pe*nMa BeiiMapcKOM 
pecnygriMwi. 

Bot, nanpiiMep. 3aMeTKa Oflnoro n3 eBpetiCKHx o6o3pe- 
aaTeneA Havana 20-x roaoB «B BepntiHe fl noceTwn necKonb- 
ko MMTMHroB, KOTopwe 6wnn uenHKOM nocsflmeHbi « Dpotoko- 
naM», BbicTynanM o6whho jimoo npo<J>eccopa, nn6o yMHTenfi. 
K3flaTenM, aflBOxaTw. b o6iaeM, nioflH aToro xpyra. AyanTo- 
pun cocTonna H3 oopasoBaHHbtx ntonevt — rpax<aaHCKMx cny- 
»tamnx. aenoawx ntoaew. o0nuepos e oTCTaBKe. aaM m 
BbiCLuero cBeTa n rnaaHbiM o6pa30M CTyaeKToa. CTyaeHTOB 
acex fpanyribTeTOB m scex BospacToe... CTpacTvi HaKanHnMCb 
flo npeaena bot oh3. npnnnHa ecex 3on, bot ohm, bo nnoTH, 
Te. kto cnpoBOunpoBan BOkiny , npneen k nopaJneHMio. opraHH- 
30B3n pesoniouHK}, Te, kto noBHHeH bo Bcex Hatuvix cTpaaa- 
HMnx 3tot Bpar6nn3Ko, pnfiOM, ero mowho cxaaTMTbaa pyKy, 
h see me 3tot aparMCHeaan a TeMHOTe. n uypaiuKki 6eranM no 
Ko>Ke ot mwcjim, xaKwe we TaiiHbie nnaHw BWHaujusaeT oh. fl 
Ha6n«aan aa cTyaeHTaMw, 3a HecKortbxo nacoe nepea stmm 
ohm, sef>oflTHO, Tpyawnncb na ceMMHape, rae noa pyxoBoa- 
ctbom nexoero MSBecTHoro npotpeccopa wnw yneHoro nwTa- 
nucbpeiiiHTbKaKyio-TOMaTBMaTMHecKyio. 0nnococj3CKyto unu 
opMaMMecKyto npo6neMy... Tenepb MonoaaH xpoBh xMnena, 
rna3a BcnuxuBann orxeM, «ynaxn OKHManwcb. xpvmnwe rnoT- 
km opanM nw6o «6paso!», am6o «MecTb!». MHoraa paspeuja- 
noCb nponsHOCHTb penM c MecTa: Toro. kto ocMenM Bancs 
BbipaawTb xOTb Te«b coMHeHHB. BCTpenanw kpMKaMH. oc- 




HcnsHCKOe uidanue tHpomo- 
noposu tTaOHOe eceuupnoe 
npaaumenbemeo. u/ju eapeiiC' 
ksh npospauuB nopa6oiMB»ux 
Mupa* 1930 eod. 



<J>paHny3CKoe U36anue *EepeG- 
cuatt yepota — nonnbiu maxcm 
npomoxottCM cuohckuk inydpa- 
uoet 1934 sod 



OSnoMKa ape6cKoao nepaaoda *flpo- 
moxonoei. ony6nunoea>inozo a Kau- 
pe e 1972 eody 



Msdanua unpomoKonoo'. onyfc 
nuxoeamioe pyccxuixu 3vuzpan- 
mauu a napume, 1927 aod. 



H. Koh 5/iaroc/iOBeHwe Ha rencuwfl 



61 




no/teCKOe U3danua ttHpomoxo- 
floe», etjnymewHoe so spews 
OKKynanuu flonbuiu HBUUcma- 
uu Hainan* 1943 tod 



Kop6neHHflMM, a MHoma m yrpo- 
33MU Ecnn 6bi h 6bin onoanaH 
k3k eBpetf, to He snaio, cMor na 
6w yiiTM orryfla 6e3 noooeB. He- 
MeyKafi CHCTeMa oSyneHUH npo- 
noBeaoBana Bepy b noannHHOCTb 
«npoTOKonos» h b cymecTBoea- 
Hue aceMnpHoro espeMCKoro 3a- 
rOBopa. BHeflpHn ee bo Bee cnon 
o6pa30BaHHoro HeMenKoro o6me- 
ctb3. TaK hto Tenepb stm iiaew 

MCKOpeHMTfc.HeB03MO>KHO. BpeMH 

or BpeMeHM icaKafl-Hn6yab ra3eTa 

xpi4CTI43HCKOrO HanpaBHeHMH Bbl- 

paxcana nerxwe coMHeHun, noMe- 
man CKpoMHbie m po6icne B03pa- 
*eHkis, Hoaanbiue 3Toro He uina. 
Hn OflMH W3 sennKwx HeueuK^x 
jMSHbix (KpoMe noKOMHoro, onna- 
KHeaeMoro sceMw UJTpaxa) He 
noflHflncsi h He paaoBnannri (parib- 
iuwBKy...» [B. Segel. Die 
Protokolte... S. 37-38). 

<...> HecoMHeHHo. Han6o- 
nee 4>aHaTMHHbiMM ctopoHHHKaMM «npoTOKOnoB» 6wnH tb. 
xto pa3Aenn7i pacMCTCKHe ssrnnfib* cpenbKwuj, — ho, c Apyoi* 
CTopoHbt. aa*e caMwn opToaoKcanbHWK npoTecTaHTM3M ne 
Mor cny>KHTb HaaewHbiM npoTiiBonfltieM. AHTMceMMTCKme 
nponaraHflHCTbi Havianvi pacnycKaTb cnyxw, hto noannHHocTh 
«npoTOKonoB» rapaHTnpoBaHa Bphtshckhm MyseeM Ha oc- 
HOBaHMw Toro, hto aKssMWwp «Hnrn Hmiyca xpaHnncfl s ero 
orpOMHQK 6M6nn0TBKB, n sToro 5wra aocTaroHHO. mto6u 
yfieflMTb HaMBonee cTeneHHwe vt pecnettraQeribHbie jKypna- 
nbi ntOTepaHCKOM uepKBw 

Cnpoc Ha «npoTOKonbi» cpean lumpokom nyGnMKM. ripn- 
HaA^e*aeiueii e ochobhom k cpeflHUM cno«M o6iyscTBa, Mor 
naaaTb, ho HHKoraa ne ncMesan. Ko apeMenn npiixoaa TuT/ie- 
pa k snacTH b 1933 may yBMaeno cBeT 33 naaaHMn. Tom 
apeweHeM wsasTenbCTBO «Der Xammer» e newnuMre Bwnyc- 
tmdo nonynnpHoe M3AaHne «np0TOK0noB» noA peaaKMnefi 
Teoflopa (DpnTwa, kotopob k 1933 roay pasownocb mpswoM 
OKono 100 Tbic. 3K3eMnnflpoa. KpoMe toro, 3tm n3aaHns 
conpoBOwaannCb noTOKOM Kwnr. aononnnBLUKX n aawmuaB- 

luhx carwin «npOTOKOnbl». 

HeweuKMM nepeBOfl «Hnrn «Me«ayH3poaHoe eBpeii- 

CTBO». OpraHMSOBaHHblfi TeHpM (SopflOM, BblllJen UJBCTbK) 

MaaaHMHMM a nepMDfl c 1920 no 1922 roa irio3mB Oopd 
ny6nw4HO npusnan, vmo 6bir> eeeden a 3a6nymdeHue, u om- 
xa3ancsi om ceoeuaHmuceMumcxoCi dexmeribHOcmu. — flpuM. 

ped. KMU3U). 

K 1 923 roay oqbHynanbHbifi waeonor HauMCTCKoS napTMH 
AnwfcpeA PoseHCepr usaan KHMry, osarnasneHHyio «rtpoTo- 
Konbi cwohckmx MyflpeuoB m eepeiiCKaa MMpoean nonvnma», 
noTopafl 3a oahh roa BWflep*ana TpH MaaaHUfl. y*e b 1920 
rony TepMaHnio HaeoflHunw cothm twcs^ 3K3eMnnnpoB «(lpo- 

TOKODOBn M KOMMeHTapweB K HMM. 

0ce 3to flananocb nacTbio aHTwceMHTCKoft tOMnaHMM 
TaKoropasMaxa, KOTopbi(t6bin HeBeAOMflOBOMHbi.Mepearoa 
nocne 3a»cnicHeHHfl nepeMnpMn cyiyecTBOBano y«e iuecTb 
opraHnsauntf. KOTopue aaHHManncb pacnpocxpaHeHnew 
«ripoTOKonoBB. — flBe b BepnwHe. Tpn a raw6ypre. OAHa 8 
DekinMMre n. no KpartHew Mepe. 12 ra3eT h apyrux nepMoaM- 
MeGKwx n3AaHHi», — w 3T0 b to BpeMH, Koraa Tmnep co cBoeii 
napTMBii eiye Aaxce He Buwen us 6e3BecTHOCTM na nonwiM- 
Hecxyio apeHy. 

BnaroAapn ycHHMBM sthx oprannsaiiHM njKypnanoB en«- 

flHMe « npOT0KOnOB» nOCTOHHHO yCHflHBanOCb HOBbIMM 0anb- 



Eme e 1934 rony uieeHuapcxHA cya <xtinunanbHO np«3nan «ripoTo- 
Konbin cfcanbujuaKOM. B 1992 rony k TatiOMy xe eweofly npmiien u 
BepxoBHbiii cya V<panHbi 




THE PROTOCOLS 

LEARfED ELDERS OF ZION 



06/iow»c3 pyccxo&o ujdaHuti 
*flpoinoKOfio&*. Bbiujedweeo b 
1992 i 




AhvtuQckuu nepeeod <r/7pomo- 
Konoe*. HotidOH. 1978 s 



WUBKaMW H p0CCKa3HqMH MHpOBOM eBpeiSCKO-MaCOHCKO- 

GonbiueBMCTCKOM 3arosope. y*e b 1919 roAy noHBunncb abb 

H3A3HMB «PeHM PaBBMHan, KpOMe TBX Be B3pM3HT08, KOTO- 

pbie 6bwn BK/iKweHb) b KHMry BvinbrenbMa MaticTepa. 

KfloxyMeHT MyHAepaw , cwrpaBUJHrt aawnyio ponb b opra- 
H«3aunn norpoMoa a Pocchh, Ta»oxe npoHMK s TepMaMMio. oh 
6b<n HanenaTaH b 0eapane 1920 roAa b pyccxoii raaeTe 
npasoro HanpaB/ieHkin «np«3biB» m TyT we nepeeeASH n 
nepenesayaH «Aycp cpopnodeHx m jKypHanaMM noAo6Horo 
ronxa, B tom we Mecaue Gwna nepewsAawa cTapan KHiira 
OcMaH-Ben «3aBoeeaHkie Mwpa eapenMHn Eme oflHy sono- 
Tyio mvtny Ann aHTMceMMTOB naujen Mtonnep, kotopnm chs6- 
flMri cBoe M3flaHne «ripoTOKonoB» npocTpaHHbiM acTynneHM- 
eM M satuiKweHHeM 

flawe y Tex, kto 3aHMMancs stum aonpocoM. coAepwa- 
HHe KHMrM Bbisaano iliox, a Beab OHa Sbina cawwM cepbesubiM 
oSpaaoM BocnpMHHTa npo4>eccopaMM n iDKonbHbiMn y^Hre- 
nnMM. 6M3HecMBHaMM h npoMbiiuneHHUKaMH, apMeftCKMMtt 
ocpMMepaMH m rpawAaHCKMMM cnywamuMw. M6o flawe «ripo- 
TOKonbiit He CTonb 3KCt|eHTpnHHbi, KaK n3A3TenbCKMe npuno- 
*eHwq. Ck>A3 othocmtcs. HanpMMep, KapkiKaTypa «Coh Kaii- 
3epa», anepBbie ony6nnKOBaHHan 6 aHrnwMCKOM exceHeAent- 
hhkb «HcTMHa» b 1890 roAy. 3tot caT^pMHecxmi KOMMeHra- 
pwii — no noBoay aM6wmnH Kawsepa w wx bosmojkhwx nocneA* 
ctbmm — pacueHMBancn xax eapefiCKo-MacoHCKan CTpHnHfl, 
pacKpbiBaioma» TakiHww (!) nnaH HM38ep*eHM« eBponeftcKvix 
MOHapxMM; pa3Be He 6btn caM naaaTerib kUctmhwh Tbhph 
Ha6yiuep wacoHOM m. 6onee xoro, nnenoM Kny6a 3a npoee- 
AeHtie pe0opM? 

Eme OAHa npuMenaTenbHaq tpaHTasun. xoTopyo Mio/i- 
nep 0oh Xay3ew nosaMMCTsoBan M3 «npvt3biB3»: e KpeMne 
nno6bi 6wna OTcnyxena Hepwan Mecca, bo BpeMn KOTopon 
TpoMKHti H ero noApy^Hwe Monnnncb CaTaHe. npocn y Hero 
noMoiAw Ahr noBeAbi hsa BparsMK; 06 3tom «ko6n coo6mnn 
oxpaHHKK. KOTopwA 3aTBM no npntc33y Tpouxoro 6bin y6vtT 
Taxoii B3Aop cTan pacxowMM TOBapoM b pyxax aHTwceMMTc- 
khx nponaraHAMCTOB. 

Ho eepwMHOii aocypaa nBHnacb 0anbiuiiBK3 «no6eao- 

HOCHblM B3r/1RA Ha MMP (HeOM3KM3BennM3M H Mb), eBpen)>, 

Hane^aiaHHan sa necKonbKo flHeii ao nooBneHMa «ripoTOKo- 
noB» noA BbiMbiuineHHbiM MMeHeM aoirropa 3Hr0pMna fleH- 
TaTynna. Abtop naM0neTa, koh9hho. «eBpeii». otkputo pa- 
Ayercs ycnexy nnaHa, MsnoweHHoro b «ripoTOKonax», one- 



H. Koh Enaroc/ioBeHwe Ha reHOMMA 




Hapn flioeep (a axunaxte cneaa) — nonymtpHbiQ mmumu- 
HecKiiu deamefih. c 1897 no 1910 aodw 3BHuuaetiiuu nocm 
Gypeomicmpa Baubi Ezo npadabidupHSu npospauus hocu- 
na anmuceuumcKui/ xapaxmap. B napuod npeSbieamifi 
Kap/ia flton&pa hb nocmy Hypeouucmpa e Bene mun Huxouy 
Me uje&ctTJHbiQ manodou vsnoeAK, numaewuucx nocmy- 
numt, e axadamuto ltotwmwx ucxyccme Bnocnedcmauu on 
cman tosecmeH acemy uupy xax Ado/ib& Fumnap. Ax&a- 
pent, Su/ifrse/ib«a Fayaa. 




A&vmtp mmaxap — npudaopnbiu nponoaadmix aep- 
uoHCKoeo xauaepa. nudap dauxamm xpocmuBHonix 
conua/juo/noa, 3ma napmun. opueHmupoeoauiaftcx 
hs paSondx u »a »aunenee oGacneveHHbix npedcma- 
eumeneQ cpefrmso xnacca. npiobiaaiia x 6opb6e npo- 
mua itanumanucmuvaamd xcrmyamauuu, a xotno- 
poQ oOauHivta eapeaa, npunpaa/wft amu npuawaw 
umpaduuuoHHMur annwcsMurmtmou. 



M»IKJ 




MoHdetib 6&Qnuc a xpyey <;&ut,u a Poccuu, nocnedmju 
us oeponeQCKUx eapoee, xomopoeo o6eununu e 191 1 
sody a pumyanbHou ytuucmae. Se&nuc 6bin nonxoc- 
miM onpaadan cydou. Bnocnedcmauu Bednuc ■tuue- 
pupoaan a CtllA. 



BHflHo saSbiB, mto nnan-To aonweH odaBaTbCfl e Tafme. 
HanacTb na c/iea 6e3aa6oTHoro neHiaiynna SwnoaoBO/ibHo 
npocTo. Kax pa3 a sto BpeM« raaeTa «floM4e uawTyHr», 6wa- 
oim opran TepMaHCKoit HauHOHanbHoii napoflHOii napTnn 
(KOHcepBaTopos), Havana ny6nwKauwra cepnw He6onbwnx 
paccKa3oe. rae rnaBHwM neiicTayromMM nwqoM 6bin Heroaflii 
espeM no umbhh neHTarynn: paccxasbi, k3k m caMa (panbujMB- 
Ka. Ha caMOM aerie npHHaanesKanw nepy oaworo m toco we 
asTopa no MM6HM Tshc LUnnHMSH, naeectHoro aHTucewHTa 
Ho 3to He yaepwano raaery ot Bbipa*eHHA npwTBopHoro 
ywaca e cbr3h c oTttpoeeHnswn BUMbiw/ieHHoro rieHTaiyn- 
na. Ot ero xHMm, BOCWiMuaeT raseTa. «a *cnnax oTbiMeT 
KpoBb», H aanee rasera Tpe6yeT: «Heo6xoanMO opraHMao- 
aaTb oSteflnneHHyK) xpMCTHaHCxyto c^ananry npoTMB CTpaui- 
Hwx onacHOCTeS, KOtopbiMH eBpew yrpo^atoT ne TonbKO uep- 
KBaM, mo w BceMy HeMeyxoMy Hapoay. Hywno roBopnTb 06 
3tom OTKpoBeHHo, ecru Mbi He xotmm >xan>(OH CMepTH... Ha* 

pOfl MOX(HO BWTaiUMTb M3 TpflCMHbt, . . TOnbKO JlMlUb C nOMOLUbW 

3HeprnHH0ki 5opb6bi npoTMB OTpaBMTenefi hsumh; TonbKO Tax 
Mw mokbm BbipBaTbcn M3 mx uenKnx o6bSTMii» {« Deutsche 
Zeitung*. 31 August 1920}. 

Bonbiue Bcex pacnpocTpaHnncn Ha ry rue ieuy, 4to m 
(leHTaTynn, HeyroM^MbiK nponaraHaMcr «npoiOKonoB» rpatp 
3pHCT uy PesenTnoB B uae 1920 roaa ok nocesTM/i eii 
CTaTbM s «QoM4e uaviTyHr», b kotopwx yrsepiKflan, vro 
MCTHHHocTb «npoTOKonoB» HecoMHBHHa, a aoKa3aTenbCTsa- 
mh TOMy cnyxcaT neHiarynn m «ao>cyMeHT L4yHflepa». Bee sto 
oh aena/i. He Bepn hh oanOMy ceoeMy cnoey 

XOTH XOpOUJO M3BeCTH0. MTO 60nbUJafl MaCTb aHTMCeMMT- 

ckom nponaraHaw coctomt M3 3aaeaoMOM dkm. TpyaKO HaiiTH 
euje oflnoro nonoSHorp nryHa, BbinneCKMBaeutero Taxoe ko 
nn-iecTBo K/ieBeTbr Ha 6yMary. flwiub oawH pas PeBeHTnoe 
caenan ncicnioMeHMe. B 1 940 roay OTaen cnywSbi nponaran- 
aw Tpeibero peiixa peiuM/i BoapoaHTb neHTarynna m o6pa- 
TM/icfl c npocb6oii k PeBBHTnoBy, KOTopuii ace eme 6wn 
MjieHOM peAxcrrara. Co6paHne OpeAeHBanbaa b BeMHepoac- 
xom 6w6nnOTeKe coxpaHMno ero oTBeT; «Koraa n npoMMTan 
naMtpneT, noanncaHHbivi «neHTaTynn». MHe cpasy crano 
ncHo. 4TO3T0 — HeywuoxosayTKas. Teiw He MeHee ny6nMMH0 
a yrBepjKaa/i ero noannHHOCTb, Tax xax, no MoeMy MHenmo. 
Taxan TaxrHxa b nynujew MepeoTee^ana uennM Toro apeMe- 
Ht4... Xaiinb rmnepls [KontiP nuct>mta Peeenmnoaa (om 5 
uapma 1940 soda) xpamimcfi so VpeQeHeanbdcKOM apxuee 
(neHmamynnoecKuQ pasden)}. 

HaM noMRTHO, pajjM nero PeBeHTnoB cocrpflnan 3Ty 
no*b B MWHe 1920 roaa aon>KHbJ 6wnn cocTOBTbcn Bwoopw 
b nepBbiw peiixcTar pecnySnuxn. Hao6pawafl pecny6nMxy xax 
TBOpeHne pyx «cmohckmx Myapeuos» , oh aanony^nn orpOM- 
Hoe KonHHecTBo ronocoB an« no6eaw aHTnaeMoxpaT«Hecxnx 
npaBbix cmji, 

AHTHCeMHTH3M H nOHMTHHeCKHe y6nncTBa 
He b nocneaHKjto o-tepeab c noMoiabK) «npoToxonOB» 
6binn cnpoeouHpoBaHw asa nonwTwuecxwx ySMMCTBa, koto- 
pbie npon30iunn b BepnuHe b 1922 roay- no npneaae b 
BepnwH UJa6enbCKMfl-&opK, apyr h copaTHMK BviH6epra, a 
Tatoxe arrnBHbiH pacnpocrpaHMTenb «ripoTOKonoB», Hatuen 
opraHHsauMKi. coaaanHyio no oSpasuy «MepHOM cothm» m 
xopoiuo o6yneHHyio MeToaaM reppopa. 

Ee rnasHNM «noaBnr» 6bin coBepujen 28 Mapia 1922 
roaa. B 3aaHnn 6epnMHCK0ft 4>nnapMOHnn npoxoann muthht 
pyccKMx 3MnrpaHTOB e nowoujb ronoaaiomMM CoseTCKoro 
Coiosa. npeaceaaienbCTBOBan Ha tuvrnmre naBen Huxonae- 

BUM MnHK)XOB, M3BeCTHblM MCTOPHK M pyKOBOaHTeflb napTHM 

KOHCTnTyunoHnwx aeMoxpaioB (xaaeTOB). Mudkjkos 6e%an 
us Poccuu, He jKenan nonacrb b TiopbMy wnw norn6HyTb ot 
6onbiueBncTCKOM nynii: Tax Me. xax BnH6epr m LUaSenbCxviM- 



H. Koh B/iarocnoBeHwe Ha reHomifl 



Bopx, oh BWHy>«neH 6bin npHMKHyrb k weMeuKUM eoiicxaM, 
noKHaasujUM YKpai-iny 

Ho m 3to HeocTanoBnno$aHaTHKOB Wa6enbctoiM-Bopx 
h ero 6aHoa BopBanwcb b saaHne cpnnapMOHnn u 0Tnpwnn 
CTpertb6y no cuene B MnnK)K0B3 ohm He nonanw (oh 6pocnn- 
cn Ha non nnuoM bhh3), a y6nnn Bnaa«Mnpa HaSoxoaa loiua 
wsBecTHoro nwcarenfi) 3a sto vBmmctbo UJa6enbCxwii-Bopx 
6bi/i npHrOBopeH k 14 roflaM KaToprM. Ero BbinycTunw Ha 
cBo6ony saaonro qo okohhshms cpoKa. a Korqa k anac™ 
npwLunn HauHCTw. oh cTan nonyviatb perynnpHyra neHCMto ot 
ynpaaneHwa Po3eH6epra. 

B 1 933 roay UJa6ejibCKQMy-Bopxy 6wno nosBoneno co- 
TpyqHH^aTb c BnacTSMM a opraHMaauMM pyccmro HauwcTcxo- 
rOflBMMGHMS. 3t0 6wJ1O KflOCTOMHOM HarpaflOM», wSobcbohx 
fleMCTBMflx vi b nonbiTKe y6ntb MuniOKosa LUa6em>cxMw-&opx 
pyKOBOflCTBoaancn aoxTpwHoi* CBoero yMtrrenq B«H6epra. 
KOTopbifl Towe 6wn aaMetuaw b y6MMCTse h 6un BbinywaeH 
noKHHyrb TepMaHMK) BnH6epr cMMTan MunioxoBa TawHbiM 
areHTOM 6onbnjesMKOB. xoTopwe b cbokj onepeflb flBnnnMCb 
areHTaMw bcmohckhx Myapei(OB». 

Hepea necKonbKo Metres npon30iuno y6nMCTBo, koto- 
poe nonyqwno ujmpokmm pe30HaHC bo Bceii EBpone. B Hume 
1922 roaa rpynna Monoawx (pSHaTHXOB y6nna repMaHCKoro 
MMHHCTpa MHocTpaHHwxaen Bartbiepa PaTeHay. CoBepuina- 
iune y6niicTB0 6wnw a6contoTH0 yoepeHbi He TonbKO a tom, 
hto PaTeHay aeiicTBOBan ot nweHu «MyapeuoB», ho hto h 

C3M OH HanHTtCfl OaHWM H3 HMX. 

PareHay 6bin ^e/ioaexoM HesaypjyiHwx cnoco&ViocTeH- 
Oh ocTaBwn cboh cnea b npMxnaaHbix Hayxax, TexnMxe, tpM- 
nocotpwM, nonnTHKe m axoHOMMxe. KpoMe Toro. oh 6btn xpyn- 

HBMUJMM HeMeqKMM npOMHWJIBHHHXOM, BWaatOlUHMCR aflMM- 
HMCTpaTOpOM W TanaHTHMBblM MMHMCTpOM KHOCTpaHHWXflen. 

Ero sacnyrw nepeq repMaHneti 6binn orpOMHW. B csmom 
nanane bohhw oh npeflCKa3an Ty cMepTertbHyto yrpo3y, koto- 
pyto Morna npeacTaarwTb 6pMTaHcxa« 6noxaaa. flnfl ee npe- 
aoTBpameHMs oh b yawaiiTenbHo xopotkmm cpox coaaan Moiq- 
Hyw opraHM3auwio, xoTopaa, no cymecTBy, nosaonnna o6ec- 
rtesMBaTb repMannio cwpbeM Ha npoTfotceHWH ecew bohhw. 
riocne bomhw oh neyTOMWMO Tpyawncfl, HTo6bt Bbmec™ Tep- 
MaHWto n3 naonflUHM h o6nerMnTb Bpeivwi xoHTpn6yuwn; oano- 
apeM6HHo oh cTpeMM/icfl k o6beanHeHM(o napoaoB EBponw. 
ece etqe pa3beanHeHHwx, *enaa cKoopaHHHpoaaTb Konnen- 
TMBHbie ycwriKtfl no aoccTaHOBneHMio paapyweHHoii 3kohomh- 
kw. B anpene 1922 roaa, Byaynw mmhmctpom HHocTpaHHMx 
aen, oh noanwcan Panannbcxnii MwpHwii floroBOp c Cob6tc- 
kmm Cokj30m, 6naroaapfl xoTopoMy o6e CTopoHw oiKaaanncb 
OT B3aWMHblX npMTnsaHMw. 

PaTOHay 6bin crpacrnbiM naTpwoTOM, ho 3to 6wn naTpM- 
OTM3M i4HBMnH3osaHHoro h nn6BpanbHoro eBponefiua, koto- 
puki He MMe/i Hw^ero oOmero c qjobmhh3mom. Paieway 6wn 
espeeM. ripaBbte (paHaTMKw. ecTecTBBHHo. CMOTpenn Ha Hero 
c HenaBucTbio, KOTOpasi see ycMjiMBanacb no Mepe yKperme- 
hmb ero nonnrnH8CKoro aeTopHTeTa B 1921 roay npecca 
6noKa <penbKmu m Monoaaa HauMCTCKast napTiiq Hasan* 
npeacTaBntiTb 3Toro senwKoro nqea/iMCTa kbk nopo>«aeHMe 
abABona. «Bw pacnpocTpanjieTe eoxpyr ce6n caTaHWHCxyio 
cnpaBeannBocTb. paaBopaHMBaeTe caTaHHHCxyw ae^Tenb- 
HocTb. npocnaanReTe caTaHHHCKyra HpaBCTBeHH0CTb». — nw- 
cana oaHa«abi «flo«He 0onbKniue BnerrepK. a HauwcTCKafl 
«*QjibKmue 6eo6axTep» xonoaa/iacb: «Koraa 3to e npe- 
mhv\6 BpeMena 6wn y Hac BanbTep I us awHacTnn ABpaaMa, 
Mocwcpa u PaTBHay? rpsaeT aBHb, Koraa Koneco MMposoii 
HciopwH 6yaeT nymeHO Bcn«Tt. n noKaTmcn no ipynaM Benw- 
KorocpHHaHCMcra w MHorvix ero coo6i4hmkob» [«C. V. Zeitung», 
20 June 1921. Band // 

<-..> BooCpaxcenwe y6mSia 6b<na qeanKOM nomomeHo 
«npoTOKonaMn» m TeMH MaTBpManawn, xoTopwe HaKannKea- 
/incb eoxpyr hhx. OB 3tom ano/iHB OTxpoBeHHO roBopwn Ha 




T-iL uc 






5&A 



'Anmisceuumu3M: cok>3 peaKtwoHHbix cun — eapett. dbaao- 
na, uohbpxuu u uepxeu' Heumvsfi tcopuxamypa. 

npeaBapHTeabHOM c/isacTBHH rnaBHUii opraHnaarop npe- 
cTynneHun Burma TKiHTep. Ha Bonpoc o fipwHwue y6nSicTBa 
PaTsnay oh oTeeTHii, mto, no mhbhmk) /lwaeHfloptpa, oh 6bin 

T6M CaMbIM MeJIOBeXOM B TepMaHMM, KOTOpOMy 6blJ10 M3B6C- 

tho TOMHoe Hweno npeacTaBHTensw TatiHoro espe^CKoro npa- 

BMTenbCTBa, pa3BH3aBliJHX BOMHy. 

<...> KOHeHHO, y6nHCTBO PaTeHay xax oflHoro us «cmoh- 
ckmx Myapeuoe» npeaBBiaano nacTynneHMe tom 6e3yMHoti 
apw. xoraa «npoTOKonbi» Gyayr npoB03rnaujeHbi npaBMTenb- 
ctbom ae/iMKoro eBponeiicKoro Hapoaa iictmhom b nocneflweii 
MHCT3H4HM, HexoTopbie cnoBa. npon3HeceHHwe cyabeft 8 
3aKDK)H*!TenbHOk( pbhm, MHorwe bo Bcefi nonwoTs oco3Hann 
nrniJb nostte, ho b 1922 roay He noHflnw mx: «3a cthhoh y6n*u 

M HX C006iaHMKOB CTOHT maBHbW BMHOBHMK — 6e30TBBT- 
CTB6HHbJM (panaTMHeCKMM aHTHCBMMTHSM. oSHapyWHBOIMJ* 

noanMHHoe nimo, HCxaweHHoe HBHaBMCTbW. aHTnceMHTM3M, 
KOTopbiw rjec^ecTMT BBpen xax TaxoBoro, He3aencnM0 ot ero 

OMMHOCTH. C nOMOlUblO KJIBBBTW. O6pa34MK0M X0TOPOM flBflfl- 

eTcn oynbrapHan (panbwwexa «ripoToxonu cwohcxmx Myape- 
uob»; aHTMceMMTMSM, xotopwm npo6y>xaaeT b ne3penbix m 
CMSTeHHwx yMax MHCTHHKTbi y6nwu . riycTb wcepTBeHHan cMeprb 
PaTBHay, xoTopwfl cnwiuxoM xopoiao 3Han. xaxMM onacHoc- 
thm noaBepran ce6n. 3aHHMan stot iioct, nycTb Ta rny6oxan 
oaaBoneHHOCTb 6e3paccyflHNM m SeccoBecTHbiM noacTpexa- 
Te/ibCTBOM, npoflBWBiuMMCfl Ha 3tom cyac. nocnymaT omm- 
iubhhhd aTMOc0epw, BoqapMBiueMCfl B TepMaHMM, n nycTb 
BeayT FepMaHnio. oxeaseHHyx) HbiHe HpaacTBeHHoii 6ones- 
Hbio. norpnaujyio a MoparibHOM BapaapcTBe, x ee Hcuene- 
hhiow [K. Brammer. Op. tit., S. 14}. <„> 

flOHdOH 

Pepeeod c ananuuCKozo C. EuvKoaa 

riydnuKyemcH no t/sdaHuio: Koh H. Bnazocnoeemie na 
aeHOuud. - M.: rtpoapecc. 1990. 

B toamepuane ucnonbioeaHbi 0omoBpa0uu tpomoewc- 
maMu «Hepma ocednocmu: do u noc/?e». «BRON». 
Amsterdam u 3Kcno3uuuu mCmapbie eepeOctcue (pomo- 
zpatpuu* z. Hoesopod. 

npoaojiweHMe — a c/ieaywmeM HOMepe «KapTw». 



B4 



jj 3HAK BEAbl 



MoKe KHUCMEMEP, £aHne/i Cmji 5PEXEP 



Espen b coBeTCKOii Pocchh: 

Me^Ay BOHHaMH 



<...> «EBCeKMKM» — eBpBMCKMe COKLtMM KOMMyHMCTM- 

necxoM napTMvt CoeeTCKoro Coroaa. CTanw ochobhum MHCTpy- 
M6HT0M. c noMouibio KOToporo HOBoe npaBMTeribCTBO Havana 

npOBOAHTb B )KM3Hb MapKCMCTCKyiO flOKTpwHy HaCMflbCTBeH- 

hoPi accMMnnnunH 

riocKonbtty 6onbiunHCTBo poccwMCKMx eapeee noanep- 
>KKBanope/iMrno3HbtecMOHMCTCKneopraHM3aawn.nxHeo6xo- 
flHMO 6wno nMKBwflHpoaaTb a nepByw o^epeflb. Cmohmsm 
6wn o6i>ftBneH «6yp»;ya3HO-KnepHKanbHbiM TeneHMeM», tw- 

Cfl^M CHOHMCTOB 6blJlM COCJiaHbl B Cn6npb 

LteneHanpaaneHHoe npecneflOBaHwe co ctopohi>) Oorib- 
LueBMCTCKOro npaswTenbCTea KOCHynocb Bcex pennrno3Hbix 
opraHM3auMM h, ecTecTBeHHO, ne oooui/io cropoHoa aepyK)- 
iumx wyaeeB. «EBceKynn» saxpbmanH cMHarorw m xeaepw, 
KOH0MCKOBbi8ann periMmosHwe KHMrw u npefiMetbi noKnoHe- 
HHfi, npecneftOBann paBBMHOB w apyrwx cnywHTenew Myflefi- 
cxoro pennraoaHoro KynbTa h pyraBOflWTeiieii o6iumh. Tex 
HeMHorwx, kto OTKaawBancn ao6poBo;ibHO OTpenbcn ot cac- 
ti x y6e>tmeHv4H n cnoMtMTb nonHOMOHwn. apecTOBbisa/iM n 
ornpaBrinnM b ccbinuy. 

OflHospeMeHHo «eeceKUMM» noBenw 6opb6y c eBpewc- 

KMM 03blK0M C MX TOHKM speHMfl, MBpHT nBJlflncn peaKUMOH- 
HbIM HSblKOM eBpBMCKOii 6yp)Kya3MM H flO/IJKeH 6bin 6WTb 

nonHOCTbto 3aMeH6H wflHtueM — hswkom eepeiiCKoro npone- 
TapMaTa. Ulxonbi, r/ie npenoflaBaHwe aenocb na wspMie, 
paBHo iok h nepnoflHHecKne M3flaHnn Ha Mapme, aaKpbma- 
nucb. 

K KOHuy 20-x rofloa hbpmt OKaaancfl eflMBCTBeHHWM 
A3bit<oM. 06-bflBneHHbiM b CoBeTCKOM Coio3e «BHe saKOna*. B 
pe3ynbTare MyaeMcxoe penwMosnoe o6pa30BaHne caena- 

nocb H6B03MOXHblM. EflWHCTBeHHbJMM «flO3B0neHHbtMH » 0Op- 

m3mw HauHOHanbHoCi *H3HH C0B6TCKMX eBpees CTann o6pa- 
30B3Hne, riMTepaTypa, npecca k Tearp Ha Mawwe flo Konua 
30-x roflOB. noKa 3tm tpopMbi Towe we sanpemnH. ohm nepe- 
WMBanw nepnofl yflMBMTenbHoro pacuseia 

BHa^ane MOBwe WKonw c npenoaaBaHMeM Ha Mflwwe 
nonbaoeariMCborpoMHOM nonynapHOCTbio OflHaKo. nocKonb- 

Ky BbiCLUHx yHe6Hbix 3a- 
BeaBHHvi Ha nflniue He 
6bino. cpeflHMe niKonw 
coBpeMeHeM ciann 3aK- 
pwBaTb. A k KOHuy 30-x 
roflOB ohh h aoBce mc- 

«nepeKpbiB KHcno- 
pon» eapeftcKOM penn- 
rM03HOW m o6ihmhhom 
JKM3HH, «eBCeKUMM» BU- 

nonHM/iM cbok) saflany m 
CTann HHKOMy He Hyw- 
hu. B 1930 rofly ohm 
Sbinn pacnymeHbi 

Bo BpeMs cranMH- 
ckmx penpeccMM kohlo 
30-x roflOB 6onbiunH- 





ctbo 6biBwnx ^neHOB «ea- 

CeKMHM» Sbintl 06BMHeHbl 

B «HaunoHann3Mei>. co- 
cnaHbi b narepn mjim pac- 
CTpenfiHbt, 

flepBas MHpoean 
BOMna, nepeiue/iiuaB b 
rpa^iflaHCKyio Bowny, n 
nocnefloaaBuian 3a hmmm 
anoxa «B06HHoro KOMMy- 
HM3Ma» uenwKOM pa3py- 

UJMnM TpaflULlMOHHblM xo- 

3flMCTBenHbiM yKnaa 
«njTeTna» (espeMCKoro 
MecTeMxa) 

npasfla, Bse^eHMe b 
1921 rofly hobom 3kohomwh6Ckom nonmnKM HeMnoro ocna6n- 
no neinio Ha mee eBpetfcxKx KpecTbsiH m peMecnenHMKOB. 
nonymiBUJMx pa3pewewMe ToproBaib cbomm TOBapow. Ho b 
1928 roay. c npHHBTMeM nepBoro nnTMneTHero njiaHa, Han 
6bin OTBepmyT. 

nocneflOBaamne 3a 3tmm MHflycTpwanH3aMHn m KonneK- 

TMBMSaUMB flO OCHOBaHHW yHMMTOJKMriM COmiajIbHO-aKOHOMH- 

Mecicyio CTpyioypy ujTeT/ia. TaKMe TpaflMLiMOHHbie Ann eapeeB 
satifll'Mfl, Ka« Menxan TOproB/w, peMecna MCHe3nw a OAHosa- 
Cbe. B pe3ynbTare aeCHTKM twchh espeeB BWHyJHflenw 6wnM 
cHSTbcn c HacMweHHbix Med m ompaBHTbCH na noHCKH pa6o- 
tw b HOBwe npoMbiuineHHwe ueHTpw. 

flpaB/ia, Onaroflapn AOBonbHO BwcoKOMy ypoBHio o6pa- 
30BaHnn MHorwM espeaM yaa/iocb ycTpoMTbcn BpaMamtM. mh- 
weHepaMM, xoaRMCTBenHMKaMM, 6yxranTepaMM m t.h. 

(IpaanTenbCTBo *e peujw/io npno6u|MTb eBpees k cenb- 
craMy xosflMCTBy. a Taio*e npeacTaBMTb MMpoaoMy coo6me- 
CTBy cbokj anbrepHaTMBy cuonnaMy, ann nero yMpeflwno Ha 
flaribneM Bocroxe. a BMpo6MAwaHe, espeMCKyw pecny6nnKy 
— EapewcKUM aBTOKOMHUM oxpyr. 

OflHaKo 3tot nnan npaBWTe/ibCTBy hs yflanctt. flanbHe- 
eocroMHbiM KnMMaT oKaaancfl nnn eepeeB comlukom cypo- 
BbiM. a paflOH. Bbt6paHHb>M npaBMTenbCTBOM. cnwiuxoM yaa- 
neHHWM or ochobhwx qeHTpoa espeiicKOM >kmshm B 1937 
rosy eepeM cocTaBnnriM Bcero 24% HacejiBHMa BMpo6nfl)Ka- 

H3. 

PesynbTaTOM Maccoaoro nepec^newMfl eapeee «3 6e- 
nopyccuM m VKpanHbi, mx paflMKa/ibHOM npocpeccMOHanbHow 
nepeopMBHTauMM CTana 6wcTpaH accMMMnsiiMn eBpeeB. 

HflMtD b eepewcKOw cpeae Bee Sonbiue h Oonbiue BbiTec- 

HHflCH rOCyflapCTBeHHUM, pyCCKMM R3blKOM, 3 HHCHO CMeUJaH- 

hwx BpaKOB b 30-e roflw flociwrno TpetM ecex saxntoHaeMbix 
eBpeBMM OpaKOB. Ha nporsixteHMM x<m3hm oflHoro noKoneHM« 
pyccKo-eBpeiiCKoe naceneHwe kopbhhwm oopaaoM msmbhm- 
nocb, 

/To MamepuanaM (pomoebicmaexu 

«Hepma ocednocmu: do u nocjie*. 

vBRONn. Amsterdam. 



4$ 3HAK BEflbl 



EspeiiCKaR aiunoiioMiitiu o6Aacaib (EAO) 

Eepeocxan aamoHOntnan ofi/racmb (EAO) pacnonomena uamdy 47 u49 ceeep- 
no0 uiupombt u 130 -135 eocmovHOG domombi. HaudOJibiuee npomnmenue c 
ssnaoa na eocmoK — 330 km, c eeeeps no me — 220 km nnouiadb oSnacmu 
36,3 mbic. kb. km EAO pacnonomena a khkhoQ uacmu poccuOcxoao JJanbneeo 
Bocmoxa 

Ha 3anade EA epanuvum c AuypcKoii o6nacmbto. ho aocmoKa — c XaOapoa- 
ckum Kpaeu. na toaa ae apanuua no pexe Auyp coenadaem c socydapcmeen- 
hoG spammeu Poccuu u Human. Ho ee mappumopuu npoxodum Tpanceu6up- 
CKaa Masucmpant, Teppumopun o6nacmu donumcfi Ha dee rrpuMopno paenbte 
tacmu: zopnyio u paanuHHyK) fopnan Haxodumcn Ha caaapo-aanade (Xunea- 
HO-SypeuHCKan zopna* cue mem). paanuHHan — na toae u aocmoxa (Opsone - 
Auypcxax HUSUBHHOcmb). 3uua uanocH&xHast u xonodnan (meMnepamypa — 
25-40 C). nemo mennoe u anaxtHoe B mevemje soda na paamjne ebinadaem 
450-500 mm ocedxoe. npuvau oKono 15% e nemnea spawn 

EepeucKaR aemoHOMHaa o6nacmb nantiamcfi KOHcmumynuonnbtM cyGhOK- 
moM PoccuuckoG (Pedepsquu, uueem e ceoau cocmaea numb pauoHoe: 
OxmnSpbCKuG, fleHUHCKuG, Odny^ancKuQ. SupoSudxtancKuu u Cmjdoeuvc- 
kuG. B o6nacmu dea eopoda, 12 noce/iKoe sopodexoso murra u 47 cenbcttux. 
06uacrr\HoQ u.enmp — sopod EupodudxaH (nacenaHua 86 mbic. ve/ioaa*). 

B Hacmontuee epam a oOnacmu npomueaem OKono 220 mbic. vanoaaK. nnomnocmb nacensHuit — 6, 1 vertoaeKa na 1 na. km (no Poccuu 
— 8.6) HaiiuoHanbHbiu cocmaa. coenacno nepenucu 1989 soda. ebiB/mdum ma*. 

pyccKue - 83.2 %, eapeu-4.2%, yKpaunuju ~ 7,4%, oenopycu- 1%. mamapw - 0. 7%. dpyeue HanuonajibHocmu - 3.5%. 

8 nocnednua sodw lucnennocmb naceneHuft o6nacmu yMaHbwaamcn 3mo Gbi3eano yMaHhwenuoM Muapattuu us aanadnbix pauonoe 
cmpanbi u yeenuHBHueM oMuzpanuu eepeucxoeo naceneHiM e Mapau/ib 

Hacananua odnacmu doaonbno ewcora ypbanusupoeaHo: aopcwKaw cocmaammm 66%. Qonn HacenaHun e mpydocnocoGHOM 
eoapacmo — 58.3% 

McmovHtiK: Hau,uo»anbHait cnym6a Hoaocmeu 




BMKTOp BA/1AH 



AaAbHeBOCTOHHWH 

3KcnepHMeHT 



(OatHan 4adb flanbHero BocToxa 6b«ia onoHMaTeribHO 
saKpenneHa sa Poccmmckom MMnepneii no AviryHCKOMy aoro- 
Bopy c KwraeM s 1858 rony. 3to 6bino oflno us nocne^HHX 
TeppnTop«anbHbix npno6peTeHHM Poccmw b ee MHoroaeKo- 
bom paciuHpeHHM eo ace ctopqhw ceeTa. Mm6hho t3m, b 
npwaMypbe. e coaercKoe BpeMit a cociaee Xa6apOBCKoro 
upan Sbina o6pa30Bana EBpeiicKan aBTOHOMHan o6nacTb. Ee 
TeppMTOpMH — 36 Tbic kb. km (6onbiue Eenbrnn> 

B ornMMne ot apyrwx seMerib. BOtueniuMx b cocTae Poc- 
cMiicKOM MMnepMM (npn6a/iTHna, 3ai<aBKa3be, CpeflHnn Asha 
n AP- ). flanbHHM Boctok 6wn Mano sacenen . 3to othocmtca m 
k ripwaMypbto. B cepeawHe npoiu/ioro sena ciona 6btnu nepe- 
ceneHbt 4acTb 3a6aMKanbCttnx KaaaKOB, a a npoLiecce CTonw- 
hhhckom pe(J»pMbi — KpecTbflne H3 K)>KMoii Pocctiw. 06wTa- 
nn 3flecb ratcwe KOpePlqw m MecTHbie nneMena — flaypw. 

riepefl «eBpewcKMM» sTanoM MCTopnn 3Toro Kpan Taw 
npowwBano 30 twc. HenooeK. He iaKy» m Mano, ho 3to xannn 
a Mope no cpaBnemiro c cocenHMMM nepeHaceneHHbiMM km- 
TawcKMMM seMnnMH. Ba*Ho OTMeTMTb, wto pyccKue nocenew- 
Mbi 3acensnn npuSpeiKHbie K»KHbte MecTa, 3aHMManncb a 

OCHOBHOM pbl6onOBCTBOM, OXOTOM. Ce/lbCKOe X03BMCTBO 

6biriocKyAHb<M. o6pa6aTUBaiomeM npoMbnuneHHocTti He 6uno 
COBC6M, «nponeTapMar» npeacTaBnnnn paOcwwe neconnnoK 

M HeCKOflbKHX peMOHTHWX MaCTepCKMX. 06CJiy)KMBaH3lHHX 



TpaHccn6MpcKyK> )Kene3Hy(o aopory, Benacb He6onbiuaB 
flo6b>Ha aonora 

riepefl coseTCKHM pyKOBOflCTBOM CTORna Taxan »te 3aaa- 
Ha. K3K n nepea uapCKMM. — sacenMTb rnyxwe Mecra, noflnnTb 
mx 3KOHOMMMecKn, b KOHe^HOM CMSTe — o6esonacHTb Kpaw OT 
weneranbHOM khtsmckom 3Mwrpauwn. CosnaHiie b ripnaMy- 
pbe HayMOnanbHoro onara flnn espees — HMCTan fleMarorwR. 

HHKorfla, M/iM noMTH HHxorfla, coseTCKan BnacTb hb no- 
ompnna hm p33bmtms eBpewcxoft KyjibTypw, hh rocyflap- 
CTBeHHocm Bsflb no TeopHM Cra/iMHa, Bennxoro Teopeinxa 
m npaxTMKa (HapKOM!) nonenaM HatiMOHanbHOCTew, eBpevi — 
3TO BooBifle hb HaLikis. 

npaBfla, oflHH «eBpe(icKMM» acneia 6bin. HOflaneKufi ot 
rocyaapcTBeHHocTM h KynbTypw. a mmshho: «nocaflMTb eBpe- 

6B H3 3eMilK)». HSBeCTHQ. HTO 6 npeflBHax 6wBUJeM «H8pTbl 

oceflnocTM» eBpew BeflCTBOBanw, pesonreuHn nwujM/ia hx 
TpaflMUMOHHwx 3aH«THM (peMecneHHMsecTBo, Menicafl top- 
roBJin). KoMMTeT no seMe/ibHOMy ycTpoiicTBy eBpeeB-Tpyan- 
iflMXCR (Komsbm) y*e aaHMMancn a 20-x roaax opraHMsauMen 
eBpeftCKHx ceiibCK0X03HHCTBeHHbix xoMMyH na yxpaune m b 
KpbiMy 

KoMseMy 6bina nopyHOHa opraHM3aunfl Taxwx xte xo- 
3AMCTB b (IpkiaMypbe. B 1927 r. kommtst nocnan Tyfla xommc- 

CMIO M3 arpOHOMOB V) 3KOHOMMCTOB fl/lfi BbiBCHeHHH B03MOJK- 



BE 



B. BanaH fla/ibHeBOCTOHHbM SKcnepuMew 



hocth cenbCKOxosn^cTseHHOH nonoHnsaunn BwBOAbi xo- 
mhcchu 6binn He aechMa onTHMHCTHMHbi rnaBHWM H3 hux: 
Kpaii OMenb cnowen Ann ocBoeHHn, Tpe6yK}TCfl orpoMHwe 
cpeacraa M spewm. A cpeacTB s cTpaHe Cobstob hb 6wno 
M BpeMeHM Toxe. 

Komuccha KoM36Ma Mnrno oTMeTuna. hto wecTHbie CTa- 
pomMnbi He nponantinn hukskhx npn3HaxQB rocrenpHMMCTBa 
FIqmmmo npeaB3HToro oTHOtueHMB k eBpesM, ohh enonHe 
DfibflCHMMO onacanwcb nmuHTbCH oxoTHVHbux yroflHii >Kn3Hb. 
oflnaKO. noxasana, hto onaceHHS MecTHoro Hacenennfl 6wnn 
npeyBenwHeHbi. Espeea npnexano ropasao MBHbwe, neM 
nnaHiipoBanocb. u noce/iiinncb ohm b ochobhom Ha ceBepe 
Kpap aaonb *ene3HOflopo)«HOM MarMCTpann 

B HpesBWMatiHOw cnewxe & MapTe 1 928 roaa DpesminyM 
UHK npHHBn nociaHOBneHHe o «3aKpenneHnn» 3a KoMseMOM 
BupcKO-Bna^aHCKoro (mmbhho Tax!) paiSona 3to HaaBanne 
SwnoflaHO no hmbh3m pex, npnToxoa AMypa. m oho aaxpenw- 
nocb. nax Mbi bmjum. c He6oribujnM HSMeHenneM 

B nocraHOBneHMti L|MK 6bin MHoro3HaHMTenbHb»H nyHxr: 
wflpn GnaronpwHTHbix pe3ynbiaTax cnnoiuHoro saceneHMH 
03HaneHHoro paiioHa TpyaniunMncn eBpeRMH nweib a away 
B03MO*nocTb o6pa30BaHns Ha TeppuropKn yxaaaHHoro pau- 
OHa eapeHCKOM HauwoHanbHOH a£MHHncTpaTHBHO-TeppnTo- 
puanbHOH eanHnubi» 

Kax m ace coBBTCKHe npoweKibi. nnan aacenenna ripn- 
auypbfi eepenMn 6wn rpanflMOsen Owuaanocb, hto k xoHqy 
nepBoii mnvinertw (1932 r.) eBpeeB tsm 6yaeT 60 two. ueno- 
seK, a k xoHuy BTopoM — 150 Tbic, npM o6mew HaceneHHH 
pawona — 300 Tbic. 

B anpene 1 928 roaa Ha cTaHUHto TwxOHbxafl (ByayiaMH 
ropoa Bnpo6nfl)KaH) npn6wri nepBwn awenoH c espe«MH- 
nepecefiBHMaMM. 3to 6wnw ceMbu us MecTenex Benopyccww. 
HuxaKwx noflroTOBMTenbHbix pa&or. xax peKOMenaoaana ko- 
mmccms (MennopauMa, CTpomenbCTBo aopor h xtwibfl). npo- 
BefleHo h© 6buio. 




ilea aapeOcifux iohoujl ipomoapatpupyiomai na 
naumrib neped men. xax noKunymb podHbia uacma 
u omnpaaumbca na rtouc*u paSomw sopod 



npn6t=iBLune oxasariHCb b mhctom none, noa scHbiM 
He6oM ToHHee — ■ Tavire, noa aowfleM npaKTuxa nepecene- 
Hun monevt 6e3 ManeiiLuew noaroTOBKw Qbtna BnepBwe onpo- 
60B3H3 coseTCKOM BnacTbio Ha eBpenx. 

HeyflMBHTenbHo. mo us 950 npn6biai±inx BecnoA m ne- 
tom 1928 roaa k xoHyy roaa ocTanocb TOJibKo 350. Ocranb- 
Hue BepHynncb o6paTHO wnw pa36penncb no oBwmtum ropo- 
aaM flanbnero BocToxa. Taxofi awcoKHkt otcsb npoflonixancfl 
npuMepHO etue 5 nei\ 

B 1931-32 rr. na flanbHeM BocToxe nponsoiuriM BawHwe 
co6biTMs — FInoMMfl OKxyntiposana MaMbMHcypwro. Cneaosa- 
no cpoHHO yxpennmb (IpkiaMypbe. CoBercxoe pyxoBOflCTBO 
peujnno MSMeHMTb TaxTHKy aacenenHfl Bo-nepewx. cranm 
npuMeHATb Meroa eepfioBKH, Bo-BTopbix. yBenn4Mnn nprnox 
HeeBpewcxoro HaceneHnn. b ochobhom xpecTbPH, i.e. pacxy- 
naMBHHwx M3 eBponeiiCKoii Poccmh. B 1934 rofly Bnpo6na- 
>xaHCKOMy panOHy Xa6apoecKoro xpan 6bin aaK cTaTyc 3bto- 
homhou o6nacTn — EBpeAcxoA, 

Bot xaxan aeMor pacpHHecxaa napTHHa cno^nnacb Tarut k 
1939roay. Bcero naceneHMfi — 110Tbioten..vi3HwxeBpee8 
— oxono 20 tuc. CenbCXMx *nTenePi — 35 two. sen., eBpeeB 
3 me , paGorano 18 eBpewcxnx KonxosoB (na mx o6inero 
Mucna — 60). 

HeoGxOflMMO 3aMBTVITb, HTO 3TM aaHHWe B3«Tbl He H3 

craTucTWHecKMx Ta6nwu, uena kotopwm b coBetcxow cipawe 
n3BecTHa, a us nponaranancTCKMx 6poiuiop. aoaepua k koto- 
pbiM eiMe MeHbiue. CTpownncb npOMwiuneHHwe npeanpufl- 
thh — anexTpoTexHWHecKMe. Me6enbHbie, no cenbxo3Maiu«- 
HOCTpoeHHK), nentow npoMwiuneHHOCTM. aoCuHeoriOBa. 

fnnan peipocnexTMBHO b re aaBHue roaw, mw bhamm. 
mto nnaH co3flaHHn HaflanbneM Boctokb eBpewcxoro coqua- 
nmcTMHBCKoro ueHTpa ne ocyiaecTBuncn. Ho b 30-e roaw 
oTHowBHMe b MHpe x 6Mpo6na*aHCKOMy npoexry 6bino hhum. 
Kpohte cmohuctckmx nwaepOB, pyxoBoaMTenM apymx eBpefi- 
ckhx opraHnsaunw OTHOCnnncb k nnany 3aceneHMs npviauy- 
pbn eBpenMH conyBCTBeHHO. a HOKOTopwe {MKOP. Arpo- 
flwoviHT . AM6na>xaH Map.npMHeMHe ion bxo b C LUA) skthbho 
coTpyaHvmanM c Kom36mom 

Oofl nx BnMflHMeM b Bnpo6wa*aH npuSbino oxono 1400 
nepeceneHyeB us o6enx AMepMK. Eeponbi h aax<e rianecTH- 
hw. npMHHHa TOMy — 3xOHOMHMecKMii ttpw3nc e Mnpe. nyao- 
BwinHUH aHTncewnTn3M b mTnepoBCKOH TepMaHMH, a raxsKe 
o6mee yBfieneHHe couManncTMnecKKMH waeflMM, B re roaw b 
oSnacTb npktexano HeMano eBpencKHx nuTepaTopoa. ynnTe- 
neti, apyncTOB, Bepsiunx b pacyBei HauMOHanbHoro ueHTpa a 
aanbHeeocTOHHOM Tatire, 

XsaTuno H3M m xonoaa. h 3ho», 

3axoH Taiirw noMor npowTM Becb nyTb. 

Tbi xoneiub nMTb — Tpyanct». xonoaey pofl, 

Tw xoneujb ecTb — caw cesiTeneM Syflb. 

(ApoH Beprenuc) 

EflpewcKan xynbTypa b o6nacTn (oepaaoBaHne, pacnpo- 
CTpaHeHne fi3bixa Maniu. npecca. TeaTpanbHaH »n3Hb h ap.) 
nennnacb a uenoM OTpaxfeHneM coBeTcxoii eBpe^cxoM xynb- 
Typbi. 3BonK}i4HOHMpOBaBtueH ot noompewMsi (annorb ao no- 
nbtTox nepeBOfla aenonpoM3BoacTBa b Bnpo6nfl)KaHcxow AO 
Ha MflMiu) ao npaxTMMecxH nonHoro ee sanpeTa. 

Ot HaLwoHaribHbix luxon, Teaipa (mmshm Kara ho bum a!), 
nHTeparypHoro wypnana. xyaoxtecTBeHHOM caMoaenTenbHo- 
ctm x xoHuy 40-x ocTanocb HecxontKo Ta6n«Hex na waniu c 
Ha3BanneM yntiu h *ene3Hoaopo*Ho» cxaHunn. raseTbi, eb<- 
xoamaeM 2 pa 3a a neaenio MMxpocxonkiHecxkiM TMpamOM m 
flecHTMMMHyTHOM nepeaanw no paawo nocneflHux w3BecTnii 

« BonbUJOM Teppopj* hb MUHoaan m EBpeHcxyK) AO. Kax h 
bo BcePi coaeTCKOti CTpane. >xepTBbi 6binn v\ cpeaw pyxosoa- 



. 



B. Sanan flanbHeBocTOHHbiw aKcnepwMem 



17 



CTBa. Mcpean pa6oMnx, KpectbflH, nHTennnreHLinM. naKCpean 
eapeea. Tax h cpezin oCTartbHbix Mvneneii o6nacTn 3MMrp3H- 
tw nodpaflanw 6onbtue Bcero. Kopewuee flenopTnpoBa/in b 
KasaxcTan 

B npeaeoeHHwe roaw m b roau BOMHbi nprnon eBpeiicKnx 
nepecenenueB coKpaTMncn, npMTopMoamnocb m npoMbiw- 
neHHoe pa3BHTwe o6nacm CBS3ano a-ro Swrto rnaBHbiM 
o6pa30M c oTcyrcTBweM a o6nacTn aHanKTenbHbix oSopoH- 
Hbix npeflnpMFiTHii 

nocne bomhw Ha6n>oaancfl HeKOTopwCi noflfeeM npn6w- 
no HecKonbKO TbiciiH eBpeea-nepeceneHueB M3 yxpawHbi. 
BepHyBLUMxcn 113 seaxyauHM m Haweawnx poaHbie aoMa non- 
HOCTbK> paaopeHHbiMM. Exar?n fleM06nnn30BaHHbie conaaTb* 
« Monoflwe nioflw. noTepaBume ceMbM. 0pneHTwp0BO4H0 b 
1 947 roay e EAO npowMBa/10 Han6om>Luee KonwtiecTBo eBpe- 

eB — OKQJIO 30 TbICHH {TOMHWX flaHHblX H6T). 

1945-46 rr. — BpeMH HanBonee «6narocKflOHHoro» ot- 
HoiueHwn cobbtckom Bnacrw k eBpesiM. B nHBape 1946 roaa 
CoBHapKOM PC<))CP npMHfln nocTaHOBneHwe pa3BmnM Eb- 
peticKOM AO. B BnpoSwa)KaHe 6bin ochob3h Myaeiii c aKcnowa- 
TaMM eBpeiiCKOii hctophh a 6biia. npoaonwan pa6oTaTb re- 
aTp, b HecKonbKnx Knaccax o6nacTn npenoaaBann namii, 
Hasana (pyHKUMOHMpoBaTb cnHarora roTOBwncs kotkpwtmk) 
eBpeHCKHii yHMBepcwTeT. 

MepHan anoxa fljis o6nacTn. xax m ana ecex coaeTCKMX 
eBpeea, Hananacb nocne 1948 roaa — pe3yjibTaT He cioribKO 
noRBMBiuerocfl vim nposiBMBiueroca aHTMceMMTM3Ma CranH- 
Ha. cKonbKO oieflCTBMe BonbiiiMx neyaan ero 6nM)KHBBocTOH- 

HOfl nOflHTMKH. 

MsBecTHo, hto c HananOM bomhu cobctckmm pewMM npe- 
Kpa™/i aHTwcMOHMCTCKyio nponaranay (hto He 03HaHano, 
oanaKO. npeKpaaieHMe penpeccnii nporiiB «cbomx cmohmc- 
tob»). CoaeTCKMii Cok)3 noaaep»<an TaKwe cosaaHMe rocy- 
aapcTsa I43pawnb. Tax Kan CTanwH paccHMTbman yxpenwTb 
coBeTCKwe no3Munn na BnMwneM BocTOKe nocne yxoaa anr- 
IBMaH M3 rianecTMHw Mmbhho c stomm nnaHSMn cneayeT 
cBB3biBaTb ynoMHHyry»o Bbtiue «6narocxnoHHOCTb» b tot ne- 
pwoa. 

noaBepriuMMcn HanaaeHnto co cropoHw apa6cKnx <rrpan 
cpaay nocne nposo3rnaiueHktB h eaaa new moot m. Mspaw/ib 
nonynnn c oaoSpeHvm CTannna nexoanoBauKoe opy*ne, w 
eMy 6bina name npeano*eHa aoeHHas noMomb. 

PyKOBoamenH eBpetiicKoro rocyaapcTaa OTBeprnn ee. 
Bum 3to b cemriSpe 1948 roaa. A b OKT«6pe Cycnoa, no 
npidttasy CTanMHa, BbiaBan nrieHOB EepeMCKoro aHTm}3aiiJMc- 
TCKoro KOMMTeTa h coo5mnn mm cneaytomee: «M3pannb BMe- 
cto Toro, mtoSm MflTH no nyrM cepbe3Hwx 3a6oT... o Hy>Kaax 
eepeMCKoro Hapoaa, comaewncs.., cneaoBaTb b (J>apBaTepe 
rocyaapcTB. Bpa«ae6Hwx aeny MMpa. EflMHCTBeHHWM BUNQfl 
— e co3aaHMk rocyaapcTBa. xoTopoe 6w noKa3ano. ^to es- 
pewcKMM wapoa He wm Htm npwxBocTHeM HMnepwannaMa. 
TaKoe rocyaapcTBO... MO*eT BuTb coaaano eBpesMn. >KMBy- 
muMH b CCCP. Ha Base Ebpokckoh 3btohomhom o6nacTM b 
5wpo6na>KaHe» (cm. Aojimukhm E. v\, EspeSCKMK amM^>a%im- 
CTCKMH xoMMTer y CycnoBa // SseHbn: HcTOp, anbManax, 
1991). 

KoMnTeTy 6b»no npeano^eno CTatb opraH«3aTopoM ne- 
peceneHMB eBpeee a Bnpo6nawaH, Han6onee aBTOpnTeT- 

Hbie pyKOBOaHTeAH KOMMTeTa ri03OBCKMH V) MapKHUJ BWGTynM- 

nw c peiiJMTenbHbtMM BoapaweHMaMM, xopoiuo noHMMan, hom 
Taxoe BwciynneHMe rpo3MT mm v> bcbm sneHaM EAK. 

OTHOiueHiie pe*MMa k eBpeaM c aroro MOMeHTa peaxo 
M3MeHwnoCb. BcnoMHMM aHTHKOCMononnrvMecKyto KaMnaHMK), 
paccTpen MneHOB EAK. aeno epa^eM. flo scecoioaHoro norpo- 
Ma aeno m aoiuno. ho penpeccww KocHynncb Mworux eapeeB 




/leeocroiaa e £upo6o<J*o«e MectrMbie &amogpatt>t>t. kbk npaau/io, 
emapa/iucb npudamt, napmunau mpydoeoil muihu eepou^ecituii 
opeon 



npataw^ecKM bo ecex cc})epax jkhshm. a reorpatpunecitM — no 
BceiS cTpane. 

B &npo6na*aHe 6wnw apecTOBaHbi h ocy)t<aeHbi nepawii 
ceKpeTapb o6kom3 BaxMyTcttHH m npeaceaarenb o6nncnon- 
Kowa fleBMTMH, apyme pyxoBoanTenn, npeacTaBwTenw mh- 
TennwreHLiMK — see eapew. 

06BMHeHM3 BbiflBnranncb caMbie a6cypaHwe. 6yp)«ya3- 

Hblii HaUM0H3nH3M, COTpyflHUHBCTBO C aMepHtOHCKHMW 06- 

inecTaeHHWMnopraHM3ai|nnMM, «Hai<noHanbHoe npoweKTep- 
ctbo». Bbinw aaKpbiTbt TeaTp, cwHarora, HaaaTenbCTao, okoh- 
naTenbHO npenpaTnnocb npenoaaBaHMe eBpeficKoro h3wks m 
nMTepaTypbi b uj«onax. 

Tonbxo b 1970 rofly cenpeTapeM Bnpo6Ma»<aHCKoro 06- 
KOMa 6bin «n36paH» eepeii. flee UJanMpo 

C 1948 roaa Kanancn axTMBHWM orbeaa eapeee na Kpan 
— npMMepHO ISOOnenoBeKnoKwaano EAO eweroaw). B 1959 
roay naceneHMe oSnacTH cocTaBnano 180 Tbic. Men., 113 hmx 
espeea — 14 two, (9% ot o6mero Hncna>, b Bwpo6na)«aHe 
npownBano 50 two. nen. 

B cepeaMHe 70-x rr «>Kene3HbiM 3aHaBec» Haa EBpeMC- 
KOMAOnpMnoaHfincfl.06nacTb3KOHOMHMecKMOKpenna.Tyaa 
cTanw npMeswaTb TypMCTw m KoppecnoHaeHTw, BwnycTMnM 
KpacoHwyto 6pomiopy o5 yenexax Kpan h t.a. 

HeMHoro OKMBMnacb eBpeftCKafl xynbTypMaB *M3Hb. 
BHOBbOTxpbinacbHe6onbujaB cwHarora. OanoepeMeHHO CTa- 
no rcho, hto 6onbujeBHCTCK3H naen caenaTb BMpoSMflMtaw 
ueHTpoM npMTSBKeHMH eBpeee CoBeTcxoro Cowaa m MMpa 
6bina o6peMeHa Ha HeyaaMy. 

B roflbi nepecrpOMKM eBpen cTanw ye3>KaTb M3 EAO yxe 
He TonbKO b apyrne ropoaa crpaHw, ho m b Hapannb. AMepwity 
m Apyrne CTpaHbi. 

H ce^Hac EepewcKafl AO cyiyecTByeT. B HeM >kmbbt 
OKono 3-x Tbic»M eBpeee, npM o6aieM naceneHMM — 220 

TWCJ14. MeCTHbie BnaCTM npOMHO OTCTaMBaiOT CTSTyc aBTOHO- 

mmm, b oBnacTM ecTb rySepnaTop, npaeMTeni>CTBo m aa*e 
aaKOHoaarenbHoe co6pawMe CeroaHn b EAO oTHoweHue k 
espeaM n eBpeHCKOft KynbType BnonHe nonowHTenbHoe Haao 
CKa3aTb. hto aa»Ke HeeBpew oxotho yMacTByKiT b espewcKOM 
caMOflesTenbHocTM m oTMSHaHJT eBpewcKne npaaanHKM... 

S nydnuKauuu ucnonb3oeant>i Mamepuanbi WHtpopua- 

mioHHQgo nenmpa *7:40» u 0omoet,icmaBKu «Hepma 

ocednocmu: do u nocnew. nBRONn, Amsterdam. 



£ 3HAK BEAbl 



TaTbflHa BA/lAHUHA-nEHEPCKAfl 



fopOAr B KOTOpOM 2KHA UJ\liUI 



flae xonoflHbie ropHwe pern 6npa n Bna*aH. Taiira, 
ttoMapw. 6onoTa, xpacHan nxpa m wnpHbte xapacw. A eme 
nnxDC 30 neTOM w MMHyc 30 3MM0M. Bot b stqt caMbiti 6oroM 
3a6biTww TaeJKHbivi yronoK b Hanane 20-x w Bcennncn MflMiu. 

BnponeM, o tom, *ax espeM co scero csera exanu wcxaTb 
cnacTbn n 6opoTbcn co sceMM TpyaHOCTBMH, kob-hto HariMca- 
ho. CeroflHfl 3tot npMTflHyTbiw 3a ywa CTaTyc xax 6bi eBpew- 
ckom o6nacTw Bbiroflen pasBe hto HbiHewHUM MecTHbiM ena- 

cnm. 

Ho Beflb jkmd Korna-To Ma«w b ropoae Moero fletcTsa! 
Oh 6wn Be3fle — b BHTpMHax Mara3MHOB m Ha xanennx 
ciaporo napxa, b 3eneHwx asopMxax xpymeBcxwx aomob h 

WyMHblX WXOnbHbtX K0pHfl0p3X. A 6W.e OH >KMJ1 S eflMHCTBeH- 

hom 6npo6MAJ«aHCKOti cnHarore. OHa 6bina xpowenHas w 
flOpOOWiWM . 

Mon 6a6yiuxa xoflwia Tyaa xa>xayK> Heaenio. A xoraa 
Bosspauianacb aoMOM. 3awnrana CBenn b necTb cy66oTbi, \A 
Gnaroaapuna Bora 3a to, mo we jkmbbt, cxajxeM, b coceaneM 
cene BanarewM, pacnono*eHHOM b 12 KunoMetpax or ropo- 
fla Ero HaaeaHkie s nepeBoqe c viavnii 03HaMaeT ufloM b 
necys. CMHarorn TaM He 6wno. h ero WMTennM npMxoflnnocb 
xa*cay*o Heaenio flo6npaTbCfl b BMpo6wa>xaH newxoM, norpa- 
tub 3-4 naca Tyaa m oSpaTHO 

TaKo^ 3HTysna3M ohm nponennnii Tonbxo e nepewe roflu 
nocne nepeceneHMs Ha aanbHeBOCTOHHbie 3ewnH, c xaixabiM 
roflOM rpyona us 3Toro cena CTaHoannacb Bee MeHbiue, ohm 
Bbi6npa/iHCb ctofla Bee pewe, a ecxope cMHarora cropena 

Ho Gojibiue Bcero ktflMiu CnaxteHCTBOBan na LLionoM- 
AneMxeMa — ueHTpanbHOM ynwue ropoaa. Owa. 3Ta ynmja, m 
ceviHac Tax HasbieaercH, >xanb Tonbxo, hto mbwuj BWTecHeH c 
Hee MHoronawsHWM roBopou HOBbtx nepeceneHiaee w3 6wb- 
mux pecny6nw< CCCP 

H ueHTpanbHbiii 6npo6Ma>xaHCKMK pwhok ywe He tot. 
HeT pesHMxa, xOTopwii npM Te6e xowepHo pesan ranbxo hto 
Kynnennyio xypnuy, He npwBosHT ooaa oo/ibiue penHbix myx 
— HexoMy noxynaTb mx ana re(pnnbTe 0muj yTpoiw no nuTHH- 
uaM He ctost noeooay rpynnxw no»cnnbtx weHiawH, Korapue 
na waiiw BnepeMeuJxy c pyccxMM oScywaatOT mbhk) ceroa- 
HfluiHero y«MHa. npeanarafl apyr apyry peuenTw m aaeas 
coaeTbi, hto nyMLue Bcero ao6aenTb b CyribOH, hto6w xono- 
aeq nonyHMncn BKycHee, 

3aTo saanne kommtbtb roc6e3onacHocTn, him, xax ero 
ceroanfl HasweaioT. *CB. no-npe*HBMy a ueHTpe ropoaa. M 
KfB cwrpan cbow ponb 8 cyabSe narnu. HecxoribKO neT H33aa 
b Bnpo6na>KaHe npon30iuno 3waMeH3TenbHoe co6biTne. ko- 
Topoe npMBnexno BHHMaHMe o6iuecTBeHHocTM k 3T0My cxpoiw- 
HOMy 3aaHnio 

BbiscHMjiocb. hto eme b 50-e roaw, xoraa b EAO 33Kpw- 
riM nocneflHioto eapencxyto niKony, via o6nacTHOH nay^HOti 
6ii6nnoTeKH 6binn KOH0MCKOBaHU hohtm Bee eepevicxne khh- 
rn iKypnanbi h ra3eTbi. hhnmm cnoesMn. ecn niiTepaTypa, e 

KOTOpOM WHn HflMLLl 

«ApecTOBaHHbie» MHoro rter xpaHnnncb b noaeanax 
3Toro HenpMMeTHoro 3aaHvm, h, hto caMoe yanBHTenbHoe. 
ohh npeKpacHO coxpaHnriHCb Haa rona na3aa. nonynHB «aw- 
HHCTMK»t, OHM BepHyjlMCb b poaHOM aoM — b ofj/iacTHyto 
6n6nkioTeKy, npaaaa, aa 3tm roabi HWTaTeneii Ha wamu sa- 
MeTHo noySaBunocb. 



Ecnn 6bi Bbi noceinnn Bnpo6na*aH nflTb-iuecTb neT 
Ha3aa. to na yempanbHow y/inue HenpeMeHHO BCTpeTnrin 6u 
M3BecTHyio BceM ropo*aHaM Xato 3nujTefiH. 3to — eecbMa 
xonopMTHan nMHHocTb. ToBopmiH. HTOonapoaoM waOaeccw. 
n ecnn o6ps3 oaeccxoM fianaepw h Ba6en b nuca n He c mniMA 
Xaw, to Tonbxo noToiwy, hto oh c hbm He 6wn 3HaxOM. Xan 
6bins «eHOM eBpeiicxoro noaTa m npossuxa Maxca 3nujTe«- 
H3, flonroe bpbmh psSoTa/ia MaHMKiopiueM, Cnaroaapn CBoeii 
npoipeccMw 6w n a 3HaxoMa c Sonbiuew nonoBMMOH weHcxoro 
HaceneHwn BMpo6naJxaHa. Ohb 6b)na Taxxe atrrpMcoM CHana- 
Jia npo0eccnoH3jibHoro, a 3aTeM napoaHoro eBpewcxoro 
TeaTpa. 

TeaTp yMep. RpMHHHa ace Ta x<e — HeT aener Ha ero 
coaepwaHwe. B TeaTpe nacTO MeHnriHCb pe*nccepw (lep- 
bwm 6wn HSBeCTHbiM mockobckhh pewnccep MA. Py6nHiij- 
TefiH. riocneaHMM TaM paSoTan xopshhow 6npo6wax(aHei4 B, 
3eMnqHCKMM. M axTepcxHM cocTae nacTo MeHsncfl. HeM3MeH- 
hwm ocTaeancs To/ibxo nswx cneiaaKnei4. ripasaa, 9 nocne- 
anne roaw MHorne Monoawe axTepw naniu He 3Hann, ohm 
sanwcwBariM cbokj ponb pyccxMMM 6yKBaMM h 3a3y6pnBanM 
HawaycTb. Ho sto 6wno hb Tax Ba«Ho. TnaBHoe — cnexTaK/iM 
uinw m y hhx 6wnn apuTe/iM. Ha npeMbepax eceraa 6wn 
aHLLinar. 

Mokho mamuj b BMpo6na>xaHe yc/ibnuaTb n ce«Hac. Ce- 
roan« HeBonbiuoe HMcno eepeMCKMx o6-bexTOB b ropoae — ra 
caMan axaoTMxa, KOTopan npuB/iexaeT cwaa pa3Horo poaa 
mapflto— jxypHanwcTOB, nonnTMKOB, MHTypucTOB. npne3*aeT 
K3Koii-HM6yab MHOCTpaHey b Bnpo6Mfl)«aH ysnaTb n noHHTb, 
xax ceiiHac jkhbbtcsi eBpettM b Poccmm (Beab y EAO 0<fcni4n- 
anbHo — «eBpeMCKMw CTaTyc*), « aoT3flecb eMy npeanaraiOT 
nonHyw nporpaMMy eBpeMcxwe aocTonpHMenaTenbHOCTM m 
MHTepecHwe ntoaw. 

FlepBo-Hanepso hx BeayT e oSnacTHoii KpaeBeanecxviM 
Myseii. 3aTeM — ra3eTa «Bnpo6na>xaHep ujTepH», MHTepBbio 
c senoaexoM, nepesKMBtuMM KaTacTpoqby {sto ceflnac b Poc- 
cmm aiayanbHsn Teiwa) 

riOHTw sceraa ecTb nac-apyrow ann nocemeHMB xoMMy- 
HMCTHHecxoro «My3en nepeocTpoMTeneM BMpo6MaJxaHa». 
noHewy KOMMyHMCTMMecxoro? rioTOMy hto xo3«MKa My3ea 
apoCTHan KOMMyHnCTxa *Mpa KodpwaH. npHexaBiuaa CTpowTt 
eBpeMcxyxi o6nacTb no xoMCOMonbcxoM nyresxe b 30-e roaw, 
paccxameT bbm cbomm hmsxmm MynccxnM 6apMTOH0M, xax 3T0 
6wno. hb cxpbiaafl HOCTanbrww no o6xoMaM. cySfjoTHMxaiw n 
couMartMCTMHeexoMy copeBHOBannw, riocne My3en nporpaM- 
My npoaomxawT a eBpeScxoM o6tuMHe k Ha aecepT — enna- 
rora. 

CnpaBeanwBOCTM paan 3aMeny. hto na«iu Bee eiye *n- 
eeT b Bnpo6Max<aHe H hs CTpaHnuax «Bnpo6nfl!KaHep 
ujTepH», h b xopoTKwx nepeaanax oSnacTHoro paawo, m b 
espeMCKnx (paMMnnsx M3 aaBHo MaaaHHoro TenetpOHHoro 
cnpaBOHHMxa. n Ha ropoacxMx Bbtsecxax. 

B neanHCTwryTe ecTb xacpeapa naMiu. A HeaaBHOHflMtu 
BHOBb sasBynan b mxonbHbix xnaccax. flpaeaa. Tonbxo a 
eflMHCTseHHOM 6Mpo6Ma«aHCKOM Luxone, M3ynaioT ero TaM He 
Tonbxo eBpeMCKMB ManbHMKM m aeeoHKM: wantu TaM xax mho- 
cTpaHHbtM R3btK, y xoToporo HeT 6yayiaero. 

fla. ecTb ceiiHac b &Mpo6na*aHe CMHarora Ona onRTb 
me ManeHbxan n aepeBRHHan. To/ibxo espeea TaM nonTii 

H6T... 



<£ 3HAK BEflbl 



69 



AHaTOJiMM UMPy/lbHMKOB 



J\om b Aecy 



Hoean sepTa oceflXiocTM 

Mflea hobom "nepTbi oceftnocTH" b KpeMJis co3pena He 
cpa3y. H aatop Mflew He ycTaHOBneH. H3BecTHO, hto bckods 
nocne CMepTM Unbana "BcepoccnHCxnfl cTapocia" KanwHMH 
cxaaan Ha kskom-to co6paHnn: "Y Hac flaano bo3hwk aonpoc, 
rfle opraHnaoBaTb EBpeMCxyio oSnacTb, m h flan 3anaHne 
HawTM TaKoe Mecio..." 

y Bcex Ha 3eMne mscto 6b*/io. 3 y eepees — ne 6wno. 
Hexopoujo, 6aT6HbKa... 

noHanany EBpeMcuan pecny6nnKa npoeKiMposanacb b 
KpbiMy. TaM co6npanncb opraHMSoaaTb cto BBpeMCKMX xon- 
X030B. 06 OflHOM M3 nepBbtx nucan MaaKOBCKWM. Ho 4 to- to b 
Kpwviy He Bbiuino B 1926 rony KoM3eu CHaptiflMn 3KCneAn- 
mhkj. 130 nenoBeK na<anw "seMfiio oSerosaHHyio' Ha paBHu- 
nax CMoneHimiHbJ, b ropax Anraa. b cTensx CeBepworo 
KaaKaaa OTneT cocTaann necKonbKO tomob. OBmnii abiBOfl: 
Ann nepeceneHUH eepeea hh oahh paitoH b esponesicKovi 
MacTM CCCP He noAxoflHT" 

OTnpasunH HOByto axcneflMUMio, b CMOMpb, — sto yxe 
6wno MecTe^Ko "noTennee", noTOM — hs flanhHMM Boctok. 
PyxoBoaun 3KcneAMUnHMH axaAeMMX BMnbHMC. aBTop 3»a- 
M6HMTOM TpaBononw-ioM cucTewbi, nancxaMM a 6acceMHe pex 
&npw m BnajKana KOMaHflOBan npocpeccop BpyK. npenoaa- 
BaetuMM BnocneflCTBMM MaTeMaTHxy b 6wpo6wA>xaHCKOM ujko- 
ne Ns 1 , Bpsfl nn He riOHHMann npo0eecopa m axaflewnKM, 
4to 310 3a MecTO, MyccoHHwe flOMSflu, myc, Mopoau HHwe 50 
rpaaycoB... 

Rep, roBopnn. hto bmamt xax ceMnac TaextHWM nepeean, 
rae ocTaHOBuncn nx atue/ioH. EapeiiKa Ha CTaHiiMM nepeao- 
AHna CTpenxy. mom mohqaom ae/j cnpocnn: "MyMOHbxa, boc 
repuex? (TeTenbKa, mto cnbituHG?)" — *3on 33m 6pexen 3ecps 
rone! (llycTb ohm ce6e ronoBy noMatOT!)' 

Kto — ohm? MocxoBCKoe HananbCTBo! He Ann toco 
raiUH/iacb OHa aaaecHTb thc«4 Bepd, htoSw cTpenxH nepe- 

BOAMTb... 

Ohwx 6yAyrnncaTb a raaeTax. nocrasHT 
cnexTaxrib e TeaTpe MMeHM KaraHOBvma (nap- 
xoMy nocTanoexa He noHpasnTcn "tf 3aeBa- 

TeribCTBO HaAC014HanM3MOM*), CHKMyT WM3- 

HepaaocTHoe kmho "HcxaTem c4acTbn". 

ILecTbflecflT neT cnycm Ha CBBepe H3- 
pawns b KM6yue "HaxoMeM xa-reiaoT" ("yaHM- 
kh reTTo") a CMOTpen apyroe kmho. nanaTXM, 
nonaibt, kmpkm. BonoTO. He ycTynatomee 6m- 
po6 MflixaHCKOM yTaxMewecMMnaTn^Hbiepe- 
6ht3, b wh3nh ne MM6BUJMB flena c ceribCKMu 
xosBMCTBOM. HM^ero, ocaoMriM... 

Ha flanbueM BocTOKe b 1928-m toncb 
6bin h.n6yu Ha3biBancH"HKOr — Me*ayna- 
pOflHan KOMMyHa Tyna npwieawann He Tonb- 

KO M3 Bo6pyMCK3 M >KMTOMMpa, HO M M3 fep- 
MaHMM, PyMWHMM. AMepMKM, ApreHTMHbl ... 8 

Hanane 30-x HexoTopfaie coo6pa3H/iw. KMeMy 
Aeno MAer, m — noKa euje mowho 6bino — 
yexariM, OcTanbHwe Mtxes/iM nocne 1937- 
ro... Paccxa3biBatOT, eme Hecxonbxo ner na- 
3aa b pa«OHe SHaMeHHToii BonoMaeBKM bm- 



Ae/iM A&A3 6n5newcKoro BMAa. roBopun no-pyccKM, HO c 
Amkmm axyeHTOM, rtocneflHMW ocxonox "aMepMxaHCKoro Ae- 
caHTa". 

EAO n nM)K 

Cpeflw sacHeweHHbtx Sonor — noflMOpoweHHan flopo- 
ra, coaepiueHHO nycTan. Ha aaTOMarncTpanb Tenb-ABwa — 
HepycanMM, npHMo cKaweM. He noxo*e... 

Bo aceii EAO 200 twcrh nenoBeK, eBpeea no nepenMCM 
1989 rofla 6uno neTbipe c noriOBMHOM npoueHTa — AesnTb 
TwcsM. Ho aa BoceMb neT mmchho CTonbxo nepeexano Ha 
nM)K b Itepannb. "nonynaeTCfl. a EapeMCKOii o6nacTM hh 
oahoto eBpen?' — saaaeT MHe npoBOKauMOHHbJM Bonpoc 
3aMmaebi aAMMHMCTpauMM BnpofiMAwana flaBwa Bancep- 
uaH. "Hm oflHoro?" — yAUBnnracb a: Aecxatt,, a bu kto 
6yfieTe? "Ha csmom Aene, — TaMHCTaeHHO coo6maeT flaBMfl. 
luenecTB CyMaraMM. — b npoiunoM roAy ms BMpo6MA*anB b 
H3pawnb Bbiexano euje 1 473 venoaeKa, c hmmm 604 peGenKa . 
OTKyaa MornM B3flTbCfl. xa»t bw AyMaeie?" — "He 3Haio". — 
"Bot cnMcoK, — TopMtecTByraiAe 3awBnBBT aaMmaBu, — Ha- 
meKMH. rop/tos. flonrMvt, MutneHKO... Onbra AjiexcanapoBHa 
MmneHxo penaTpMnposanacb b M3paMnb — kbk bsm npaBMT- 

CH?" 

Ontry AnexcaHflpoBHy He BMflen, a flaawfl MHe nonotcn- 
renbHo noHpaBM^ca PeflMaMujiiM bo snacTHbtx ctpyxTypax 
Tun: 0aHaTMK-apxMBMCT, MCTopMK-MccneAOBaTenb. Honbay- 
ftcb cny*e6nbiM nonoxceHneM, npoHHK a apxusbi roc6e3onac- 
hocth, nepenwcan n nepecHnn BoceMb tuwh AoxyMBHTOB. 
wsflan KHury "KaK 3T0 6bino?" — 06 mctopmm oBnactM ao 1 937 
rofla. XoTen npoaonJXMTb cboio xpoHwuy, Aa hct cnoHcopa. 

CTpaHHan xpoHMKa 

— CMOTpMTe, — nOKaabmaeT BaficepMaH. — 31 aeKaepn 
1952 roAa cMAenM niOAM, BCTpe^anM Hobwm rofl. M oamh 
noftHnn toct He 33 CtantiHa a sa rocyAapcrao Hspawnb. Ero 




71 



A. LlupyjibHHKOB floM b ziecy 



paccTpennnK, a ecex, kto cnuwan m hs 
aonec. nocaannw. Hnn bot — caacaioT neno- 
sexa, a *eHy Bbt3bJBaiOT — aaeM 24 naca: 
una oTKa3WBaeTecb ot Hero, win no arany. 
Ho y MeHn, roBopuT, flBoe flereM. Batue 
fleno. 24 naca. OHa nnrowyna hm b powcw... R 
pa3bicKan ee cwwa, noxasan eviy stot aoxy- 
MeHT. Oh nnaxan: "Tbi pjonxen ony6nnxo- 

BaTb 3TO..." 

"H3-3a nero Bwe3fl? — cnpaujMBaeT 
SyflTO caM ce6« flaswa. — M3-3a Toro Bpe- 
m6hm. KOTopoe He saxoreno craTb npoiunbiM, 
>KypHan aaxpbinn Tearp aaupbiriM ujKonw 
aatcpN/iM. H 3to npoflon)Kanocb copoK ner..." 

Ceti^ac Bee onurb OTKpbtTo. CnoBapt 
M3A3H, BbixoAMT raaeTa. HmaTb HexoMy. 

"BanflreMM" 

B M3panne h cnpocwn oaHOro ochobo- 
nonowHwxa, hto TaKOe Kn6yu. "Monoaoa 
MenoBBK. — o6bflCHMn oh, — sto KOMMy- 
HM3M. TonbKO 6ea xoMMyHMCTOB..." 

B Bnpo6wfl3KaHe ace 6wno Hao6opoT 

B ornnMne ot xwbwhx 3flecb c cepeflHHw XIX Bexa 
3a6aiiKanbCKktx xaaaxos h KopeMuea (nepewx pacxynaHMnw, 
BTopbix npodo Bbicennnn) y eepeeB-nepeceneHLteB Henero 
6uno Ko/ineKTnBM3HpoBaT'b. flawe eapeMCTBo cBoe ohm OCTa- 
bhhm na npewHux Medax o6MTaHMH. Passe hto "HHTepHauM- 
OHan" nenn Ha naMiu. 

raaeTbi nucanvr "Oco6an flanbHeBocTOHHan apMna no- 
cnana Ha noflMory xonxoaHMKaM, "H3 6wpocpenbacKMM cppoHT" 
cto KpacHoapMeMqeB...' A bot o neM He nMcanM: napTMMqbi 
aaexanM Ha oohoto 3mmoh h yKasa/w — aaecb 6bfTb iconxoay 
HMeHH KaranoBHHa. rtapTMwubi yexanw, xonxoa nocTponnn, a 
neTOM 6onoTo pacTaano... 

ryn)Kflc 

Mom Aea repqenb ryrMan. no rtacnopTy fpwropHM. nocT- 
ponn B BMpo6Mfl)KaHe nepsbiM KMHoreaTp . M weneaHyio aopo- 
ry paaoM co aHaMeHMTUM TpaHCCMOOM. Ta MarncTpa/ib 6*>ina 
nponoweMa npw uape w Ha3biBanacb "nepBbie nym", a ara. 
aejaoBCKan. — "BTopbie" 3aneM ohm nonaaorjMnMCb, noawe 
nyTM. tohkom hmkto He 3Han. noKa He nownti no weneaHOM 
flopore HOBbie rpyaw Haabmanuct. "3exM" flefl 6bin cpean 
hmx flBa>Kflb). oflMH paa ao CTpOMTeribCTBa noporw, apyfOM pa3 
— nocne. 

Cobcsm HeflaBHo Aea 6wn eiae mvta, b cbom fleBOHOcro 
s 3flpaa0M yiwe m bchom naMWTM, TonbKO no homom He cnan: 
nepea ma3aMn, roBopMn, MM3Hb pa3MaTUBaeTcn, ksk khho. 
Oh noMHMn HananbHMKa ryjIAra MaiaeR Bepwana — mx b 
HKBfl 6b«no necKonbKo, 6paTbes BepMaHOB, m see «OHH«nn 
oflMHaKOBO. MaTBen Heaaflonro ao apecra Ha3Hannnn napKo- 
mom cBflsn Oh BW3Ban k ceoe Moero aeaa v\ cxaaan: "fl 6bi 
B3HJI Te6R c yaoBonbCTBueM, ho tw we aHaeujb: o way". 

"Hero?" — ho nonnn a. "CMepTH, — o6bncH«n aefl. — 
Echm nenoBeKa HaaHa^anM napKOMOM cbssm. 3HaMMT, co6n- 
panMCb pace t pen BTb". — "M oh noHMMan?" — TlOHMMan". "A 
aaHBM ohm 3to aenanM?" — c ywacOM cnpocnn n, "A *<epT mx 
3HaeT... — ciosan aea. — VxaaaHMe CTannHa..." 

C naxOM CTOpOHb) hm nocMOTpHWb Ha flanbHMM Boctok. 
OTnarepHoii TeMu He yiiTM. BXa6aposCKe ocTaMOBxa aBTo6y- 
ca: "rynpOBCKMM ropoa". ece cxoaht, ne aaaywwaaficb, hto 
3to coKpaLaeHHoe TnaBHoe ynpaBneH«B npwHyanTenbHbix 
pa6oT~. B BupoSMAwaHe BMaen TtopbMy. Ha TiopbMB Bbino*e- 
ho KMpnM^OM: CnaBa KnCCI". 




Co«penennbiCi BupoGudxaH 



HertocpeacTBeHHbiM Ha^ianbHMKOM aeaa b r>n)KflCe 
5 bin OpeHxenb. KOToporo ConweHMUbiH B "Apxunenare'' na- 
3b*BaeT aBTopoM mabh McnonbaosaHHH b CCCP Maccoeoro 
Tpyaa aaKntoneHKbix. flea c ConMeHMytxHWM ho cornaceH: 
"Caenan na Openxenq nyaoBMiae". — "A oh xbm Swn?" — 
"3aKntoHeHHbiM Ha ConoBKax". 

flo OpeHxenn, no cnoaaM aeaa. ntoaw He 6wnH o6ecne- 
MeHbi aawe a nioTwe Mopoaw eaoM m oaex<aoM. A Snaroaapn 
<6peHxeriK) 3exn MOrroi BbintHTb. "Oh He rpo6nn noasM. — 
roBopwn aea. — MenoBeKa rpo6nT OKOHHarenbHo. xoraa oc- 
TaBnsitoT ero 6e3 pa6oTw..." 

OpeHxejib 6 wn a o to ro Tpe6oBaT©nbHuM, hto H3Mepnn 
ToniaMHy narepHoro nMpora. Ha oco6o OTseTCTBeHHwx ysac- 
Txax, xoraa Mopoa aoxoann ao copoxa rpaaycoB, xawaoMy 
3aicnK>HeHHOMy BwaaBanc*) rops^wM nnpor c KapToiaxofi. ne- 
pea abiaanew 4>peHxenK) npnHOcnnn 3tot nupor — h hb aa(t 
Bor, ecnM oh Bwaen, mto tot kodohb m^m TOHbiue Ha caHTM- 

M6Tp... 

TyT 6bi MHe BcnowHMTb noaynr na BopoTax ByxeHaanb- 
aa, ho r Mon^y KaKoe npaeo y mchr — cyaMTb Mx?<PpeHKenn, 
aeaa... Mto n noHMMaw b Aay, rae 6wnw cbom TeaTpw m 
MsocryflMM, MacTepcKne ann nonnHKM o5yen. HaMnyHiiiMe 
nopTHbte, xpacHoaepeBianKH h cnecap^, "Bot 33mok. — tobo- 
PMn aea — Oh, noMHMiub. cTosn na ctbpom KBapTMpe. n ero 
CHBn m cioaa nepecTaana. KpenKMM aaMox. Ero caenan oamh 
Macrrep orryaa, Tw H8 3Han?" 

MHe nnoxo. flpownn *w3Hb m »e 3Han, hto abbphom 
aaMOx b aoMe, rae n poaMncn. M3 ryJIAra H 6a6yujKMHbi 
Ty^nw orryaa *e... 

33-C3-3P 

Ha copocoBCKiix xypcax ynnTens n3 EBpeMCKOM o6nacT« 
OOynanMCb "aaneonorMM" — 3aopOB0My ODpasy >km3hm Tpyn- 
na. 3axpb)B rnasa. nosTopsna aa npenoaaeareneM "f\ cnoxo- 
6h. MHe xopooio. Bee npeKpacno...' 

B caHaTopwM. rae npoxoanT xypcbi, Tenno, BxycHO xop- 
mat, xax b cTapwx aoMax oTawxa. Hmkto HMityaa He cneuinT, 
mo*ho Koro-to Bw6paTb b cooeceaHMKM — m nacaMM ryrinTb 
no necHbiM aopowxaM. TwuinHa, cHewHbie enoBwe nanu. 
Mto-to ms aeTCTaa 50-x — Hobwm roa, 6om xypaHTOB no 
paano. "Hyx m fetf ... 



A LlMpynbHMOB A° M B ^ecy 



71 



floqeHTy-ffciHnonory na BvipofiMflxoHCKoro neflMHCTMTy- 
Ta MOfi accoLtMauMH HpaenTCfl. "3to noTOMy, — roBopMT, — 
mto (Qa/ibHMw Boctok — caMHii HacTomnnii CCCP flanbHe- 

BOCTOHHHK — caMWM COBeTCKWM HenOBCK..." 

B OiasepbCKOM paiiOHe, roBOpsr, cnerBbinan — fletM He 
npumnii e ujKony. He s hom. KaK nonropacra neT Hasaa. A 
yHMTerifl... "MeM MeHbiue, - — roBop«T, — Haw nnaTm, tbm 
Bofibiue KOBbipneMCfl". A hto ewe oenatb na rpannue othws- 
hw? Ax orviw3Ha, poflHHa, Kyaa hw tkhh. omymeHwe KOHMa, 
Kpan m ofiHoepeMeHHO 6ecKpatfHero npoorpaHCTBa — aro, 
,aBepnoe, nauje caMoe coaeTCKoe. "Ha <4to XMBeM? Ha 
KapTOfJienbHbie, Ha aexcKHe, "CMepTHbie", — oobHCHwna 
Mapiw TpwropbeBHa Jlncoea na cena EKaTapHHo-HwKonbc- 
Koe. — He crtbiwanw. mto sto? Ko30cpnuweHT norpaHMHHbiK. 
Mu ero cwepTHbiMn" aoaeM Ecnn mto. ubi aa*e 3saKyaunn 
He noane*MM. Cbohmm *e paKeraMH HaKpoKn". 

PaccK33 yHWTenetf n3 nentwcKoro pawona Ha rpaHHqe c 
KniaeM: "BwwuBaeM TonbKo aa o^e^ apMHn urn kohohum 
\Apyr ryaa KOHTpanTHHKaMM n My^MUHw. w MeniuMMbi Ha 
nK)6bieconflaTCKneaon>KHOCTM — nucapeM. Haa3npaTeneM 
fleiH ctoht c KOTenKaMW b 04epefln nocne co/iaaTCKoro 
o6efla. Ecnw 6bi He apMwn — hsm KOHeu". 

A Bbi KaK flyMarm? HwHero xce apyroro He nocTponnn. 
HHMero, KpoMe a t o r o, hbt. Stow ncwcapMnwBaer. 

Ha3waaeTcn, Mewuy npOMHM, He TortbKO EAO. ho h 33- 
C3-3p. CooTBexcTBeHHo, ace MecTHbie *MTenn — "aacpaH- 
uiw". Hm aa hto HeaoranaeTecb. hto Taxoe 3CP. 3ona cao6oa- 

HOrO 3KOHOMWHeCKOf0 P33BWTHH, OnHTb, 3aMeTbTe. 3 o h a... 

"3a cmbt Mero «MBeM? — aeceno nepecnpaiuHsaeT cpn- 
nocoop Unbd Phbhh {HOBWti eonpoc, Hapnay c "6biTb mjih He 
6biTb?"w "mto AenaTb?"), — 3a chbt flan, fl na aase cpoTorpa- 
cpdio yBennnenHyKJ noeecnn — nacrepHaK Ha oropoae, b 
canorax, c nonaioft. B KawecTse Bwcosoro, TaK CKaaaTb, 
npMMepa..." 

Bnorpao>iq PMawna oSbiHHa ann ero Kpyra. BepHynacb 
ceMbn nocne 3BaKyaLinn b Kpww. a ac-M hx aansT B Bepe30B- 
xe, 6wBUjeM eapewcKOM "couaopcpe" ("counanncumecKoii 
aepeBHe"). Konoaubi 3a6nTw TpynaMM. Mwcnb: yexaTb! Kyaa? 
Tyr Kan pas roBopni: ecTb sy-yaHwii Kpaii... HaoiMXTaM — to 
ecTb eapeeB — kbk b H3panne... B o6meM, noaannct M3 
KpbiMa c kopobom BemoM b "BanareiiM". B nepBuA roa 



co6pann copoK mteuiKOB KapToujKM. Pw6a Ha nepexaTe, Kera 

BOT TaKSfl, MOJKHO DOBMTb HaBOnOHKaMH. BoCHpflnH ayXOM. 

A b ropofle — o6mecTao. 6y«eT airrepoa, wyswKaHTOB. 
riHcarenevi na Mockbw. JleHMHrpafla. npnexariM no 30By cep- 
aua. Hy m sarpeMenn Bee b narepfi. Kto Bbt*nn — BepHynncb 
b wana/ie "orrenenw", Toay b uecTbflecsrr ceflbMOM, roBopm 
Pmbhm. oh c flpyabHMw, Tor^a LUKonbHMKaMH, aaxoTenw. hto- 
6w B 5npo6na»aHe 6wn yHWBepcureT, o6paTMJitiCb k BnacTM. 
TaM nx BCTperwnM apy*en«6Ho: "EBpeiiCKuCi yHUBepcuTeT? 
Xopowo. noayMBBM.. ," 

noayManw — n cranw no oaHOMy TacxaTb b KrB, ujHTb 
Ham40Hanvi3M. H see KaHyno boohoto "R 3HaK) HawMx neno- 
seK cto no sceMy Mwpy: e CLUA. b <t>Pf, b kl3panne..." 

B Kpeinne. cwkrraeT Pubh^. cwaenn mom. noHwuaBUJwe. 
4to caMwii HaaextHbiii cnoco6 cKpwTb cneaw npecTyruiBHwit 

— pasopBaTb cBB3b noKOJieHMM, Beflb npeycnenw! "Mom aea 

— ronoc na MamMTocpOHHoii nnenKe, — aaruGaio nanbubt, 
cnyiiias PwaMMa. — mob crapiuafl ao^b — b HepycanwMe. 
Mnafliuan — b MocKBe, caM b — Moiaiocb no orpaHe. nuas 
eaMHOMwiLtneHHUKOB rionpo6yM. BoccTanoan csnsn " 

"Mo>KeT SbiTb. nywHbi KonneKTMBbi, npOHM3biBaioinMe bcki 
Poccmkj? — aaropaeTCH 0nnoco0 — MoweT 6wTb, — 6e»cnT 
oh 3a mhoh no ysKoii necHow TponnHKe, — Hyuma ycTaHOBKa 
wa TBOpMecKKii MonoflHBK? MocKBa — flanbHHM Boctok — 
TeMnepaTypHoe KopoMbicno. Mbi Heaeecnoco6Hbi 6es Mock- 
Bbi, HouBbi 6e3Hac Bbi He6yaeTeycnbiLuaHw!He 3nato,KaK 
bw, a Mw Tyr aacwflenMCb Mw. KaK MeaH-aypaK, ^oHHa nenw 
CHaHT, y Hero ywe. msbhhhtb, jitiLia nepeeeiUHBaiOT..." 

EcTb pa3Hwe eepcun npoMciueaujero e naiueM BeKe b 
OKpecTHOCTnx Bwpo6MA)KaHa. OflHa — naKHposaHHaa ot- 
KpwTKa c Haflnncbw: ">KeMMy)KWHa Tae*Horo Kpas". 

Ho ecTb m apyran Bepcwa — hto 3to 6 bin npocro "CTa- 
nHHCKnii 3KcnepnMOHT" Bo bcbm Mwpe, kbk ycnbtujaT "Bwpo- 
6na>KaH": "A, — roBopsT, — rerro!" "PtoMeMy rerro? — o6n*a- 

lOTCfl 6Mpo6Ha>KaHUbl. — Mbl TaM npOJKHnu H(M3Hb..." 

Mb) npOMMHH )KH3Hb. TopaMTbCB 0C066HH0 H6H6M. Ho M 

caMoyHWMnweHne He k nmiy, nocTponnw to, hto Momn. Kon- 
xos Ha 6onoTe noa HaaBaHHeM "BanareAM". B nepesoae Ha 
pycCKnii — "floM b necy"... 

nydmiKyemcn e coxpauienuv. 
noflHbiu rneKcm: http://book.net.ua/ju/birobid/zirut 



'IiiipepfloemJ) llcaaKOBH4(poa. 1 6.09.1 905, cCochobka 

tpoaHeHCKOilry6.).Ha4 IOT01 T' a( t >HHBOBIO P QM P*Jiy BTopofi 
c.iesa. Ho 12 iteT yin-it* a xjjepc. Hocjic OKOHHaHHft I 
\ 1 1 1 po BO K BOH II U L' cm i,s h we \a,i a B MecreHKO H Hwe b, 1 1 0:1 wu a. 
B 1 923 r. Hocnij) ycxa-i b AprewrMHy. see ocTBJibKwe hjichu 
ceMbH — h nooraBV. Ha YirpaHHy. 

B ApreHTHHe pa6ora-i CTonxpoM Ma mhoimx xoiucb. 
HeKOTopoc speMs 6bifl 6ejpa6oTHbiM. Coctobji b Coiow 
CHHaHirajiKCTOB. B 1930 roay lapcrHCTpHposa.ici b 
opraNH3auiiH «npOKop», laHHMBBiiicncn ncpccencKHCM 
CBpees b CCCP. B anpe.ie 1931 roaa BUexa.i HaToeapHOM 
6ej]brHficKOM napoxoac b Ge.ibrtfio. mtcm kb noeue b 
rq>MaM«K), rae noaynH^ BMjy xtii stcwa b CCCP. Exari h 

COBCTCKyiO POCCHM C HtC.iaHHCM CTpOHTb eSpeflCKyW *HJHb 

b Bnpo6H,i>KaKe. 

[~IpH6bi.i b BHpofiiusaH. me npojKiui jo 1937 roaa. Ebui 
npeacejaTCJicM Ko.rjioia <<HKopn CMH.ioBHicKoro pafioHa 
EBpericKoii AO jo apecTa 20 HOB6p» ] 9J7 r. no craTbe 

"KOHTppCBO.T K) U II H H as 3CBTC JTbHOCTb M III n H OH a*" ' B HO,1 bl V 

nonbtuH. (nocraHOBJteHHe ot 4.01 . 1938 r. — Tpyanarepb Ha 
1 Crier). OTfiuBajt HSKaiaHMe b Kom h ACCP. rae. Kai roBOpsi 
o^limtaJtbHue .luKjMenibi 17 van l'.'J(i m,ia cKOH'incn. 
PeaSii.iMTiipoBaH nocMepTHo 25 Mas 1957 r. 




Woctxp Wcaaxoeuv <Pqpep c apynnou eapeee na xopaSnQ. 
udymeu ui ApaexmuHbi a Eepony 



Flo MamepuanaM 3kcho3uhuu 
"Cmapbie eepeucxue tpomospatpuu*. a. Hoezopod. 



n 



OBLUAFI CYAbBA - BOCTOHHAR EBPOnA 




nOBOpOTLI CyflBbLI 

C npeanAeHTOM MHCTMTyTa AeMOKpaTnn s Boctohhom EBpone 

MpaHofi JlflCOTOtf 

SeceAyiOT AHflpefi BnnHymoB n JO/ima Cepeaa 




— tfpona. ww — ue.ioaeK onenb U3«ecmnbiii a cpede 
no.ibCKou UHme.i.mzeni4uu. 6bietuux duccudenmos u axmuau- 
cmoe "Co.wdapnocmu" 80-x eodos. Ho ?oeopnm. Htnombi — 
ne naibh-a u podwiacb ?de-ma na 3anade? 

— fl piUH.'taCk BO<t>paHIHIH. MOH M3M3 — CppaHUyWCH- 

Ka, a nana — eBpefi H3 no.ii.iiiit Flana poanacB eme b 19-om 
BeKc, oh npHexa.1 bo (DpaHumo y-*c b 20-x roaax HOBoro 
CTOJieTKS. Koraa mhc 6buio aaa c ito/iobkhoh roaa, mo» cewbs 
I Masta. nana si moji CTapmiifi opaT) nepeexa.ia s no.ii.ujy. TaK 
h Hanaiiacb mod *mnb b Tioabine — c 1 949-ro jo 1 970-ro 
roaa, 

— Tbi, Kaxeemcx, ytwiacb « BaputaeCKOM ynueepcu- 
meme? 

— fla. b wecTbaecirr btopom a nocTynn.ia Ha <|>naoco<|>- 
ckkh (paKyjibrer yHHBepcHrera. K mecrbaecjiT BocbMOMy x 
y-*e npoc.ryiiiaaa iut.ini.iS lype h nnca.ia cbok> MarHcrepc- 
kvio paooTy. Hy. h Hanaaocb. 8-ro Mapra Mens apecTOBa.™. H. 
k*aK pe3y.ibTaT, — - BurHajiH H3 yHHBepcHreTa... 

— CepbesHO soc6e3onaCHOcm\> k me6e omneciacb... 

— EciH 6w ko MHe oaHoft! Hatu (pafcyahTCT BMCcre c 
iiByMH apyrHMH roraa npHHiui oieHb airniBHoe ynacTHe b 
cryueHMecKoii peBo.iioiiHH 1968 roaa. B,t3cth HacTOJibKO 
oncecTOHtt.iHcb, hto "npHKpbuin" aecb nam icypc. EcaH a He 
ouiH6atocb, hmohho roraa ycTpoH,™ npoucaypy "<pn;ibTpa- 
hhh" — CTyjCHTw Bccro (pn.iocoi})CKorn (jjaKy.ibTeia 6bi.ru 
ooi.hb.tchm 01 'tnc.H-mii.iMn H .io.ivkhi.1 6wan laHoso noaa- 
BaTb tasi rich tic c npocbooii o wine ;ichhh b yHHBepCHTer. 
Tyr-To hx m npoceHBajiK... 

— B /968^o^y e FlapuxceObiiu cwibttbie cmydeHtecieue 
SecnopxdKU... 

— H h« TOJibKo b tlapiiJKc. B ito BpcMH a TTouibUje 
npoHcxoi«miiTaKHaiwBaeMbte"MapTOBCKHeco6wTHJi".OHCHb 

HlBCCTHKlif B DojIbUie 3FIK30a 6opb6bl npOTMB KOMMVHHC III- 

HCCKOK BJiacTH, k» mtp 1.1 it . ii a mo it mrnsn, bho;i He iac;iy whbs- 
eTOTa&nbHOH tty6;iHKamfit b "KapTe". KoHeiKo, b KaKOM-To 
CMbicie Te nojibCKitc coSmth* 6m.ih oipa*ennew npoHcxo- 
asuicro bo 4>paHUHH. Ho H cosepuieHHo apyniMH: b [ [o i biue 
ciyaeHHecKHe BbieTyn-ieHHS 1 968 roja 6wjim xopouio opra- 
im iOHiuim.iMH, iio.mocTbKi .imiienHbiMH ijicmchtob anap- 

XHH. 

— A sew ohu 6bLiu opeaHU3oeaHbt? Katcou-mo epynnou 

onnojutfuu? 

— J\eno b tom, «jto y«e c cepcinHbi 60-x raaoB b 
BapmaBCKOM yHHBepcHTere cio/Kit.itici. opraHH30BaHHue 

CTyaeHHecKHe rpynnu na (paKy.ibTeTax <\m it'ciMJtim. couho- 



ZIOniH, <pH3HKH, MaTCViaTHKH. OhH npOBOJHJIH JHCKyCCHOH- 

Hhie scTpeHH. B ie roiu mm BMecTe c Moefi oaHOKypcKHuefi 
pyKOHo.ni:in o.ihoh H3 tnCRK CTyjieKHCCKHx rpynn, I U-.ii. sn 
CKa3aTb,HT03Tarpynna6bLiaHe J nerajibHoB. hooco6o. ksk rw 
noHHMaeTe, My cboio acsrejibHocrb He afiiiiiinipoiia. in 

B rpynne mm He TonbKO o5cy>Kja.iH cymecTByroiHee 
iHi.-nvA-L-niK- aeji h HHTajiH zianpciueHHyKj JiHrepaTypy, ho h 
npoBoaiuH paxumHbie aKUHH. PacnpocrpaHJiJiH BymiBep- 
cuTeTe noon, ^hctobkh. caMin.wt PaiJiHHHbie rpynnw 
o6>.ejHHa ■met. xia npoBeaeHnsi coBMeeTHwx aKUMH. Hanpn- 
ML-p. h uiniii> ,ipccutsat!iti.[x Jluch-a KypoHH h Kapojia Moa- 
3deBCKoro. B ] 967 roay KOMMyHHcritHecKHe B^acrH saies- 
.th MHoroHHCJieHHbie KaMiiaiinn, "i^0Ka3blBa^oI^He , * Topnte- 
ctbo coiiita,iHCTHHecKOH HaeH. HaiuH CTyaeHHecKHe rpynnw 
opi ami toHi.iHa.in npoTHBOCTOgHHe 3THM KaMnaHHSM. 

B HiiHapc 1968 roaa B.iacrH sanpeTHJin cneirraiwib no 
"/JejaM" MifHKCBii>ia b oxihom h3 BapuiascKox TeaTpoB. B 
cneKTaicie ecTb ^nH3oabI ayxoBHoro conpoTHBJicHHH. koto- 
pwe snacTH Tpak-rona-iH KaK "aHTHpoccHHCKHe". A ny6;iHKa 
6ypHo anJioaHposa-ia KaK pa3 b 3thx MecTax. Bot BJiacTH h 
peuiH-TH cneKTaK.ib 3anpeniTb. CryaeHHecTBo B03My-nmocb. 
HecKoabKO rpynn opraHiooBa.no amnio b TeaTpe no OKOtma- 
hiih noc-ieanero npeacraB.icHitH "fleaofl", a t.i u-si — yam- 
HyioaeMOHCTpaUHio npoTccra. Bw.ih cxBaseHbi, no mhchhio 
BaacTen, laHnimiiiKii jthx BbuwaaioujHX CTyaeHnecKHx as- 
unfi. H nocaiKCHbi. ecTCCTBeHHO. IIotom hx OTnycTHJiH, ho h3 
yHHBepCHTera BbirHaan. 

Toraa mm opraHtt30BajiH mhthht ii coop noanHcefi b 
noaaep*Ky naiuvix penpeccxpOBaHHux TOBapumefi — 20 
tmchh noannceH nocTaBH^n BapmaBCKHecTyaeHTu! Iloann- 
ch peuiiiJiH Hanpannib Ha hmh npeaceaaTeaH no^ibCKoro 
nap.iaMCHTa. Kto-to aoJiwen 6w;i Hanncaii. nwcbwo npeace- 
aaTCJiio c npn.iii*enitfM 3thx noanweefi. J! h HanHca.ia 3to 
ItlfCbMO, H U.HXIJ nOJIHOCTbK) cboh aaHHwe. 

A 8 Mapra 1968 roaa mm opraHinoBa.in Ha reppHTopwH 
yHHBepcHrera mhthhi\ Ha KorapbiS npHiiwo HecKoabKO Tbt- 

CKH MCTOBCK. MHC BUna,13 4eCTb 3aHHT8Tb pe30JHOUHH>. Ta- 

na» MaeuitaSHaji cryaeHHecKaa aKuns nporecra nponi;ia b 
Dojibiiie ncpBWH pa3. H BJiacTH cmeiib oojiesHenHo pearnpo- 
Baiti, — noHaexaaa yfiMa mHv1huhohcfk>b, h natajiocb h36h- 
eHiie cTyaeHTOB. B tot caMbin aeHb mchs h apecroBaaH... 

— Bxacmsut ydtLiocb moeda c6nmb eo.wy cmydeHnec- 
Kttx npomecmoe? 

— Kan 6u hh t2k! EyKBaai.no na cneayiontHfi aeHt. 
HaiajiMCb HoBwe mhtiihth. Ho seen [lo.Tbiuc yHHBepcnrert,i 



I/I. flncora CHacT/iMBbie noBopoTbi cyAb6w 



73 



"npocbma J iHCb"oAHH 3a apyrHM. CTyaeHTOBapecTOBWBaj™, 
othhcjijijih, 3a6HpajtH a apMtiio. CyaeOHwe npoueccu no 
jcjiaM ciyjicHHecKHx ekthbhctob uijih BqwHHueR uenbix 
rrOjiTOpa roaa. 



"MapT 1968". Ta* Ha3btoaiOT co6bnn«. KOTOpwe npowcxo- 
annn a rtonbiue eecHOH 1968-ro roaa Hpexcae ecero, MMeeTcn 
a BMfly to, hto npoHCxOAuno b BbicwHx y^e6Hbtx 3aBeaennR* 
(aKaaeMHHecKoe aamtteHwe h penpeccnu Bnacrew hdotmb ero 
ysacTHHKOB). Ho Kax cocraBHyto naerb HapTOBOtux coCwthm 
mokho paccMaTpneatb m oo>nynanbHyK) nponaraHay - xaMna- 
hhk) npOTHB "cmohhctob", "nonnTnnecK»x SaHKpoTOB" h nuca- 
Teneii Ta»Ke k mbptobckum coSwturm mokho othbcth w 
nepeM6Hbi e annapaTe snacm. a xofle KOTopbix nocrpaaarm, 
rnaaHbiM o6pa30M. moan eapeMCKoro nponcxo>KaeHHH. Hx 
o6bmmh/im b npuBepMenHOCTH cnonn3My htim b nocoSHMHecTae 
cuoKMCTaM. PesynbtatOM arotf 3htmcmohhctckom *aMnannn 
Bbin. noMMMo npoHero, Bweaa na crpaHw nioaeii, xoTopwe 
cMomn noflTBepflHTb ceoe eapeScKoe npoHCxowaeHne He 
see us hmx 6binM MneHSMH nOPn. 

Knumeabie momoktw MapToecxnx co6brrwH; aanpeT ribecw 
A MnuneawMa "fleabi" a HapoiiHOM Tearpe b BapiuaBe(nocne- 
anee npeacTaaneMiie cocToanocb 30 HHeapn); eceo6mee 
Hpe39bmaAHoe co6panne eapiuaacKoro OTaena Cotoaa 
nonbCKMx nucaTeneS (29 cpeapa/iH); mhtwht s BapwaaCKOM 
yHMBepcMTeTe (8 MapTa): nponaraHflwcrcKan xaMnaHHn Bnpec- 
ce, a TaiOKe MHTMHrw a fleMOHCTpaiiHH cryaeHTOB. npowcxo- 
flMSUJHe bo Bcaii rionbwe (Hanano- 1 1 Mapra); cryaeHnecxvie 
3a6aCTOBKM (14-16 MapTa bo BpounaBe. 15 n 16 MapTa b 
SapiuaacKOM yKMBepcMTere. 21-23 MapTa a Bapujaae u bo 
Bpounaae). 

8 npoTMBonocTaaneMHe CTyaeHMecxiiM MMTMHraM anacTH 
opraHH3oaann mhthhih h "MaccosKn" Ma sasooaK , rae npunvi- 
ManHCb pe3oniouMn o 6opb6e c chohh3mom h b noanepxocy 
ToMy/iKH. Ocpnuna/ibHwe no3yHrn 3tmx mmthwob: "CTyfleMTw 
- k Hayite, nucarenki - k nepy, chohmctw - a Choh'. (MHOraa Ha 
3thx nnanaTax 6wno naroicaHO: "Cmohhcth — b CwaM". — hb 
Bee 3nann. kto Tattwe cuoHMCTbi h rae a tot Choh) 

JaKwti Karpinski 

'Polska. Komunizm Qpozycja. ' Siownik. 

London, 1985. 




Mapm 1968.'. 0<puiiua.ikHaji iie.unncmpn- 

wm Ha maxamt Hanucana: "Cubhucirom 

mint, * Hipau.\h eeododm" 




Mapm 1968 s Ha mUihuu <piiK\ibmemii .•easptitpuu Sapiuaacitojo 
yHittepcumema iLWKambi: *Pa6oiue c homu" a "Ocsooodumb 
apecmosaHHMx koxw". 



ft upocit.ic i;i 8 
TtOpbMC IIJITb MecsueB. 

;ia)Ke nytb 6ojibuie. 
Ilocjie 3Toro jopora b 
yHHBepcHTcr ou.ia 
Sin MeHS laKpuTa... 
CiuenH Mbi see 

TOraaBClCilCTBCHHOH 

TiopbMe. Ho He b oa- 
HOH KaMcpe. KOHC1HO. 
Mm tepes okh;i buk- 
n it Kanit apyr apyra no 

HMCHaM. pa3TOBapn- 
BOBH... TlOTOM ObUIM 

cyflw. Hac, oSbhhhcmwx b npuHaiuicsKHotTii KTaiinuM opra- 
HH3aun)i"KoMMaHaoc" 6u.TOTpKHaauaTi.«iejioBeK. (Komandos 
— nontiCK 'decanmnuK' — nput*. nop.). 

Cynsra He b ojhom npouecce, a b hbth pa3Hbtx. Bot ito 
6b!Ji unpK! Ohh itecMor.iH aoKa33Tb HHKaKon opr iiiiii.iaunii 11 
lasBH.in, hto opraHinauMB 6bina 3aKOHcrinpnpoBaHa Ha- 
crojjbKo, hto aa)«e ee f.ieBbJ He jHaan. hto coctost b Hefl. 
CpoKH HaM aajiit Hc6o.ibuiHe. Mwe, Hanptmep, — 18 Meca- 
ueB. noTovi ow.ia KaKas-TO »s; unci 11 a . 

Bcepbei nocTpaaaviir ot 3Toro npouecca Toabk*o aeoe — 
3uex KypOHb it Kapo.ib Moaje^eBCKHH. Koropbie yme obun 
ocyTKaeHbt b65-m roay.ToraaMx npHroBopicni k Tpein rojjaM. 
Tenepb hm choe3 aajiw no Tpw c fiojioshhoh roaa... 

— Kcm mo 'da Obt.iu Kypouh u Modje.teecKUu? 

— Ohm b uiecTbaecsT iihtom 6ujih MOJioauM if accHcrreH- 
i:imi! \<,\ miHL'pLiiTeie. HaimciLTU OTKpwToeimcbMOKtiapTHii, 
ia KOTopoe nx BbirnanH «3 stoh caMoii napTitit >t cpaiy *e — 
apecTosajTH. Hm aajTH no ipn roaa 3a 3tot "aHTHrtapTMHiibii'i" 

Tek'CT. A B UjeCTtaeCflT BOCbMOM OHH ro.iyHH.TH CpOK 3a TO, 

hto 6m.ih .niaepaMH cTyaeKHecKoro .thiokoiuh. Me«ay uie- 
cTiaecHT nsn biM h ceNtbaecaT BTopbm acero ohh npocnac.in 
oKoaoecMH-ier. A noawe.Koraa CTariHj]naepaMH"Co;iHaap- 
hocth", CHae.TH eme paj. 

— Tpydho 6*mo 
s mtopbMe? 

— /Ja He cKa- 
3arb, hto6u oneHb. 

XOTS H3C H . ICp/Kit. HI 

B OHCHb HsaiHpoBaw- 
hoh nacTH BapmaBc- 

KOH CneaCTBeHHOIf 

TiopbMbi. rae cojep* 
/Ka.iHCb HaK6o;iee 
aa>KHbic o5BHH«ie- 

MWC. POBOpHJlH.HTO 

no coceacTBy Haxo- 
anTC» ni.imiiHJf ray- 
jiJiHTep Kox, Kah-ne- 
to uinnoHbi, npnro- 
BopeHHue k CMepT- 
Hofi k;i >n h. C.neaOBa- 

TCJ1H, KOHeHHO, H 

TiopbMOH Hac nyra- 

.TH, H CpOKOM HJIT- 



Jlodih. \fanu(pe(matiu>t e lamumy apecmantiHMhii u 
ujfiumfcu cmyde nmos Bapuiascxoto vHueepcumema. 



74 



\A, /Ifjcora CHacTJiMBbie noeopoTbi cyflb6w 




upa.vc " OmKpbimmo nttch.ua ' 



KypoHX u Mofae-iescKoto — 
7 vacMivupog, 



B 1 964 r mu c KaponeM MoaseneBCXMM npmunm x to My, 
mto naao HankicaTb nporpawMHw* aoxyMeHT CoBoann rpyrmy 
accucTeHTos M3 pasnwx mhcthtytob: Craujena ("oMy/iKy, Ana- 
wes KnHMOBvtna, HoaHny ManepnHK, Bepnapaa TeiSxoBCKoro h 
eme HecxonbKO MenoBex, nananH BtrrpeMaTbCR h eecTn flue- 
KyccuH. Mbi xoiejiM npeanoxtuTb nepeycTpotfCTeo oSinecrsa a 
ayxe HCTHHKOft aeMOKpaiMM TpyaniUKXCH Koraa tskct eme He 
6bin roTOB. b nowb c 14 Ha 15 MOflSps b Ksaprupy CTaweKa 
foMynKn npnturiM rtonnu,eMCKMe 3a6pann pyxonncb. a nac — 
apecToeanM. 8 nepBbi & pa3. Koraa nepe3 48 *acoB Hae omyc- 
TunH, b yHHaepcMTeie ywe xoahjim nereHflw o Texcre nwjbMa. 
Mu peiuKnn 3tot Bonpoc npoBOMTb. BaaoeM c KaponeM 
HanHcaim ChKpbiToe nucbMo k ^nenaM napTopraHH3aynn h 
ZMS fCo«3 couuanucmuvecKoii MonoOemu — nmbGHufl tom- 
coMon — npuM. nep). B 3TOM nucbMe mu n3;ro*nrni Hamu 
B3rn«flbi. IS wapTa 1965 roaa mm nepenenaTanii ero n3 Ma- 
ujMHKe m pacnpocTpakmriH cpe.au moaeii. kotopwm floaepflnn. 
a TaKwe 0THecnn a napTmiHbJe n KOMcoMonbCKMe opr3HH3au.nn 
MHCTViTyTOB n yHviBepcMTeTOB. B KOHLie mu ripnnncann "3a 3TO 
nwcbMO mu nony^HM ipn roaa". Hepea aeHb Hac apecTOBann 
Mepea 4eTbipe Mecnua cya BbJHec npwroaop: ^pv\ roaa 

flocne nac ranow ;*.<; HOMep" BWKMHyn LUnoTaHCKHii CBoevt 
caTnpnHecKOM noaMe, xOTOpyro HUTan na MacTHwx xsapTupax, 
oh aan nofl3aronoaoK "Onepa itenoto 8 Tp« roaa". H He oui»6cji, 
nonynmi pobho TpH roaa. 

Jacek Kurort. Jacek Zakowski 

"PRL dla poczatkujqeych' 

Wroclaw, 1995. 




k'apo.ib Mintii-.u'tifKuii 



HaauaTii-ieTHMM rpoiHJin. Ha ca- 
mom aene Hawa nocaaxa 6t,i/ia 
i;iaKOH nOKasaTCJibHOH aKUHefi 

BjaCTCH. 

— noueMy nee-mam 8hi He 
oo&iucb? He eepitiu ux yipoioM? 

— BHawxe jih, cKanajia nac 
iKtKHHH.in b tom, tto mu — areH- 

Tbt Ihp.iiMH. areHTbi reHepaiia 

,"1:imh;i. . M hoi lie u j Kac Ol-l. Ill 

cspcHCKoro npoHcxojKaeKHJi. ho 
h rex, kto ne 6bUT, o6Bnna.Tn b 
tom, ito ohh — eBpew. K TOMy wx 
6bun apecTOBaHbi jiio^h c espeR- 

CKHMH i|j;!\i ll.IltH MM . KOTOpbie Hi ni- 
ce He KMe^H OTHomeitHS k nam mm 

I.' (Ml 1,1 1 HUM. 'Jill t"M.l.'IO HpCMH p3> 

ryjia aHTHceMHnt3Ma a Ilonbtue, 

— A JJscoma — jmo eepeuc- 
koh tpautawt? 

— JTacoTa — Her, ho moj'i 
otcu CHaqajia hoch.i <|)aMii:ii()o 
XcpiiioBiit. noToMCMeHHJice. 19- 
ro Mapia ToMyjiKa BUCTynaji ne- 
pea napTairrHBOM. "Jto obi.io ero 
nporpaMMHoe BugTynviCHMC. b ko- 

TOpOM OH R3S0XNII CBOC HO.IHTH- 

^ecKoe Kpe.io. Ho cyTH yro 6m.io BticrynJieHMC npoTHB kh- 
Teji;mreHiiHH . . . B HeM m\'t:i.m iji.imh ntn KHcejieacKoro. 
JlceHHtibi... Oh Ha3ea;i ocibiuon crhcok nHTc.n-inrcHTOB. 

OblBUlHX 'HapTHHHblX peBH3H0HilCT0B" II — CBpeCB-CHOHlfC- 

tob. B ^tom BbicrynjieHHH oh, qbaKTHHecKii. yroaapHBaji eBpe- 
ea ye3watb hi llo.ibum. "Mu, — roBopH.i oh, — He 6yaeM 
npensTCTBOBaTb rpajKjaHaM Ilo^buJH eBpeficKoro npoHcxow- 
jchhs BuexaTb". AaKTHBCKaHaHpoBaj: "CeroaHJt.ceroaHH". 
To ecrb nycTb yeiacaioT npflMO cerojH». A na BCTpene co 
cTvaeHTaMH ToMyjiKa cKaia.1, hto nncbMo b Cchm Hanticajia 
Hcscait lipwa JlflcoTa-XepuioBHH. Xots BiioKVMeHTax % na3bi- 
Biiaci. . iHcora, h nepsan (paMHnux oTua mirjc hc layna-ia. 
roMymta npocTo xotct noKa3aTb, mto h aaecb lavieiuanu 
eBpeii. A 3areM CKa3an. tto pe3o.iiounto H«Ta.ia HpiKa 
JlacoTa-XepiuosHH. a iiotom BWCTyna.TH eme aboc — "3-3-3, 
— CK-ajaii oh, — no^aKoa", Moh 3HaK0Mue iiotom eme aonro 

CMCH.lllCb H3J 1TI1M "3-3-3 HOjIJIKOB". 

A ecjin cepbe3Ho, 3TO BbicTynneHiic ObLio CTpauiHbiM. 
OcooeHHoeroTOH. FoMy-itca, okpvwchhwhcbohm napraKTH- 
BOM.,,npHHeM, CMOTperb-TO 6u,to aoBo;ibno cMeuJHo. A y 
rex, kto cjiytuaLi no pajHo. 6u.to uih:h.ii . h'hiic. *rro Mjer 
HiopHoeprcKHH npouecc. MHeK-asKCTca. HTopaHbUieHKoaHH 
ho*. [i, b llo.n.iut* He oopamajicB k Tonne, KOTopan Suna 
oui,n i;i TaKofi HCHaaHtTbio,... Oh oobhhh.i CTe^aHa Knce- 
aeBCKoro, losecTHoro, bccmh yBaxaeMoro hhcbtwm, hoskh- 
.loro He.ioBeKa, Hepe3 HecK0.ibK0 aHefl Ha Kwce/ieBCKoro 
Hana,in Ha yjiitue h k36h;ih. Mu HVBCTB0Ba,3H — ixa stmoc- 
ipepaBiice.iaHaa hsmh MCCRuaaaa. — hto npaBfltuan komm> - 
HHCTimecKM nap i us roTOBa ripen pa i it i t.cx b i">lih.i> . KOTopas 
6yaeT 6»Tb HHTeajiHreHTOB, pcbhshohhctob, eBpees. 

Toraa H3 no.ibuiH yexajio 20 hah 30 twcjih eBpeeB. 
JlroacH BuroHH.in c paSoTu, . . A norOM — nee 6ucxpo yeno- 

KOHJIOCb. 



\A. flftcoTa CHacT/iHBbie noBopoTw cyAbbbi 



75 




Ctoea k'uce.ieacKOi'o o "ituKmamype 
Hgyiieu" nau6oiee movHO nmptzxaxu 

k KOMMyHucmuvecKou deucmmimab- 
Hocmu 



TaK hi m . BoiBpauiancb 
k MoeNiy 3aK^i)OHeHitio. 

C IKl'ULU OHM MC JHa.lll. 4T0 
C HSMII MSlXth. YcTpOHTb 

.ill SwiHBOi noKaiaie^b- 

Hhlli tlpOUeCC B KaKOM-HH- 

6yab TeaTpa-ibHOM 3a.ie 

hjih "cnycnrrb H3 TOpMO- 
3ax".., Hy, bot bom ripii- 
Mep, Koraa mchu apccTO- 
Banti, ncpByro turn s n pe- 
seta b oTaencHMH miuih- 

UHH. A B TOT aeHb MHJ1H- 

un« Gwn CTyjeHTOB jy- 

OHHKaMH CTpaillHO OHJia! 

H Ha yjiHuax. h b otjcic- 
HHHX. A MCHfl 3CKOptnpo- 
Ba.iH b cyae6Hyio wwine- 
riiio. koto pan 30.1% k a 
owna yTBepavfTb moh npii- 
POBOp — .asa wecxua ja 
xy.mraHCTBO. My ijdoxmhjih nepc3 ynacTOK. rae ctorjih 

MHJlHUHOKCpbl C ayOHHKaMH, OhH 3KaK)T. HTO fl — CTyaeHTKa. 
A MeHR BCiyT "MOH" MIMiUUIOHepU. It OJHH H3TeX.i)T0 CTORT 

c rtajiKaMi-t. roBopwr. hojovhcichho CBepKas r.iaiaMit: "Si efl 
ccftiac 8pe>Ky!" A o^hh h3"mohx" MHJinitHOHepoBorBenaeT: 
"Eh — Heiibja". Biuhu*. y hiix 6u.ia ymc HCKas hacr: 
pnjlOBbtx cryiieHTOB mm 6y,ieM 6111b 11 BMtiiBMpHBaTb Ha 
y.iHiiy. a lanuHmiiKOB — a OTHOCHJiacb kmchho k raKofi 
KaTcropHH ■ — noxa nocajiHM a cneacTBeHHyto TtopbMy. A 
v i;i m.h "xyjiHraHCTBo" laMeia re. ii.no noaxoiiH-ia AM 3Toro 
"noKa". JXbh Mecaua s 6bLia no.tnocTbio n30;nipOBaHa: hc 
no.iynajia hh iiiiccm, hh nocbuoK, hh c kcm hc BCTpciajiacb. 
H TaK JKe 6mjio c tcmh TpHHaanatbio. KOTopbie OKasa .mo. 
rpynnoit "jecaHTHHKOB". A *inc.ieHHocTb3ToR rpynnu mchr- 
.iacb. To hx 6wjio aBajmaTb, to aaaauaTb runt, to ccMb. 

I Ipil("ut< . IM.1M. BblHHTailM... 

— 3naHum, lauiumumti duruoM me6e He no3eo.JU.1u? 

— HeT. Korja BMtu;ia H3 TiopbMU, a OMiia y*e othhcjic- 
Ha hj ynHBcpcifTera. CTa,ia iicKaTb paooty iepe3 6iopOTpy- 
aoycTpoficTBa. H c KaadOti paooibt. Ha tcoTopyio ji ycTpan&a- 

-iaCbHepe3TT0 6top0. MeHSOMeHbOblCTpOBbirOHHJlH B KOHliC 

kohuob h ycTpon.iacb o<pnunaHTKoft b Katpe h paSoTa^ia tsm 
HecKo,TbKO mccrucb. A b »HBapc ccMHiiccRTQro H yexajia. B 
jMnrpauHio. 

— y mean mozda 6buo (ppamiyicKoe zpawthmcmso? 

— Emjio. Koraa jkhjis s Ilo^buic, $paH- 
uy3CKoe rpa*aaHCTBO y mchii 4»opMa.ibHo co- 
xpaHfl.iocb, noroMy «ito k yo in . nu-i. bo <S>pan- 

UHH H MOB M3Tb — lJ)paHUy)KeHKa. Ho, JKHBI B 

riojibuje, ft 6M.ia rpavKnaHKOH tlonbuiH, 



• "OxmstSphCxiie coGumun' - e oxmafipe 1956 aoda 
a Honhwe npoucxodunu Mumunsu u deuoncmpa- 
uuuc mpe6oeamjf>Mu cyeepenHocmu. deuoKpamu- 
3auuu. coadawLtf? padovux coeemoe u noebix Mono- 
demnbix opzamiiamju "OxmttGpbCKue codumun' 
uMonu ospouHoe snaveHue a o&uecmeeHHou. nonu- 
muHBCKOu u KyflhmypHOu iku3hu flQubmu. 



B yHMBepcMTBTe Haw apecr Bwaean MspdflHbie BonHeHwn 
h HananMn cuTyaitMio. "BanbTepoBUbi" {meuvme s nonbcxou 
CKaymcKOM (xapnepcKOM) deuxemiu. ocnoeannoe »s opmo- 
doKcaflbHOu KOMMyHuomwecKOu udeonoauu, co3danHoe R. 
KypoHeu e cepedune namudecstmbtx aodoe e pamxax CoK>3a 
nonbCKux Xapuepoe - npuM. nap.), b Hucne kotopwx 6wn 
Mhxkmk h ero xonnern no Kny6y rioHCKa npoTHBopemiii, co- 
3flanM rpynny. KOTopyio snaciH Hasaann 'necaHTHMKaMM*. "fle- 
caHTHMKn" cnnoHeHHoii rpynnoii BBn«nncb Ha paannuMwe co- 
6paHMn m anc ny t t>i . opraHtiaoaaH h we ocfjuuiianb m w m h BnacTB- 
mm HannHanii saflaBaTb "Heyiio6Hbie" sonpocw m aucKaau- 
aaTb "HenoflnbWbie' cy»<fleHMB. Koraa Hac apecToeanM. ksko- 
Topux "flecamHHKOB" to*kb K3Koe-To BpeMH npoflepxann nofl 
apeciOM, noTOMy uto snacTM xorenn HanT^ n aaepaTb see 
3K3eMn/inpbi "OTKpt>iToro nucbMa". noT0M"flecaHTHHKn'co6n- 
panvi fleHbrn ann Hamux ceMefi. opraHtiaoBbiBanvt neTminn c 
TpeSoaBMneM ocBo5oflMTt> Hac. Cpeflu "aecaHTHBXoa" 6wna 
AOBonbHo Sonbwan rpynna "BanbTepoBueB" Ohm opraHMSO- 
abtBannaKL|nn,TpeBoBannBb<nycTHTbnacw3TK)phMw/lBnstie- 
HHe, GwBUjee b aapoflbiiue, nonynHB cbohx yaHMnoB-My^eHM- 
kob, cTpewKTenbHo Ha6npajno cuny. 

BflecmyK) roflOBW,*fHyOKTH6pH* cooCinecr bo "flees KTHM- 
kob" opraHH3oaano b BapwaecnoM yHKsepcMTBTe cneunarib- 
Hoe coGpaHue. KOTopoe nocTaHoenno BbicTynnTb c TpeGoaa- 
hhom ocaoSoanTb mbhb n Kapono BeaywHe cofipaHMd - 
fleweK KonaKOBCKMfi n Kuimuitoc^ Hombh - pesno KpnTHKoeann 
ToMynKy (nepabiu cexpemapb no/Jbcxou o6bedUHennou pa6o- 
<teO napmuu, anaea socydapemaa a 1 956- 1 9 70 aa. — nput*. 
nap.) sa otxoa ot nocTynaToa "OTTenenw". 3a oto hx awrHafiM 
us napTHH. TaKan me ynacTb nocTwrna Tex, »rro aa hmx aacTy- 
nn^cn. rio3)«e. B3HaienpoTecTa, 6oneeflecBTKaHneH0B napnm 
cflanw cbow napT6nneTw. 

Korna b LiiecThnecnT ceflbMOM mu Bbiiunti Ha cso6oay. a 
yHMBepcnT6Ta y»e cymeCTBOBano pa3aepHyToe aawKeHne. 
Ero cosaanw "aecaHtMUKn" Aaaw Mhxhuk. CeeepHH Bntowuj- 
TaflH. Tepe3a BoryuKan, BapBapa Topy«b4HK, 9\h Hhthhckhh. 
Upewa rpya3KHc«aH. Monoflbie accncreHTbi Bantflewap Ky- 
uwHCKUM, AnexcaHAep CMonnp, Hnsura CTaKMiuKMC. MapnMH 
Kpyrib, AHfljKeS Mbhmbbji, Manrox<aTa flseaynbcuafl. Po6epT 
MpoaeBHn; usaecTHbie npotfiaccopa h yneHbte: DeuieK Kona- 
kobckhm BnOASMMewBpyc. 3wrMyMa Bay wan. CTe$aH MopaB- 
CKMii, BMTonbfl ICyntt, a raw«e CTapafl npocfjeccypa. nocne 
OktsSph BepHyBwancn b yKkisepcMTBT, — nwflM rattoro msclu- 
ra6a. xaK Mapus OccoBCxan. MapnaH Oajtbcunki 3aaap£ 
JlnrtuHCKMii, Taney uu KoTpaSMHCXMH. 

3th 4 e t w pe kom n a h h h b 3a hmoasSctb oa an k Memay cofiofi . 
ripoBOflMnn hscthhho nepeceKatoiunecs. b pa a ho fi creneHM 
3aKOHcnnpnpoBaHHbte flucKyccnOHMbie co6paHHfl. nonynpn- 
aaTHbie ceMnHapw n opraHnaoabiBann uccneAOBarenbCKHe 
rpynnw. 

Jacak Kuron, Jacek Zakowski 

'PRL dla poczatkujacych". 

Wrocfaw. 1995. 




AtiOM KflLSHUK 



,leuit!K JQMONMOMd 



CewpuH JSww.wumauH 



71 



K flftcoTa CMacT^MBbie noBopotbi cyflb6bi 



TaK Ha3biBaeMt>te "TaTpanubf , fiuweauwe «3 MapTOBC- 
noro flBMJKeHMS, 6wnn nepaoii nonbcxofl rpyrtnoM, xoTopan He 
Tonbtco npmiina k BsaMMonoHMMaHMio c reapoituBM (padax- 
mopnonbCKosoonn03imuOHHOsoM<ypHana 'Kyrtbmypa", usda- 
eaeMQZo a napujxe, - npuu, ped J, ho m cTpewviriacb eoenenb 
sMMfpaMTOB b aeflTenbHOCTb aeMOKpaTMHecKO* onno3MmtM b 
CTpaHB. Kait nniueT AtypKew <PpMiuice. Bbieaa Ha 3anaa sacin 

yMaCTHHKOB CTyflSHHBCItOrO ABMWBHMn npHaen K TOMy, HTO 

flnCTaHL4nn HeaoBepHB, paaaenBtoman Floribwy * aMnrpaqn w. 
yMeHbujunacb. TarpaHUbi" peuiwnn «cno/ib30BaTb ocnaBne- 
hub KOHTpona na nortbCKo-HexocnoBauKOH rpannue h opraHH- 
30Bann nocioHH ny to nepe6pocKy tbkctob m n3aann m c 3anana 
b nonbiuy Mm noMorann weuiciwe apysbfl. Hhmuhsiopom n 
pyKOeo^HTeneM aTOii aKqun 6bin Mareih KoanoacitHM, Cbok) 
no3vmnio oh oSocHOBan b craTbwx, ony6nHKOBaHHbix b tom ate 
"Ky/ibType" OSuiecrBO, 33MKHyroe b noayiuxe KOHipopMHSMa 

M "ManOM CTa6M^M3aUMM", flOflWHO QC03H3Tb COOCTBCHHOe 

nonoaceHne m h3mth awxoa H3 HCTopuHecxoro Tynnxa, a koto- 
pOM OKasanocb Snaroaapn KOMMyHiwMy. flna npo6y)«aeMMn 
ot neTapmnecKoro chb HOo6xoflHM kphthhbckhm flnanor. Bo- 
nes acero hb ponb napTHepa b TaxOM a«anore noaxoflwT 
"Kynbrypa". Ona nonbSyeTcs HBMa/ibiM 6BT0pnTeT0M cpeflH 
wHTennMreHUMH. ho bo3mo>khocth ee bhuhhuh orpaHHHMaaiOT 
FipennTCTBMH K3K TexHvtuecxwe, Tax m nct»xonornHect(Me, Hym- 
ho o6ecneHMTb "KynhTypy* MaTepnanaMki o flonbiue. a rtonbwy 
— MSflaHHflMn JlmepaTypHoro MHCTMTyra*. 

B nHaape 1969-ro KosviOBCXMii Hasan nepeSpocxy Hepea 
rpaHHuy MaTepnanos o CTyaeHHecxoM Mapre. Bcxope ohm 
6wnn KaflaHbi a Bn6nnoTexe "KyjibTypbT. B twapte 1969-ro 
nepes Maccua Pwcw b Tarpax 6bino nepenpaanewo HecKOnbxo 
cot axaeMnnnpoB xnnrw. "3ensHa« ynnLia", oanaxo, saxon^n- 
nacb a Mae, xoraa hb HeMeuKO-HexocnoaaqKOM rpaHHuie tsmo- 
jkshhhkm o6Kapyx<HriM b aBTOMo6«ne KosnoBCxoro h Mapm* 
TaopKOacxoM 150 BbtBeseHHbix wa flapuwa khut Hexocjioean- 
Kan nonnuMB 3aAepwana nonnxoa h nepaaana mx cny.*6e 
6e3onacHOCTn V MapttH Tbopkobckom wauariH eme h 3anncxy 
feapoiiua, r^e roaopn/iocb. sto oh xpa^He sanHtepecoaaH b 
KOHTaiaax c flofibmeM. Cnyx6a 6e3onacHO<rrn *oo acex cun 
CTapanacb npeflCTaBHTb 3Ty 3annexy xax mn«OHCxnM aoxy- 
msht. (locne MHoroMecffHHoro cneflCTBMH nnTepo "TaTpaH- 
itee" nonyMnnn, cooTBeicTBeHHo: 

Mare^ KoanoacKHH - 4,5 rona. 

FltiyG KapnviHCKMM - 4 roaa. 

MapMB TeopKOBCKas h KujuniTotp LUhm6opckh« - 3.5 roaa. 

Ma/iro>KaTa HJnaxoecKafl - 3 roaa. 

Andrzej Stanislaw Kowalczyk 

«Giedroyc I 'Kultura* » 

Wroclaw, 1995. 




h'misu "h'yjhmypM" Hecem <tepe3 1'iimpn /twitjcrti Sfpyi 



— A meou podumom .wttiu « Baptuase? 

— fla, h vtaiua. it oreu. 

— Into c mm it 6bLio, xoeda menn apecmonaxu? 

— 3rooieHb iiHTcpecHutf aonpoc. ft Toraa paSoTajia Ha 
mviciasKii b lOiiaTc.ibCTBe. 3to 6m^o oneHb nopjuotHoe 
tnaare/ibCTBO. Ohh mchb hc Buma-m B TiopbMe ji no.i>'4HJia 
nticbMO ot aiipeiaopa. b kotopom roBOpiuocb, tto nocxo.ib- 
K*y n He xoncy Ha paooTy, TaK tax coacy b TiopbMe, to MHe 
no;iaraeTca iOObKO nojiosifHa aapruiaTbi. A eejiH OKa*eTcs, 
hto x hc BiiHOBara. to ohh MHe BepH vt lapn.iary no^HocTbio. 
3ra 6u;ia OHeHb "HeG^aroHaaeiKHaji"* noiHitiix no OTHome- 
hhk) k nien, Toraa c paOoTu BbiroHH.in bccx noapsa! Mos 
Maw paooTajia Ha paano gmcTopoM h nepeaoaMHKOM c 
qbpaHUyieKoro. Ee yno.in.in na c iciyioiunii me aeHb noc.ie 
BwcT>'naeHHJi Pomv.-ikh. xotm oHa npopaGoTajia TaM 17 jieT. 
CkaiaiH.HTooHa — cHOHHCTKa.HTo6biHeMeiuieHHoyxojiH.ia 
it uo.imiio y hhx He noKa twBa. laci, 

— A nacmoMUfeii npuiunou nhi.io mo. unto oho... 

— TO. HTO OHa MQJf M3M3. 

— A omen? 

— Oreu 6bi.i y>KC Ha ncHeitn. Oh yuie.i Ha neHcmo 
nojiKOBHHKOM BoflcKa no.ibCKoro. Btia h.ichom napTHH, Oh 

BCTyHH.T B KOMMVHHCTHHCCKyiO napTHKJ B TpHHUaTb nSTOM 

roay. B TpHjuaTb uiecTOM oh noexaji aodpOBo^ibucM b Hcna- 
hmkx BOCBa.1 b HHTepn3nnoHiL-ii.nbix opiii ajax. Jlfln 3Toro 
e\i\ npitui.-iocbcipa.'ibcii<tiiiuHpaMIfcJiR3 cM<tciopti-K.iciiitn. 

OH 6blJl C.1HUIK0M CTapbIM, HT06bl ero npHHSTH B 3TH 6piira- 

aw. Ho TaM eMy hc noHpaBii.iocb. noTOMy hto Swjio cjihuikom 
mhofo no.iHTHKH TonaoH nepe6pajicji it iiciihuckhh 6aTa- 

-TbOH aBTOMaTHHKOB H C HHM npOUJCJI BCK> HCfiaHCKyiO 

Boiiny. a noTOM BcpHy.ics bo d>pamiiiK>. A bcio BTOpyio 

MHpOBVK) BOHHV OH tipOBe.l B MeAMVHapOilHblX OTpjIjaX MQKH 

— (J)paHny3CKHX napTtuaH. 

3HaeTe, y mcha ecTb mhofo npiiHHH ropanTbc« cbohm 

OTUOM, HO OJHa H3 HHX — OCO&CHHag. KoMMVHHCTHHeCKaH 

napTHH OpaHuviH sanpetaa^a cbohm •tiKH3M BoesaTb c pHT.ie- 
pow a»c ao hiohm codok nepBoro roaa. A MexutynapoaHbic 
OTpsabf — ace Te, trro npnexa.T in HcnaHim, iMtirpaHTbt — 
Hana-iii BoesaTb cpa3y. xas TORUCO fHT^ep boiucji bo <J>paH- 



'flumeparnypHbtQ uHcmumym — deno Exu fedpodua u 
eao compydmjKoa — Cw/r opza m jjoeaw e PuMe e Havana 
1946 a nod MsaeaMueM flumepamypHbiu uHcmumym "Cosa 
Editnce Lettere' UHcmumym pacnonasan coScmeBHHoQ 
munozpacpueu *Oggi" B 1947-1948sa. uncmumym u3dan 28 
KHUS, a a uiOfie 1947 aoda — aepatad Houep "Kynbmypbi'. 
I4ncmumym, «a« Hanuca/i Emu fedpoim. Shin pesynhmamoM 
ySeMdOHUft, vmo, 'aonpetcu pacnpocmpauanHouy causae 
mhbhuio, nac omudaem domoepeMeHHan 3Muepanuf>, u smo 
aBCffUflfUWrtl aadywambcfl o Heo6xoduMocmv xyribmypHO- 
nonumuHBCKQu paGotttbi, paccvumannou na mhoso nam a 
coeepiueHHO Hoetsix u mpydnbtx yenoaufix" 

no3Me uHcmumym napaexan a Flapum, Bbino npunnmo 
pewQHue npexpamumb ebinycx khuz u 3a» ftmbCft uckpimu* 
menbHo BbinycxoM exteMecftwuKa "Kynbmypa". B 1953 aody 
flumepamypHbiu uncmumym eo3o6noeun SbinycK khus a 
cepuu Budnuomaxa 'Kynbmypbi'. K cepedune 1985 soda 
6bino u3dano 453 HOmepa "Kynbmypbi" u 406 khus. 

Jakub Karpihski 

'Polska. Komunizm, Opozycja". Stownik 

London, 1985. 



\A. Jlfjcora CnacT/iMBbie noBopoTbi cyflb6bi 



77 



umo. b nose 40-ro roja. II MoS otcu no.iyHH.i ot He ro;i;iB 
opjeH ia to, hto 6opb6y Hanaa bcopokobom. A 4>paHuy3CKne 
KOMMyHHCTW BbiCTyruirtu npoTHB HiTJicpa TOJibKO roj enyc- 
th. Koraa no38o;iM;t Ct&ihh. 

— Ko^^a meox apecmomuu, omya sbieHO.ni «j napmuu? 

— Her, oh 6t>m y**e CTapufi, mhoto (jo/ici, He xomn hh 
Ha KaKiiccci6pannfl... Ha Hero npocTO He oflpatiia.tn hmhmli- 

HH*. 

— Hpjua. a kok podumeiu omnocuAucb k meoeu den- 
meibHoemu? 

— OieHb 6ccnoKoiwncb 3a Mend, ho h — ropatuiHCb. 
11m 6bi.no Tuxe.-io. Koraa MeH« riocajHiiK, otcu om.t 6o;ich. 
Bwii-iH hi TiopbMbi, s yiHajia. hto 3a jibs h.ih TpH jhh jo 
MiiTiiHra KOTiiy npuxoAitmi HySoiuajiHeroHenycKaTbMeHR 

H3 MHTHHT. A OH MM HKHd'O He OXStB, Mbl C M3MOH CTapa- 

SHCb noMenbuic paccKaibman. otuy tipoBCHKitertpoojieMbi, 
6eper;m ero. B aeHb MHTiiHia h h mbmc He CKa3aaa, hto 
coonpatocbTyna. A noraa nocae MimiHra BepHyaacb somoh. 
paccKasaaa mbmg. noToMy hto MVBCTBoBa.ia, «rro 3a mhoh bot- 
bot npMjyT. A Ma»ia k rosopiir: "fl 3Haio, * Taw 6btia". 
( i k;i *,i. ma etc a, on a 060 mho Bee mana h tohcc hc crapaaacb 
MeH«y;iepa<aTb. 

— B 7Mttcpai(uio sbt yexaiu tuiecme c podume.itLvu? 

— Her, ohh ocTaaiicb. H yexaaa c MyaceM. Oh 6ti.T 
acCHCTCHTOM Ka<J)eapM <}'"iocoiJ>iiii. Ero tojkc apecTOBxm. 
pa3yvieeTca,cpa3y *e BbirHa.incpa6oTbi. CHanaaaMbi noexa- 
ait bo OpaHUHio. Cnemia-ibHOCTb Moero Mywa — noniKa. 
jocraTOHHO y3Kaa cneuHaavmuits, HanpasaeHHe, KOTopoe 
Toraa owao xopowo paiBiira b AMcpiiKe. TaK hto bo OpaH- 

ltHHMWTO,lbKOO{j)OpM.3H,3H.30KyMeHTUHaBWe3;iH AMCpilKy. 

rae oh cpa3y jkc nojiytHJi paCoiy, ct3.t HHTaTb .ickuhm, 

— H c mail rtapM mw .ncimeuib <r A.uepuKe... 

— JJa, TOJibKO c nepepuBOM b jecaibiieT. C BoceMbjeesT 

'KMBi'piUlO .10 .leHOHOCIl) HeiBCpiOrO » "**H la Hi' 'I'fMtitiiiir 

— 3aneM mni myda naexciia? 

— TpyaHo cKa33Tb — janeM... TaK caoacmiocb. Mu 
cHanaaa nocxa_in b Ahi-.ihk> Ha roa, hotom — Ha noaroaa bo 
<t>panuHfo. KaK pa3 Toraa y»;e nana in npoHcxojHTb pa3Hbie 
cofibiTHS ti b riojibuie. ii b jpynix CTpaHax Boctohhoh EBpo- 
iibi. H 6buio yjooHce *HTb bo 4>paHiiHH, fijiKace Bce-TaKH. 
Toraa eiue cBM3b He 6u;ia t3koh xopoujefl. Tpyanee 6bino 

3B0HIITb H3 AMepilKll B EBpOnV. ObLlO Ma.10 {jjaKCOB... Hi 

OpaHumi 6hmo ropaszto vierve .icnaTb to, hto mm jciajiH b 
Boctohhoh EBpone. Ho B Hbio-flopKe y Mens ocTaBa.iacb 

KBapTHpa. BCC 3T0 6u.l0 BpCMCHHblM. BnpOHCM, B MOefi JKH3- 
HH BCe TaK — BpeMCKHO. 

— PaccKa3bittau dcLthtue no nopudky. Bom. «« npuexam 
(jo 0pa»i{u>o. .ncdavi dokyMenmbi Ha ebte3d s A.\tepuKy... 

— ILIe^ uiecTbjecHT .icbhthh roa. Toraa npoHcxoannn 
pa3Hbie cyaeoHbie npoueccw: CTy,ieH4ecKHfi, hotom TaK Ha- 
ibiBacMbiri npouccc no "TafpcKOMy" jeJiy. 

...B Mocii )kh3hh ca.Mbic sa'AHbie MOMeHTbi Bceraa Ka- 

KHM-TOIipilMV.l IHIthlMoiipa'KIM lICpCII iL'TaiOTCH. Boi llaiipi!- 

Mep. b uiecTbaecsT jcbstom 6wno onetib Tpyano ncpecbtiatb 
HH(popMauHK> iia 3aiiax B no.Tbiue mhofhc CTapa.mcb co6V 
paTb nH(popMamtK)o penpcccHiix. ■ BOo6iue,oTOM,MTOTorjia 
npoHcxojHJio. H Obi^a rpynna, KOTopyro Ha3UBa.ni "TaTpaH- 
uw". — nma.n. KOTopwe nepcxoaHJiK nepei TaTpu b Hexoc- 



.ioiiakHii> ii hotom bo (I'pamiitin. A Itl <l»paniiun OHH npHBO- 
3H.1H khhih, Bce3T0 jep*'3,T0Cb B CTpOTOM ceKpeTe. Asobi.ia 
HUOBUani SBCBON b ^Tofi uenoHKe. 9l rOBopio o mecTbaecHT 
aessTOM roaa. Ho! B aeBUHOcio BTOpow roay « npucxa^a b 

IlO.ablliy, npHXO^HT KO MHC MOJTO.IOH HC.10BCK, KOTOpOTO fl 
3HaK) C BOCbMHJieCHTblX JieT, OH 3aHHMaJlCJI IHUtH). li.iuui pa- 

6oTOii b "Co-iHaapHocTw". Oh npHHocwT mhc aoKyMeHTu. 
KOTOpbic HauieJi b apxHBax TaHHoft nojmuHii. Oh coaeputCHHO 
CviyHaKHo yBHjten Ha jthx jok-yMeHTax mow (paMHJittio, bot h 
npuHec mhc 3to — yneSHbie MaTepnaibi noj Ha3BaHneM 
"Pa3pa6oTKa Taiitn.ix areHTOB napiixCKOH "KynbTypbt". Jl 
CMOTpio. nepBbifi paxaei HaHimacTCH c mchh. TaM nnuieTCfi. 

HTO Mbl, TO CCTb I all KaS nO^HUHH, 3H3CM, HTO KTO-T0 HCpCJiaeT 
ItH^OpMaHHK). 11 BOT. MM H3HHH3CM HCK3Tb. KTO ^TO JCIaeT. 



Rtcy6 KapnMHCKMH , couMO/ior 
h nonnTonor. B 1968 r. — ysacT- 
hhk cryABHHecKMx 3a6acroBOK 
Abtop HecKonbKnx ny6/iMKannii. 
BbiLueAtuvtx b M3flaTenbcrBe Jln- 
TepaTypnoro nwcTHTyra. B noc- 
neflHM cnose Ha cyae citaaari: 

— Cpeflu pa3Hoo6pa3Hwx 
cpeacTB BoifleSCTBnq Ma moaeii 
momiho BbiaennTb cnoBO n *ene- 
30, yroBOpbi n cuny ripoTHBo- 
CTOBHue 3tmx cpeacTB cwrpano 
b kicTopviM HenoBenecTBa H6Ma- 
nyto ponb CnoBO He OAHawabi 
nbiranncb auxtenb weneaOM, hc- 

Tpe6nTb C nOMOLUbW Me43. 33nep8Tb 33 PetllBTKOM,. — 3fl6Cb 

npOKypop npepaan 

— 3to He othochtcw k aeny! 

Andrzej Stanislaw Kowalczyk 

«Gmdruyc i "Kulturs'i 

Wroclaw. 1995 




II OOH Jp\ VKHliaCM , TT03THM 'lamiMaeTCH HCKOSI Hp )H3 JlSCOTa. 
HOTOM TaM rOBOpHTCH, HTO IKVllllIlfil HaHHHaeT 3KUHKJ HO 

noHMKe HpiHbi JlflcoTW, "o6K.3aiibiBaeT"co bccx ciopoH mow 
KBapTiipy ii yoewjscTCJi, hto tbm jeficTBtiTcnbHO CKan;iHBa- 
ctch HHcfiopMatiHH. a s hto-to ;ieaain c unit n)n|iopMauituii u 
nepejaio ee ja;ibuie. noTOM opraHH3ycTca noac.TyuiKa, no.n- 
HbtM-no.iHO rafinbix areHTOB — a o6meM, KotUMap! Hotom 

KTO-TO H3 HaillHX no HeOCTOpO/KHOCTH HpHBOjlHT rtO.lHUHH} K 

npyrofi rpynne. 3aTeM ona Bbixoinn na rpynny "TaTpaHueB", 
Hx ia\nai utiaioi Ha rpaHHue. L tepe3*'TaTpaHiieB"oHH Bucie- 
atn BatoTHeuicicyio rpynny. BKOTopyioBxo,iHTHeKHH hchobck 

c o<j>ceTHMM cTannoM, na KOTopoM nenaTaiOTCfi paiHbic MaTc- 

pliaibl JJTR no^blllH. H BOT, B JCBXHOCTO BTOpOM TOJiy B 

HHT3HJ bcc ito b caMo.ieTe. KOTOpbifl .1CTHT b npary. rae Ha 
a^pojpoMe mchs * - .tct mo» noapyra HeTpyuiKa UJycrpoBa. H. 
ecTecTBeHHo, B36y.iopa**ena miM htchkcm. h moh nepauc 
cnoaa k neTpyuiKe: "Tbi jHaeiub raKOro-To? — HaibiBato 
(JiaMii.iiiKi TOro nexac oipceTtiuM CTaakOM, — eroapccTOBa- 
.iH b uiecTbjecnTaeBSTOM". A nerpymKa oTBenaeT: "3ro Moii 
jpyr. A n toiKe cnacia 3a CBJisb c toh caMOH nojibCKofi 
rpynnoiT". noncMy a 3TOpaccKa3biBato? A noTOMy, hto 3to— 
ojho m Tex yattBHTe.Ti.Hbix, cTpaHHbix coBnaacHHH. KOTOpue 



71 



\A. flficoTa CnacTnuBbte noeopoTbi Cyflb6bl 




I 

ANMFJ 



OIMR1K 






KT CTNXU1Y 



ntafc wm, 

DIM 



nnTmrf • uim ni 



Hidama JJumepamypHOio uHCmumyma 



cjiynaioTCfl b Moefi vkhihh bcc BpeMs. TaK ym noaynaeTCJi. hto 
bcc re kiimi ak'Tw, 6:1 a roaa pa KoroptiM mhc yaaercn co3aaB3Tb 
uth opraHHiatiHM, yry MOKayKapoaHyio cen., — Bee ohh — 
peiyabTaT tbkhx bot yaHBirreabHbix cay Maes. TaKiix riepe- 
naeraiouiHxca Mcsicay cooofi BCTpcn. J) aaacc npo6oBaaa Ha- 
piicosaib cxeMy sthx nepeceHeKiiH, irroraec kcm BCTpeTtia- 
cs, — hc XBarwio orpoMHoro 4».imiHapTa! Bot h c nerpyui- 
Kofi a ncpeceKaaacb He ToabKO b uiecTbaecsr aeBaioM. riep- 
bwh pai a noexajia b Flpary b ceMbaccai BOCbMOM b ccmep- 
meHHo flpyrofi poait — iiepeBoannKOM oaitoro (}ipaHuy3CKo- 
r o H3aaTeaa. Oh ToraacoGitpaaca BbtnycKarb nepBwti HOMep 
scypHBJia "Alternative" y XaprHK-77 it HCKaa HeutcKo-(|)paH- 
uy3CKoro TtepeBoaHinca. % hh c/ioaa He 3Haaa no-iemcKit, ho 
.i it a. i a ero »teHy. Ohb 3Haaa, hto s hc inaio neuicKoro, ho 
crpauiHo xony noexaTb b HexocaoaaKHio, h a';n;u;i My*y: 
"Bot rra aaMa SyaeT TBoefi nepcBoaHHiteM". TaK a noexaaa 
b ripary. Mu boui.th b KBapriipy, rac a yBHaena nerpyuiK-y. 
Bccm. kto iaM 6biJi. a CKamia. hto 6yay nepcBoairrb Ha 
no.ibcKHH. 11 ohh MeH» He Bbiaa.m HiitaTe-ib na ochobc mohx 
ncpCBoaoB ycneniHo caeaaa iiepBwii HOMep "Alternative". 
npcKpaciibiH HOMep, IIotom a cnoaa BCTperH.iacb c nerpym- 
koh Hepe3ceMb.ieT h noapywiuiacb co Bceft ee ceMbefi H Mbt 
ace epeMd pajioBapiiBajtH no-pyccKH. Ilocae peBo.iioumi a 
ciioBa npiiexajia a Hpary. h neTpywica mhc roBopirr (no- 
pyccKti): "Tbi 3Haeuib, a 6bi:ia bo Bpoitaase na hcuicko- 
iio.ibCKOM (J>ecrnBavie. Ha mchh tbkoc Bne«iaT.ieHHe npoH3BC- 
,iH pairoBopbi, KOTOpbte a TaM ycabimaaa!" i\ cnpaiuiiBaio; 
"IleTpyuiKa, Ha kskom a3biKe 6buiii 3th pasroBopu?" Ohs 
OTBenaeT: "Ha no.i bCKOM .'* — "Tw roBopittub no- nojibCKH? ! " 

— "JCoHeiHO, a aawe nepeaoMcy c noabCKoro", — roBopHT 
nerpyuiKa. "A noneMy tw MHe HHKoraa 06 3TOM He roBopH- 
na?" Ohs yaHBKJiacb: "A pa3Be ™ rosopmub no-no.ibCKH?" 

— "fl — nojibica!" — "Tw — no-ibKa?! A s Jiywa-ia, hto tw 

— "Senas'* pyccKaa. Hj riapiiJKa". 

Tax bot, iiiecTb^ecaT jcbhtwh ran. flapHMt. R Haxo%ycb 
noa CKnbHWM Bnciai.ieHiteM coohmiii tuecTb.iecsT BOCbMO- 
ro. ( Iepnax moji pa€oTa b riapHxce — 3TO aaiKe He ceKpeTapb. 
mo* Ht i cklh j i b. hto h ii i.i:n. finpaio co cto^ob B "KyjibType". 
"Ky-ibTypa" — 3TO KaK "KoHTHHeHT"*, it jawe oo.ibiije, 
rioTOM mu ejeM b AMepiiKy. a yiycb. HiyHato S3WK h 3aKaH- 
miBaio ipaKyjibtet — no-aHr.iiificKH rra KaibiaaercH Special 
Education for Socially Difficult Children — cncmia-ibnoe 
o6yHCHHe couHa,TbHo TpyaHwx flerefi. H u sceraa roaopio. 



4T0 3Ta cneiuiajibHOCTb b whjhh mhc npuro.iHnacb 
6o.ibuie. ieM BTopaa: a emc 3aKOHHit;ia Ko.iyM- 
6hhckh it y h HBepcHTcr no cneuHaiibHocni Pol itical 
Sciences. International Relations. International 
Communism. (rioJiHTHHecKHe huvkh. MoKayHa- 
poaHbie oTHouteHna. Ciieuita.tii3auHa — Me»tay- 

It.ipn lUbllf K0MMyHH3M.) 

Toay b ceMbjecaT neTBepTOM h.th ceMbjecaT 
naioM nepe3 CTyaeHTOB Ka,ni(j)opniiHCKOro yHii- 
BcpciiTeTaflHaxowty rp>Tin> Amnesty International* 
b Hbio-HopKe n cpa3y inaKOM.nocb c tcmh, kto 
3aHHMaeTca Cobctckhm Coiosom. Ko MHe nojxo- 

ilHT HC.lOBeK, KOTOpblH 33JiyMa.l C03jaTb CI1CUH- 

aibHyK) OTae^bHyio KOopaimamioHHyK) rpynny 
no CoBCTCKOMy Coioiy. H c hhm cOTpyaHHHaio roa 
tuiK aBa, noTOM cosaato OTacibHyio Koiiputnamt 
OHHyio rpynny no Boctohhoh Ebdoiic. ho npoaojiwaio noa- 
aepjKHBatb oTHouicHiia c rpynnoit Coaerchoro Coiosa. B to 
HpeMH a MHoro 3aHitMatocb MycTaipofi /I>KeMHneBbiM h H.ie- 
hom YKpanHCKoro HamtoHa.3i.il oi i) tppoHTa 'Jhhobiicm Kpa- 

CHBCKHM,E3)Ky Ha KaKlie-TOBCTpCHH. MblCOOHpaeM nOitnHCH, 

H3ynaeM .lareps, b KOTOpbtx cwae.iH KpbiMCKiie raTapu . . . y 

MCHJI .10 CHX Hop OCTajlllCb .1HCT0BKH C TOH noptJ. H OJHOBpc- 

Mcium a '.;ihi(\i,ikk'!. IKvu.iticii. aepwy csaib co cbohmk 
apy3b«MH. A mchs b rioabiiiy He nycKaiOT. H npoooBa^ia 
noexaTb Tyaa MHoro pas. Aa ewe Sbtaa npo6aewa aeHer. B 
ceMbaccHT naTOM roay y MeHa BnepBbte noHBHaocbaocTaTOM- 
ho aeHer. hto6w noexaTb r Espony. H nepBuR pa3 nonsuia b 
rioabiuy. C tppaHuyicKHM nacnopTOM. M c Tex nop Kaxcabte 
;;Ba roaa a .11160 KaK- to npoSiiBaaacb a llortbiiiy. ;ih6o bctdc- 
Haaacbc apy3b«Mii b TJXP hjih b BcHrpHH. Bee moh noabCKiie 
apy3b«. TaK Han HKane, laHHwajincb nojiHTiihoit. HecKoabKO 
pa3 a Bve3*a;ia b rioabiuy hohth HeacraabHO. A b ccMbaecaT 
acBaTOM MHe aawe yaaaocb nonacTb Ha saceaaniie KOR***. 
C ceMbaecaT uiecToro roaa n aepwy CBaib c aMepHKan- 
ckhmh npodicoKnaMK, BCTpcnaiocbC aKTHBHCTaMH, ynacTByio 
b hx BCTpenax 11 laceaaHiiax. nepeaara hm HH<j)opMauHio ot 
KOR... 



TycofcwwvHwo o6w,9CTmeHHQ-nonurmi<4ecKuu MypHan, 03- 
daaaeMbiu a 3Muepauuu nucameneu BnaduuupoM MaxcuMoabw 

" Amnesty International — uexdyHapodHax npaeo3atnumnas> 
opzanu3aufin. 

"' KOR — Komitet Obrony Robotnikdw — Kouumem jautumbi 
paGovux rtepeoHavaPhHoe Ha3eanue 'Kowtumem lamumbt paSonux 
— mepma penpoccuO e cerou c co6bimuftuni 25 uiohb 1976 soda' 
Co3dan a ceHmnGpe 1976 soda, xoeda 14 venoeex nodnucamt 
"OepameHue k o6mecmey u e/iacmu T1HP". Kouumem co6upan u 
pacnpocmpanffn uHipopmanuiO o npecnedoeamjRx paoomjx u o 
npednpuHuuaeuhix aimufix a itx 3amumy. B 1977 sody Kouumem 
pacwupun xpyz ceoux ladai tt 6bm nepeuMenoean e Komttet 
Samoobrony Spolecinej — KoMumem o6mecmeennoij cauoaatuu- 
mw. npu amoiH Haaeaxue KOR ocmaaanoct, wupoko ujeecmHww. 

CofiwmuH 25 mow 1976 eods — aaGacmoemj, ehiaeaHHbie 
noBbiwenucu u€n h 3 KpynHbi x 3aaoda x g Padoue, Ypcyce u dpyeux 
aopcdax Honbwu So spews noda&nenu» aaoacmo&ox 6onbtuoe 
nucno yvacmHUKoa 6bino apecmoeano u u36umo. cuna npuuenfi- 
nacb MunimuBu u so apeun donpocoe u cftedcmeuR. Oxo/to 2500 
venose* 6wno 3adep*ano, ottono 370 npueoeopoe ebiHBCBHo e 
yatopenHou nopitdtte', eoadymoeHo okopo 500 cydeCnux den. 



\A. Jlncoja Cnact/uiBbie noBopoTU cyflb6w 



71 



m^M 






?* ,^ 




Paoau. 25 uhmh 1976 ^o^a. J«<w irtSumhtt. neora-i&Ko com 

paneHUX. olca.ro 2.5 mtics'i mdcpxaitubtx no-iuuueu, 

0KO3O 508 cyMJHux oct. 



B ccMtaecftT .TeeaTOM mtuiy cboio aKccepraimio. Bo 
OpaHUHif. Ho a ee TaK h He Hannca.na. 

— //a KiiKym maw dbua duccepmanun? 

— O tom. ksk pacnanacrcH ippaHityscKaa KOMMyHHCTH- 
HccKaa napTHs. B to apcMM ona KaK pa3 pacna.ia.nacb. Ho 11 
jitccepTauHH hc cocTosjiacb. He so Hee 6bi.io, 

Eme s paooTaro KaK HHeurraTHiiK Ha Pajwo C8o6oaa. A 
eme — noapaSaTu&aio oepimnaHTKofi, a ewe — no HonaM a 

HHTCpHaTC.'UH Tpy.lHl.[X ,KMCM, A .1CTOM H .TB3 [0,13 MOjpjta 

pafkrrana a EepeftCKOM khcthtytc... B BOCbMHjeoiTOM — 
BiKCMbjccai ncpBOM x npeiKi.iana.ia n >mi Hepatic te <t>opaa 
b Hbto-fiopKe h b He/tbCKOM yHMBepcHTere. 

— Tpydno Dice me6e npuuuocb! 

— Ha, apevteHH He XBaTa.no KaTaeTpo<piiHecKH. Cboio 
opraKHjauMKi mm co3ja.iH 14 acKaops 1981 roja. Cnaiajia 
vibi He menu aeHcr Ha lapnaaTy, co/iepacaiH mibKo ceKpcTa- 
pK h 6yxra.iTepa. H To.tbKo c 1 994 roaa n nojiynaio b rrofi 
opi amnaiuni lapnaaTy. 

— A tmo, QMepuKaHCKue ffroHdhi moeda ne da&tnu dene? 
na paoomy. nanpuMep, e flo.ibtue? 

— JJ/tBasml Ho mw He opajiH aener Ha aapiuia-ry. Haao 
CKaaaTb, aro To;ibKo npHoaeasjio yBajKeHtts k HaM. 

— PaccKaibieau. nanctnyucma, nmo c mo6ou 610.10 
daihtue. 

— Mw ace BpeMs HapymaeM xpOHoaonuo... 
— -Boe c next, c xpoHo.ioeueu'. 

— Hy. xopomo. KaK see, kohchho, iHaioT, b BOCbMH/je- 
chtom may H no.ibiue npomc.-i nepflwii <n.e3ji "CoaH/iapKoc- 
th". Mowho cKaiarb. «rro BenepOM 13-ro aeKa6ps pesxo 
noBUcit.iacb moh o6mecTBeHHaa arniBHOCTb, (13-sode«a6pi*e 
nofjbute 6bino eeodeno aoeHHoe nonoxemie. B omaam eo uhosux 
eopodax na^anucb MHoao^ucnemtbtB 3a6acmoenu u ynunnbie 6ec- 
nopRdxu. Ha nodaanenue ux 6btnu Cpou/eww ospOMHwe cu/iw 
namiuuu npu noddepMKe bquck. — npuu pod) He ;ihcm. a bchc- 
pOM, H3-ia pa3Hniibi bo BpeMeHH. Ro 13-ro jehaops «, KaK tt 
mhofhc apyrne. latiHMajiacb tcm. hto jo6biBa.ia MHifiopMa- 
iiii k> H3 ncihiiiM. pacnpocTpaHJina ee b AviepHKe. . . K tomv 
BpeMeHH » yxec nosHaKOMH.iacb c aeBRTHaJuarn.ieTHHM cry- 
jenroM KoayMSuHCKoroyHHsepciiTeTa 3p«KOM Hchobctom. 
KOTopuil Bbipoc BKpyryaMepHKaHCKHxcouHa^-xieMOKpaTOB 

3HTHKOMMyHHCTOB K C aeTCTB3 C.lblUia.3, HTO KOMMyHHCTH- 



HecKHe CTpatibt — oneHb "HexopoiuHe" h trro HenpeMCHHo 
MacTaHet aeHb, Koraa pa&oHHe 3thx CTjMa aoccTaHyr rtpOTHB 
CHCTeMbi. Bot. Koraa 3to cjiyHHnoct. cmv kio-to cKasa-i, hto 
ecn. TatcaH HpiHa, KOTopaii Bee 3naer 06 3T0M. h oh npwuie^ 
ko mhc Oh C03iiaBaji cryaeHHecKHe KOMtrrerbi, npHr.iauia.1 
Mens paccKasbieaTb CTyjeHTaM "Co-iHjapHocTii", oprami- 
30Ba:i KawnaHHio no H3roToaneHHio MaeKCHaanHCbio"Co/TH- 
japHocTb". pa6oTa.i c aMepitKaHCKtiMit npo(pco(03aMn, nepe- 
jaBa.i hm HHipopMaiuiK) o "CojiHiiapHocTH". y6c»uiari hx 

HOMOian. "Co.DUapHOCTH*", OpraHH30BblBa.T KOHTaKTM OS.- 

hhx c apyniMH. V 3pHKa ou^a cbos HeoonbiuaH opramnauHfl 
timiia.i-.-wMOKpaTimecKOH MOJione«n h aa*e oyji o<j>nc. 

A Koraa mw v3HajiH o BoeHHoM nojTo**eHnn, Ha ciieayio- 
u(hh mq aeHb opraHiBOBaiiK nepByio jcMOHCTpamtio noj 
0KH3MH no.ibCKoro noeo.ibCTBa. H no^TH cpa3y — Komhtct 
homoiuh "Co.iiuapnocTn". Ham huhciuhhm HHCTmyT He- 
MOKpaTHH a BocTOMHofi EBpone (no-anafiuucKu — Institute for 
Democracy in Eastern Europe — IDEE — npuu. nop.} — 3T0 
npoflaixceHHC KoMHTcra. HoTOMy hto b aeBHHoCTO hjttom 
npaKTH'iecKH re ace caMbie jrioan « [iohth tot vkc caMUH coseT 
c noHcopoB y npeaH jih Ham H HCTHTyr, Ro HeaaBHei o BpeMCHK 
H KoMirreT, h HKCTHTyr cyuiecTBOBa^in napa.uie.3bH0. 

— Jlw «e t 'o «m coidaeaiu HHcmumym? 

— Mw xotcjih pacmnpi(TbnojieaeJiTeJtbHOCTH. (. nyu w. 
mm 3aHHMa.iitcb To.ibKo noMOuibio nonbCKHM noanonbHUM 
ii-uaie-ibfi-BaM. Ho y Hac y*e 6bi,iH cbs3h c .iiojbMH H3 
HexoC/ioBaKHH 11 Rem pun Yxe b BoceMbjiceaT hstom roay 
Mbi l iyBCTBOBa.in. hto y Hac ecn. onhrr, h Haao noae-iHTbcn 
3thm otibrroM. Mu cyMejiH HaflTH neHbrH xia noMomn apy3b- 
sm a 3THX CTpaHax. Ho Hac crajiH cnpauiHBarb. noneMy 3to 
KoMiner noxiepwKit nonbCKofi "Co;iiuapHocTn" npocin 
aeHbm Ha nowouib Hexoc.noBaKHH h BeHrpHH. Toraa mu 
japenicrpHpOBa.iii IlHCTiiTyT^eMOKpaTKH b Boctohhoh EB- 
pone. Bonpocu npeKpaTHHHCb. Ho 3to, kohchho, 6buia He 
maBHaa npiiHHHa. 

— Hpma. mbi noddepjtcuticua KownaKmbi c coeemcKU- 
mu duccudenmauu? 

— ila. x Bdb y-*e rosopHJia. hto 6u.ia cBsiaHa c "cobct- 
ckoh" rpynnoH Amnesty International. HanpHMCp. » BCTperii- 
Jiacb c By kobckhm noHTH cpa3y we, KaK oh npuexu a AMepti- 
kv. H Boo6uie, s iHaia MHornx. Korja s npHcxa.ia b HbK>- 

1 ItipK. HO.iyHH-IOCb TaK, HTO B CHJtia KBapTHpV B ^OMC Tiie 

HHKTooo;rbuje He jkhji. MHeSbuio cicyHHOJKHTbTaM oahok, k 

HCpeT HeKOTOpOe BpeMR B 3TOM HOMC 1KH.10 y*C aOBO/lbHO 

MHoro.iKueH. A nocKOJibKy 6onbiiiaji nacTb mohx KoirraKTOB 
uina nepes Amnesty, cpejw ?thx jiHueii ou^o mhoio 3M«r- 
paHTOB H3 CoK>3a. H eme b tocth k hhm apmotgam apy3ba, 
TaM-TO h h BbiyiHaa pyccKHii rio-iiac inntiie\i> . b noabCKOH 
uiKoae A ero ynn;ia naoxo. 

OpiiexaB b flapiDK. » itcSHaKOMH.iacb h nojpyjKHXiacb c 
HaTaibefi rop6aHeBCKOii. a nepe3 Hee — c ;im,abMH 113 "Koh- 
THHeHxa", H3 "PyccKofl Mucin". 5\ name nnca.ia xns "Kohth- 
Hcm-a". H cine s 3Hajia 3;ma Kjafina. Oh inaaBa.3 rio-pyccKH 
h no-am .niiicMi "XpotiHKy TeicyuiHX cck5uthh". Ee » HHTana 

(IOCTOJIHHO. ECJIH Tbl 3H3KOM C 3jiaOM KnaHHOM. Tbl npOCTO 

hc Moweuib hc HHTaTb toto, hto oh H3aacT. HMTa.ia eme 

"XpOHHKy .3MT0BCKOH KaTO.lHHeCKOH HepKBIl", MHOWCCTBO 

JiHTepaTypbi c YKpaHHbi. A H3 "XpoHHKii" mm y3HaBa.iH, hto 



\A. JlRCora CnacTjiMBbie noBopotbi cyflb6bi 



npOMcxoatn- b rpy3HH, b 3ctohhh, b ApMCHiiii... fl xopouio 
noMHio aeao Koaa-ieBa, aeao MapneHKo. jjeno KyjHeuosa. 
noMHio. MHonic Toraa buulih it3 Amnesty, noTOMy hto ona 
He xoTcia npnsHaTb KyjHeuoBa j3hhkom cobccth. Koraa «a 
aHr.iHficKOM BbitiLia KHHra Anaio-iHS MapHCHKO — sto 

OLLIO 03H0 HI CHJlbHeSlIIHX BnoaT.ieHHH MOefi JKH3HII. 

fl Hi,ini;ia H3 Amnesty auaauaTb jict Ha3aa, Koraa croa- 
KHyjtacfa c tcm. hto ohm npimcHSKvr jbohhoh CTaiuapT. H 
noneMy-TO, nocjie roro, Kax noayqiuH Hooeneacsyio npe- 

MltlO, OHH BMCTpOHJJH HCCOpaiMepHO 6o.1blllOH 6iopoKpaTH- 

HeCKtiH ai mapa i . Ho rnaBHaa npiiHHHa 6boia a tom, hto ohh 
h;i inaMit.ni rmnnWM HaSaioaaTeneM b JIohjohc HeaoseKa, 
KOTopbifi ao 3Toro HajHaneHHB Sua naenoM npemaHyMa 
kommvhmctiihcckoh naptHH TacMaitHH. H Ha Mofi Baraaa, bo 
BpcNteHa Ko.iocca.itHoro b.ihuhkx KFE, Ha6iio.iaTe.ieM 
Amnesty, k KOTopoMy CTeKaeTCJi HH<popMauKX o noaoxeti it it 

V illllKOR KOMMVHHlMa H3 paiHUX CTpaH, He M03KCT 6blTb 

KOMMymicT. fl n euie necKO.ibKO mohx apyieft namica.™ b 
Amnesty. «rro mw CHHTaeMTaKoenojio-*eHMeMenpaBHJtbHbiM. 
Ohh OTBemiH. hto rro — He npo&neMa, oh ywe Bbttuea H3 
KOMMVHHCTH4ecKOH napniH, H a peuiHJta. hto He Mory 6wTb 
b iipramnauttH. KOTopas hc noHitMaer tbrhx BeiueJt. 

— SytcoseKuu — tWH coeema cnoncopoa IDEE, Oh 
ih-ui-mxumcjhHu no.uoeaem rom b paSe m t fl 

— Koraa mm itpti i iawa.ni .iKueit b Ham cobct enoHCO- 
poB, Mbi )opanee ooeuiaaH hm, hto oyaeM oopamaTbca To.ibKO 
B oco6o na* in,] \ cavHajix. TaK n ecTb, mu GecnoxoHM ByKOB- 
CKoro h apynix. TaibKo ecaH npoBojHM xaKyio-To iKCTpeH- 
Kyio aKUHio. A npocHTb ero noMOHb hbm aocraTb .iciit.i 11. 
0TBJieKa« ero ot cooctbckhoh pa6oTu. — :rro, 3Haere jih... 

— Mp3na, meneph paccKa.wu npo msou "pyMbiiicKuu" 
nepuod. 

— noaoaaH, etue ao Pvmukkh 6uao koc-hto HKrepcc- 
Hoe. Mbt no.iyHa.iH aeHbni Ha noMouib tioano.ibHbiM imu- 
1c.11.c1 bum "Co.iHaapKocrit". TaM, b rtonbiue. ohh Ha ith 
aeHbrw noKvnavin odKeTHue uaiuHHbi H. Koraa b BoceMbae- 
cjit aeBSTOM rosy b noabtue ywc Hacryimia cBO&oaa, ?m 

■ K|'Ccn,l Obl ill VAC ItC H> VKMl.l .1,1 H IHI.lllO.lbHOIl iiciai 11 I Icko- 
TOpbJC H3 HHX nOTOM HCnO.1b30B3.1H B HHCTHOM OHIHCCC, 

HeKoropue — npoaajiH. Ho MKorHe H3 rex, kto ae.ia.i noa- 
noibHbie THnorpafpHH. OTpeMOHTHpoBajiH. npiiBe.iK b nop»- 
jok cboh daHKH 11 nepeaa.TH hx Ha Boctok. HeKOTOpue aa*'e 





iipmana 13 tiexafips 198! soda 



Mumuw neped BaputatcKUM ynu*epcumemau « 2!-k> .•ru>nniwtiu 

"Mapma-68" 8 Mapma 1989;. 



i M 1 1 0TBO3H.1H. 1 1 C.'IJ fl II ' 1 H tl a 1 1 1 ' l;i J1HCTOK. Ha HeM HatlHCaKO: 

"S, JaBit.i Bep.11e1iMiijKiT.111. nouyHHJi o4)ceTHbift craHOK ans 
Pccny6.iHKaHCKOfi napTHH ^py^HH." (JJaeudBepdiomjujountj— 
H/iew zpy3unQXQu HenpaeumenbcmaeHHOu opzanu3auuu "L|o«mp 
paxumua u compy$nuvBcrrMa". napmnep IDEE u "Afapmw" — npuu. 
ped.) 

— Hpjua. oduH U3 maKux cmaHKoa najyuLiu u Mbi! 3mo 
6u.ro e dee»Hocmo mpemheM. Ec.tu ow ne oh. gosmomcho. 
"Kapma " ne nhi.m-u.ui 6w mozda! 

— A kto sain ero aan? flaBiira XMeaeBCKaa? 

— Hem. flemp MumtiHep. (Odun us ocnoeameneu notihCKo- 
go HeiasucuMoao ucmopuwcxoso mypnasia 'Karta". B Hacmomuee 
epewi? pa6omaom e p/ccto»3*wvhoim xypwane 'Hoeet) no/ibiua' — 
npw* pad.) A khio mm — Hdauea X.Me.ieHCKan? 

— 3to mMCHaTe.ibHaa 5*ceHiuiiHa. Ona 3aKHMajiacbTeM, 
hto cnemiaibHo BdH^ia ith otpceTbi Ha Boctok. V Hac aasKC 
61.1.1a t aKan aoroBopcHHOCTb: He jivvkhmc ikim y*c (.kJjccti.i 
mw oiaaBaiiH flasure XmcjIcbckoh, a y>K OHa pacnopjuitaaacb 
iimh iiaiuyHiuHM oopaioM. Or Hee cianKii nonain » k JlaHa- 
cSeprwcy b JIhtbv, h b TpyiHio, h b KaKHe-To aoo6me 
HCBeposTHue MecTa Cobctckoio Coioaa. 

Hy bot. mm h noaouutH k PyMWHitH B KOHue BoceMbae- 
cjit aeBSToro roaa amiBHO pacnaaaeTCjj cotuiarepb. B Hana- 
.leaeBBHOCToro roaa NED oSpain.icji k HaM c npeaJio»:eHHeM 
noexaib b PyMWHmo n b Do.iiapmo. rae npoHcxoan.™ 6yp- 
Hwe coobiTHa. B 1989 roay IDEE Hana.i H3aaBaTb wypHa-i 
"Uneaptive Minds" ("HeaaBHCiiMoeMbiUiaeHHe"!. B HeM, c 
caMoro nepsoro HOMcpa, nenaia-iHCb craTbH npakTHHecKii 
060 bccx crpaHax Boctohhoh Eflponbi. H cefinac nepeHHTbt- 
Baio h caMa yaHBaniocb. 

— ydtuLTxewhcx. Kakite «w 6bt.ru VMHhie? 

— B ochobhom TOMy, KaKHe yMHbie h .lajibHOBiiaHbie 
aBTopw y nac nenaTajjucb. Hy. mm TO-*e 6buiH yMHbie. 
noioMy hto yviean naxojHTb ithx aBTopoB. A HHoraa ohh 
caMii Hac Haxoan.iH. 

To ecTb PyMWHHeR mu iinrepecoBa.incb y'*e aaBHo. H 
bot. Mapr aeBHHocToro. tom, hto h noeay b PyMbiHHio. a 
yiHaio 3a Hcaeaio ao tioe3aKn, Mo»tho cK33aTi>. noexaaa 
neo/KiiaaHHo. R HHKoro raM ne iHaaa. aa*e ne ina.ia. rae 
ocTaHO&niocb. ByxapecT Obi.i cnabHO paipywew. MayuiecKy 
nocTapaacH... fl no3BOHH.ia MoeMy apyry b riapH>K, oh 
pv'Mbm. fl roBopioeMy: "fl aaiue He 3Kato. KaK aoSpaTbCii ot 



V\. JlncoTa CnacT/iMBbie noBopoTbi cyflb6bi 



II 




a3ponopra ao ropo- 
aa", Orae-nia: "He 
BOjiHyficd. Te6n 
Bcrper»T. Hum raC- 
atiHKy "HpiHa". 
3HaeTc, 3to tcaK y 
MaKituuiM in Heao- 
seKy Ma.10 oaHoro 
VMa, h>»!ho eme h 
aeseHbe. HcTopKS. 
KoTopyw ji cefinac 
paceKasKy. KaK p;i t o 

MOeM HC it.*tll1H 

npmieraK) b Byxa- 

peCT, BH*y MJTKHH- 

Ky H vKemmiHV c 

Ta6.1HHKOfi "Hpi- 

Ha". Ohh roBopjrr: 

"TaM. Ha ri.ioiiiaaii. 

CODpajIMCb COTHIt 

TbICllH aioneR. Tbi 
xoseuib noexaTb 

AOMOH OTflOXHyTb 

II lllI!l»tUCMH<lII.H>- 

maat.?" FIoexajiM, kohcmho. Ha naouuui.. noi.tmni Bciep 
OrpOMHaJi roanaaioaeH, ace hto-to KpttnaT, kto-to BbicTyna- 
er c 6ajiKOHa. . . Most cnyrwHua mhc nepeBoam, hto CKaHan- 
pyer TOJina. "Csoooaa! CBo6oaa!", iiotom tto-to eme. flo- 
tom ohh craiiH CKaHaHpOBan.: "JlHMHaHy ! JlKHHaHy !" "A 3TO 
hto inaHHT?" Moji uepeBO iHnua CMymaeTca: "3ro — Hauia 
(J)aMH;mji". Oh-aiwBaeTCH, mchh b aspoiiopry BCTpcHaa ojj.hh 
ii i.iH.tepoB pyMbiHCKora aeMOKpaTHHeCKoroaBHxeHH*. Bot 
i :ik miii- yaaaocb nonacrb b epe ay caMbtx xopouiHX. caMbtx 
nopaaoHHux asoaeii b > ton cTpane. Hy. no Jiti hc bo'whhc 1 

Koraa n eoonpaaacb exaTb, rpaKTa Ha noesaKy euie hc 
6w;io. % B3»na aeHbrw c apyroro rpaHTa, noayMaaa, hto ohh 
Moryr iipuroaHTbCJt TaM. H npHroawJiHCb! 

CTyaeHTbi npoBoanJiH mhthhih. V hhx 6bum mouihuc 
ycHJiirreaH, obuo xopouio ciumino. h TaK ohh vnpaBjmaii 
xoaoM MtiTHHra. npeacTaBasian BucTynaK3mHx,KOHTponnpo- 
iujji TOJiny. iipcaynpewaajiti o npn<Vnr*cnn>i nonnnHH, He 
aonycKajiH npoBOKatwfi, A Toana owaa orpoMHa*. Mkthh™ 
npoaoJDKaJwcb yateaBe Heacn ii . R no3HaKOMHJiacb c HeKOTO- 



Op^aHuinmin cemu JtiKoncmtpupomiwtttii 
munmpatpuu, c»a6oicenHhix coapeMeHHMMU 

OtpCemHhtMU CmaHKOMU. NN 10 XHj Hi ) HCKOH 

mo.ibno O.jojodapx nawoufu 3ana6o, 




lip 'mi Jit umii u vvtittnttiinu ccMimapu Mexdyttapoditou Cemu 
xenmuH-tuiiepaa KaaKaia. rpyiux, ?. Bopxtwu, cenmx6pb 1999 1 -, 



pbtMH aiuepaMH. cpeait hhx 6bta TaKoR napeHb Mapnan 
MoHTeaHy. OaHajow KOHbro iio-ihuhs ytcpaaa y hhx jth 
ycnairreaH. Ohh b othbbhhh: "y Hac Hurae KeBojMoxHo 
KyriHTb T8Kne ycH.iHTC.iH. naao JiereTb b CTaM6ya. ho "ryaa 
aa*e [ioctoshhwx peficoB hct". Mw c jKeHoii raopHj.m 
.'lii'(tian\ noexaaH no m a i ;nntiy>.t n Hawaii m\ *m,iv \ ^h imi c- 
an. 3a aBe tmcrhh aoa.iapoB, A hh^jihuhji TaM Hjei oeuie- 

HUM i^MHOm! y MeHJ) ObljTH aBC TUCBHH, HO HOMeHJITb MX H3 
.leil 0W.10 OHCHb Ca05KH0. ripHlll.lOCb B rOCTHHHUe MCHSITb 

He.ieraat.HO. TaK ko MHe BbicipoHaacb ue.ias onepeab 3thx 
HKUn! Rne i'mcrhh aonaapoB — ito ou.ia orpoMHas cyMMa. 
hh y Koro hc Sbiao croabKO aeHer. V' Menu Ha6paacx ueabiH 
MetaoK pyMbiHCKHx aeHer. 

Ha apyrofi aeHb BCTpenaeMCH c naa CTyaeHTaM« OKoao 
My^biKaibHoro Mara3HKa. Cmotpio, ohh see b MaFiKax, paapn- 

COBaHHUX a03yKraMH "floaofl KOMMyHHCTOB". Hct, rOBOpK). 

nepeoaeHbTccb. pe6sTa, a to h 3tm ycHaHTCJiH He aoBC3eTe ao 
MCCTa. Kvmh.ih. HascoHeu. 3th caMwe ko.iohkh. 5! janperuaa 
hm paccKa3biBaTb, oTKyaa hih.hki, acHbrvt, a b MacniiHc 
MapnaH CKa3aj], hto ji — ero SoraTan tctji 113 AMepHKH. 

Mepe3 noaroaa s CHOBa npncxajia a PyMbimiio. CHOBa 
BcrpcTH-iact co CTyacHTaMH. Bapyr MHe roBopjiT: "Bw He 
oouiaiiTecb c t3khmh-to. ohh — npOBOKaiopw". H MapnaH 
b hx Hwcae. "OrKy^a bu 3Haere. hto ohh — npoBOKaTopu?" 
— "MuT0HH0 3«aeM OHHnpHBertHycHaHTejut.HHHKOMyHe 
roBopUT, OTKyaa bjh.ih. 3HaHHT, tohho, noaynnaH ot no.iH- 
uhh", ripHtuaocb paccKa3an.. 

— HpiHQ, a AtpiQHucmaHOM sw jamiMaiucb? 

— B ccMbaecrr aesaTOM roay » WHaa b Hbio-Hopxe. JJa. 
Koiaa Hanaaacb BOHHa. Mbi CBiijaaHCb c Hbto-itopKCKOH ai}- 

raHCKOH OOtUHHOH. FIOTOM, KOT^a Mbl HpOBOaHaH MHTHHTH B 

noaaep>KKy "CoaHaapHOcru". aqbraHtibi tipHxoaHaH k hbm, a 
Mbi iipiiBoaH.m iio.ihkob Ha atJiraHCKMe mhthhtm. iloabCKHe 
aeMOHCTpaiiHH ouaii oneHb KpynHbie. ho Bccraa y opraHim- 
TOpoe B03iitiKa:iH KaKfie-TO pa3HornacHS. HanpHMep, cbh- 
mcii iihk' na MHTHHre npOHHTaui MOJWTBy, a noTOM oxasajiocb. 
hto oh us KaKoH-To KeTofi KOHcpeccHH. IloayHHacs cKanaaa. 
H TaK dbiao He pai. A oaHaaiaw a BH*y, hto Ha naui mhtkhj 
npnuj,ia6oabiuaji rpynnaaqVanucB, Hcpcan hhx — Myajia.M 
s ofibSBiiaa: "CcH'iac Hatu mhtmhi 6aaioc:mnin wyaaa". On 
npoHHraa npcKpacnyto Mycy.ibMaHCKyio MO^iHTsy, h 3a "Co- 
jinaapHocTb". h 3a BaaeHcy, h 3a AqSraHHCTaH. B 3T0T pai 
.iono.ii.Hi.1 ocrajiHCb Bee. 

— Dcajwu, ede mbi tyaemvyeuth ce6x .lYHiue ecezo? B 
Uo.ibtue? Bo <{'pn h n an ' B A.vepme? 

— BcaMOaeie! 

— Mp3Ha. npueiJicau « Poccuio, Eu-6oey. me6e ne 6ydem 
cKysno... 

Hep&aod c no/ihcmso: lOnun Cepeda 

B ny6nnKaunn HCno/ib30BSHbi qboTorpacpnn M3 apxviaa 

MKCTMTyra fleMOKpaiHH b Boctohhom Eapone h xxnr: 

Jakub Karpinskt "Polska. Komunizm. Opozycja": Stownik 

London.1985; 

Jacek Kurort, Jacek Zakowski "PRL dla pocz^tkuj^cych". 

Wroclaw, 1995; 

Andrzej Stanistaw Kowatczyk «Giedroyc i "Kultura"». 

Wroclaw, 1995. 

nodsornoexe uamepuaira npuHuuanu yvacmue 
A/jQKcaHdp CypbfiHoe u Cepaeu PoManoe. 



«£ OBIUAH CyflbBA - BOCTOHHAn EBPOnA 



lOpuCi TETIErWH 



K/iy6 APy3en Ebi>i 



R, KDpuM nerpOBHM Tenernn, pofln/icR e ropoje Botkhhc- 
k6, b ripuKaMbe 

R npoxwi na poauHe caonx npeaxoB ao 1 9 neT, annoTb ao 
Moero orbewa b Hen^wpaa n nocTynneHMB hs apxHTexrypHbtfi 
tpaKyribTei AnaaeMHH xyno*ecTB. Mshh pacnpeaennnn Ha pa- 
6oTy 8 MHCTMTyr TnnpoappcTHKa", npoetcrnpoaaBujHH KHjibe h 
cneMna/ibHwe o6baicrw an« 3anonflpbB. Dotom a nepeexa/i a 

TpOflHO. 

Eaa Cap6osa - aeaywxa us HexocnoBaxMH. B iohocth ona 
yviK/iacb MysbiKe. Sbina nManMCTxon, saxoNHMna Kapnoa vmh- 
sepCMTeT no Kypcy newcxoro R3bjxa n nuTepaxypbi. OanaKo 
Tflxtenoe 3a6oneaaHne BwHyflMno ee ocraawTb My3wxajibHbie 
3aHHTwn. OTHbiHe Eaa HeaeiwHo newana b nodem flnn nioGo- 
ro nenoaexa noiepHTb cnocoGHOCTb aenraTbcn - Be/WHaiiujaB 
Tparea^a. a arts nwaHncTxn... K csacTbio, ohs snaaena xpoMe 
poanoro eiue aHrmncxnM, r|>paHuy3CKHM. HeMemtwn w pyccxHM 
H3UKaMM OHa crana rvncaTb a pasHwe cipanbi. paccxaswBafl o 
ce6e m o MexocnoBaxnu. O Hen cooGuinn b Gonbujon CTaTbe 
*ypHa/i "K)nocTb Mnpa', noc/ie nero en CTanw nncaTb Monoawe 
ntoan H3 MHOrMx cipaM 3to 6bin xoneii copoxoBbix roaoB. 

OflHHM H3 ee KoppecnoMaeHTOB 6bin mom flBOtopoflHbiM 
6paT Mnxann. Ero sto nacToribKO yBnexno, hto oh peujun m 
MSHfl no3HaKOMMTbc Ebom, noanHyBCb ecrecTBBHHOMy nerose- 
necKOMy menaHMK) aennTbes xopowwn MnxaMn npnoian mhc 
MecxonbKO ee nnceM. 3to 6wnn BennxonenHbie oGpaauw annc- 
tojibphoto mawpa, b kotopwx npxo ceepxan TanawT Monoaon. 
imTejinHrenTHOM, aecbMa HaHHTannort aeayujKn, y Hac roace 
3aBfl3anacb nepenncxa Eaa oneHb mhoto Hnrana pyccxon xjiac- 
cmkm. CoScTBeHHO. o6m6h MneHMHun men, a ochobhom. no 
noBoay npoHMTaHHbix Knur. 3to 6bi/in aaMenaTenbHwe nncbMa, 
BOSBbtujatoiane AyxOBHo. R Bepery nx yx<e nonBBica... 

BcKope b no3HaKOMnncfl c MonoawM rpoAHencxHM nosTOM 
BnaflMnenoM 3aflopHbtM. Oh TO>Ke 6bin xoppecnOHaeHTOM Ebw, 
a ee mmb 6wno fiyniueM peKOMeHflaunew. Mw c6nnannMCb. 
OKaaanocb. hto MHorwe n3 tbx. xto b CCCP rrepenHCbiBanea C 
EaoM.To*enepe3naKOMnriHCbMejKayco6oii Oopasosancfl can* 
co5oii HeKUM xpyr /ipyaen Ebu CapSoaoM. Bnaannen pemtin 
nptiaaTb eMy o<pnunanbHWM xapaiaep. Haao cKasaTb, hto noc- 
ne asaauaToro cteafla MeJuaynapoaHbte Kny6b( apy3eii no ne- 
penidCKB 6buis« nony/wpubi h Haxoanjincb nofl oneKOii BflKCM 
BnaflHnen cnwcancfl co MHorviMH nioabMH n. nonyMns oflo6pe- 
Hue, cocTaBMir ycTaB KPy6a, kotopwm oh HaaBan "Kny6 apyssw 
Hay lukh". h dan ero cornacoBbiBaTb c mbcthoh KOMCOMOnbcxoH 

opraHW3aMnew Bee sro 
6wno OHSMb MHTepecHO 
h yBnexaTenbHO. Ho 

Ho aapyr, xax rpoM 
cpeflH flCHoro HeGa. b 
MecTHOH napTHKHO* ra- 
sere Tpo3HeHCK3R 
npaaaa" naHBuncfl (pe- 
ribeTOH "Kny6 a«oko- 
poa". flutonep. «ax usee- 

CTHO, — KapTOMHblMUjyT. 

To ecTb - K/iy6 ujyTOB. 
H3 TeKcra cneaoaano. 
hto Monoaoii noBeca B 
3aaopHbiS, OKOHHaTenb- 
ho sanyTaetuMMCH a cso- 

MX OTHOLiieHHRX C K6M- 

'.iiMnaMn. nbiTaeicfi co- 
6paTb nerKoeepHbix md- 
noabix rnoaeii eoKpyr 

MSBeCTHOa CeKTaHTKH M 




6oronCKaTenbHHLibi E. Cap60BOii. noTopan aaaHo CBroana c 
AMepuKOw. rfle cronh Bpa5xae6Ho othocstch k npo/ieiapiiaTy. 
nacpoc cpenbetOHa - Tonbico HeSnaroHaaeiKHbie moan MoryT 
nucaTt, 3a rpaHwuy . 

R 6bin eosMymen m KneaeTHnnecKHMH MaMbnu^eHMBMH, h 
tohom 3Toro nacKBunn. KpoMe SToro, n He mot nowfiTb, OTxyaa e 
CTaTbe Mornn nonsnTbCH uhtbtu us momx nviceM. Oahs us mux 
6wna cipOKOtt ,13 ctnxoTBopeHHR Moero 6pata Mnxam/ta, koto- 
puA HMKoraa « Hiirne ero He ny6nnKOBan OenbeTOHMCT npHsen 
ee n nosnopaacTBoaa/t: rox<e. moji. mhb - no3T. H cTan pas6H- 
paTbcn m nouien k aBTopy Ha xsapTHpy. Ero He oxasanocb aoMa, 
a npocToayuJHaH wena wa uoii Bonpoc oTBevwna: "Hy xax oT<y- 
aa, y Hero *e uenan nanxa <tK3TOKonnii pa3Hwx nvtceM 6bi^a" R 
nonnn. hto Bee mw 6wnn noa HernacHbiM naa3opoM KrB n hto 
mo*! nepenncxa c Eboh nocronHHO nepriNDCTpvipoBanacb. 

R HanHcan b raaery, b o6kom napTHtt h "KoMCOMonbctcyio 
npasay" Mne 6wno a 3TO BpeMfl 33 roaa. 

B OTB6T Ha mom nucbMa 6wno opraHMSOBaHo MHoronraanoe 
xoMCOMOnbCxoe cofipaHne, c bbhum HaMepewneM npoeecTn 
noxasaTenbHO-BoenMTaTenbHoe Boaae«CTBne. Mhoto nero ro- 
Bopwiocb na 3tom MeponpufliHM. pesroMe 6wno TaxnM: HE TEM 
3AHRJlHCbt R nonyHMr nopnuaH«e 3a nonnTunecKyK) 6nn30py- 
xocTb. Henero m roeopHTb, xax 6biiio Mep3XO Ha ayuie.,. Beflb 
pacTonTanw oneHb hkctos h onenb nnHnoe... 

Kax noTOM oxaaanocb, see niofln. aaeuj^e comacvie 3a- 
aopHOMy ynacTBOBaTb b K/iy6e, y ce6* Ha MecTax Toxce noaBep- 
rnMCb pasHoro poaa aonpocaM h npopaSoTxaM. BpaTa Mmamna 
Bbi3sa/in b KrB naonro cmhm Beceaoeann, newtinM eMy, hto oh, 
Taxoii 6waanwH ne/iOBeK, QTCHaeawHM 10 neT no 58-it ■ Mb- 
aenbnare, BHOBb nponBMfi nonnTMHecKyio HecosnaTenbHocTb h 
BBflsancfl b nepenncxy c sarpaHMqeM. A aeno b tom, hto Mnorne 
xoppecnoHaeHTu Eew t*aHMHann nepenncxy M^msy coBoii. Bot 
h MHxan^. nonyHMB nMCbMO ot aeeyuixn ms IOjkhom AtppHxn, 
0TB6Tnn efl flpyrnMM cnosaMM. rronynanocb, pa3 6biaujnM 33k - 
ne HMeewb oonbtue npaBa nwcaTb b apyrne CTpaHbi. 

A M3 Moero nucbMa b TpoflHeHCKoi* npaaae" coCTpnnann 
HenTo epoae o6tnCHeHKB-noKanHnn. ByaTO 6w a HHnero He 
3Han, kto raxafl Eaa, a 6wn BBeaen a 3a6jvy*aeHne 3aflopMbiM 
PaiyweeTCfi. HMnero hoao6hoto b He nucan m 6bin ctpbuiho 
B03MymeH OTxpoaeHHOM nowbto 3T0fi nyBnHKaqnn. Bwfia aa)»te 
Mwcjib noaaTb na ra3eTvnxoB b cya, ho b Te apeMeHa 3to 6wno 
x panne Tpyflno, nonTM hsB03mo)kho. R b to apeMH 6wn npocTO 
nc«xonornHecx*t noaaaneH... 

K/iy6 paenancR, ho 3to, raHenHo, Menonb. TnaBHoe - Ebb. 
OHa 6w/ia nacTonbxo 6oiibHa, hto bcs stm HenpnBTHOCTH b 
CCCP oxoHHaTenbHO noaopsanM w Tax HOBennKMe ee cunbi. Eaa 
yMepna. Dcoie xneBeTHHHBcxoM CTaTbM a Tpoahbhckom npaa- 
ae" ona npo*nna Menbiue roaa,.. 

R ysHBn 06 stom na nexponora b *y pna/ie "MexocxiOBauxne 
npocpcoiosbi". xynneHHOM b raseTHOM xnocxe ropoaa flymaH^e 
(B fpoano b ixkiTb He mot 6yxBanbHO cpusunecKn K to My we y 
cbina Qbino neaa*Hoe 3aopoBbe, n mu nepe6panncb a cofiHen- 
Hbi« TaAJKHXHCTan). Hexponor Swn Harwcan obhum M3 6biBiunx 
xoppecnoHfleHTOB Ebu a Hspanne v\z Hero BBCTaoeano, hto 
Eaa no ySewaeHHBM Qbina onewb aeMoxpaTHHecx^M Henose- 
kom. Ha Bonpoc oflHoro M3 HHTepBbtoepoB, coctoht fin ona b 
xoMMyHMCTWHecxoM napTHH. Ebb OTBBTnna - hbt. ho nonna 6bi 
HecTbK) 6biTb H/teHOM napTMH KDnnyca CyHHxa 

R coo5mnn oG 3TOMaeowpoflHOMy Gpaiy w bcbm, coctobb- 
ujhm s nepenHCxe c Eboh. xoMy TonbKO mot. 

Bee ohm coHcanenn o ee paHHen cmbptm... 

TaxTparHHccxM aaxoHHMnacb stb mctopmb. oneHb bhom-to 
TnnMHHan an« Tex apeMen, 

PnsaHb 



£ 06LMAH CYflbBA - BOCTOMHAfl EBPOHA I 

AneKcaHAp ryPbHHOB 

nOPIIHAI APMMETHKA 




Anexcandp 3duyHdosuH Fy- 
pbRHoe — p/Kosodumenb 
nonbCKou npoepaMMbi Hayu- 
HO-un&opMauuoHH030unpo- 
ceemume/ibCKoeo uenmpa 
«MeMopuan» (MocKea). ae- 
mop u coaemop pnda omeve- 
cmeeHHbix u 3apy6exHbix 

ny6niiKanuii, nocaf>menHbix meiwe penpeccuu npomue nonx- 

Koe u nonbcmx apaxdan e CCCP. 



B «He3aBHCMMO$i ra3eTe» ot 28 ceHTn6pn 2000 rofla 
HanenaraHa craTba BnaflHMMpa rpwaeHKO nop, HaaesHMeM 
«100 mbtcxH madpamnbix Kunouempoe u dpysan aputpMe- 
mu«a. O «apyaa npoujnoao» e poccuQcKO-nonbCKux omHOoie- 
Huftx». 3ra cTSTbH nana Hanano oepnn ny6nnKauw(i b «He3a- 
encMMOH ra36Te» (6 h 19 okts6ps, 3 Hoa6pn 2000 rofla, 13 
flHaapn 2001 rofla). aaTparwBaKHMWx HOBSMiuyto wcTopHto 
Haojux oTHoiueHMM c rionbiueH. npH^eM nocne crarbw Ambhs 
TyneeBa <rHe/Jbj» >xumb Ha xoneHfixn flMCKyccwH Sbina nepe- 
BeaeHa maBHbtu o6pa30M Ha reMy cyflbCw nawHx KpacHoap- 
MewueB, nonaeiutix snonbCKUM nneHB 1919-1s20rr. HecMor- 
pn Ha 3Ty nepeopMeHTauwio, Heo6xoA«Mo BepHyTbcn, npewae 
Bcero k nonoweHMflM CT3TbH B. TpMBenKO. Cnana^a noanep- 
khbm Tpw HecoMHBHHO nonoJKMTenbHbix MOMBHTa ero ny6nn- 
nat4tw: 

1. TaK H33biBaeMbiM «ocBo6oflHTe/ibHbiti noxoa» Kpac- 
hovi ApMMn Ha 3anaflHy(o YKpaHHy u 3anaflHy» SenopyccHio, 
npeanpviHflTbiM 17 ceHTB6pn 1939 fOAa, 0flH03HaHH0 na3BaH 
HH^eM He cnpoBOUMpoBaHHOM arpeccweii CCCP npoTMB Pec- 
ny6nnKn rionbiua c Men mo orroprHyTb ot nee Hactb TeppnTo- 
pvM. 3Ta coBepiueHHO cnpaaeariHBafi KBajiHtpHKaunfl coBeT- 
ckmx aeiicTBuii (HMnorfla ne BbObiBaetuas coMHenuH sa npe- 
AenaMH CCCP) — peatcoe seneHne na crpaHHuax nawe« 
npeccw. 

2. flonycxaeTCfl OTBeTCTBennocTb CranwHa 3a rn6enb 
eapiuaBflH npH noaaB/ieHHM HewuaMvi BapiuaBCKoro aoccTa- 
hmb 1944 rofla. 

3. riOflHflT BOnpOC 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM Poccmh 3a co- 
BSTCKkie MaccoBbie penpeccuu npOTHB nonbCKnx rpawflaH. 
ocytuecTBneHHbte e copoKOBbie roflbi (nocne 17 ceHTn6pfi 
1939 r.). 3a nyf>nnHHyio nocTaHOBKy 3tom reMw «He3aBnCH- 
Man ra3BTa» m ee bbtop aacnyxtMBaiciT wcKpeHHen npM3Ha- 
TenbHOCTM, TaK sax MHorne poccniiCKiie rpa«AaHe aawe hb 
floraflbiaawTcB o cyinecTBOBaHMH noflogHon npoOr.eMw h 
cnocoQHbi numb ropecTHo h HeaoyMeHHo sonpoiuaTb: sa wto 
*e Hac Tax He mo6nT b Mkipe? 

B. rpMBenxo MfleT aanbiije — He ro/ibKO SbWBMraeT 
npo6neMy , ho m wacranBaeT na otBeTe, caoflfliueMcn k yTBep- 
i+mennKj Haiua CTpaHa nasHo npeaocTaBuna Honbiue «Bnon- 
He afleKBaTHyio TeppnTopnanbHyio KOMneHcauMK)» 3a pen- 
peccuu npomB nonbCKMx rpaj«aaH m noaTOMy OTBeTCTBeHHO- 
cth ywe He HeceT, 

K coxoneHHK). npHBeTCTsyn 0aKT nocraHOBKti Bonpoca, 
npnxoflHTcn peiunTenbHO B03pa3MTb npoTMB npeano)KeHHoro 
asTopoM oTBSTa. (KopMy/ia «reppnTopnn rocyaapCTBy b 06- 



m6h wa penpeccuu nporwe ero rpa)KflaH» npeflCTaBnaeTCB 
coaepmeHHO HenpueMneMovi c npasoBOM towkh speH^n, He 
noTOMy, mto HMKaKMe MaiepwanbHwe KOMneHcaiiHM He boc- 
KpecoT norM6ujMx, ne BepHyT yTpaseHHoro sfloposbn yL;enea- 
whm. He B03MecT«T ropn m CTpaflaH«ii »x ceMew HroSbie 
KOMneHcauwn b stow o6nacTM wecopasMepHbi yrpaTaM, ho 
ohm ace paBHo HeoSxoflMMbi — m yueneBUJHM penpeccwpo- 
aaHHuu. h Mnewaw cewew *epTB penpeccuu — He TonbKO nan 
noflcnopbe b hx sasacTyra 6eflCTB6HHOM Marepna/ibHOM no- 
no*eHMn ho. rnasHbtM oGpasoM, icax eeuiecTBeHHan cpopMa 

npM3HBHMR TOro, MTO COBepUJeHHOB H3A HUMM TOCyAapCTBeH- 

Hoe HacMnwe 6bino HecnpaBeanHBbiM. HeaaKOHHbiM h npe- 
crynHWM. 

Oopwyna, OTCTawBaeMaa asTopoM «He3aBncnwovi rase- 
Tbiw. HenpneMneMa noTOMy. hto KOHneHcauwn aapecoBaHbi 
He caMUM nocTpaAaBtiiMM. a mx rocyaapCTBy, flo stoh cneuw- 
4>HMecKOii nomxe xouneHcaukin pea6nnHTnpoBaHHbiM poc- 
chmckmm rpa^KAanaM. penpeccupoBaKHUM npn CtannHe. wa- 
npuMep, a UsaHOBCKOw o6nacTn. Aon*Ha 6wna 6u cocronTb 
b tom. vto name npaewTenbCTBO *npnpesano 6w» 3Tono6na- 
<rm KaKne-Hn6yflb 36Mnn (pa3yMeeTC(i, a pacnopaweHwe o6- 
naciHOw aflMHHHCTpauMn J, K cMacTbto . m pocckhckh A 3axoH ot 
18 orrsi6pft 1991 rona o pea6nnMTauMM wepTB nonnTimeCKMx 
penpeccuu, m neMeuKMe xoMneHcamiH >KepTeaM rnT.nepw3Ma 
ocHOBanw na whom noflxoae: KOMneHcaqnn npeflocTaennioT- 
en TonbKO nocTpaflaBiiiHM. a ne hx cTpanaM. 

OopMyna «TeppMTopnn rocyaapcTBy aa penpeccuu npo- 
tmb ero rpa)KAaH» — 3to. no cyTM, oironocOK TOTanmapHOH 
KOHuenuMH 6e3ycnoBHoro BepxoeeHCTBa HHtepecoB rocy- 
AapcTsa n npeHe6pe>KeHHfl npaeaMii oTflejibHoro nenoeeKa. 
Toii caMOii KOHuenuwH. Koropan b CBoevi 6onbiueBHCTCKOM 
mhh cpaujMCTCKOM nnocTacn K3K pa3 m nocnywwna MfleiiHbiM 
ooocHOBaHneM MaccoBux nonnTHMecKnx penpeccnw a era- 
nMHCKOM CCCP m b rMTnepoBCKOii TepMaHMM. 

He TonbKO KOHuenunn kom nencauMM no BnaflMMwpy TpH- 
BeHxo nopo^na. HenocTOBepHow 0Ka3biBaeTca w ero «nonn- 
THHecxan apn4>MeTnxa», npwaBaHHati peanwaoBaTb «Ha 6y- 
Maren 3Ty KOHqermnio. CnaMana aBTop «A0K33biBaeT», hto 
TeppHTopwanbHoe npnoepeTeHwe b BM^e 6onee 100 twcam 

KB. KM 6blBUJWxrepMaHCKMXTeppWTOpWW, BKHI04eHHblXB 1945 

rofly b cocTaB rionbLUH. HMxaK He o6ochob3ho ee BtcnaflOM b 
pasrpoM HeMueB h nioflCKMMM noTepsMti s nepHOfl oKKyna- 
Hhm. Mon, 4ncno naBUJMx b 6ohx c TepMSHneii nonbexwx 
BoeHHOcny)K3miix m na pTM3an ManoBBTO 1 . h nucno nornSiunx 
ot pyx HeMeLiKHX OKKynaHTOB MMpHbix wHTeneii (BKntOHan 
ntoflcxMe noTepM npti noflasneHMM neMuaMM BapmaBCKoro 
soccTaHMfi) npeyse/iMMeHo nonflK3Mn «0aHTacTM4ecKMM» 
o6pa30M 

fla k TOMy *e. ohh eme n a repMaHCKOri aputivi, h b 
nonbCKO-neMeuKMx nonnuewcKHx cpopMnpoBaHunx cnywunn. 
AKo6bi b TaxHx M3cujT36ax, vito Hwcno norn6ujHx Konna6opa- 

14M0HHCT0B (nO B. TpHBeHKO HeCKO/lbKO fleCCTTKOB TbICflM) 



1 r>pu*4eM nofibCKue o&uuua/ibHbie da«Hwe. no mhgmuiq BnaduMupa 
rpueeHKo. 3aebnuenbi a pesy/itmafno paamwhbix uaxunanuO, — xanpu- 
uep. nonbCKue nponaeanducrr>bt nocuenu en/jiouumt, s amo vuc/io ytpa- 
uHuefl. 5e/!op/coa u numoeuea — spamdan doeoewMou Donbwu. a 
matone man noiu6wux notmxoa. 4&u coubu s danbneuui6w OKBsatitJCb sa 
noedanaMu nocneaoaHnoO flonbwui 



14 



A. rypbRHOB FlopoHHafl apn4>MeTWKa 



Mower aawe n ypaBHOBecMTb mmcho norn6tunx b 6orx npOTMB 
TepMaHMH. B o6mew. He 3apa6oTann ce6e nemani* Ha 3tm 100 

TblCBM KB. KHJlOMeTpOB! 

3tot BbiBOfl — nepsbiw mar. Heo6xoaMMbiii ann ocyme- 
cTBneHMB KOHuenuMH B. TpnaeHico riocKonbxy KOnuermnH 
ymep6Ha, to h co BcnoMoraTenbHbtM buboaom cnopurt 6ec- 
CMbicnenHo. riowanyM. Bam nee to, kbhhmm cpeacrsaMH oh 
AOCTwrHyT. — a sto nonHan 6e3flOKa3aTe/ibHOCTb bcsx mc- 

nOJTb30BaHHtJX «nOnHTMKO-apH(}jMeTH4BCKHX» BblKJiaflOK, OT- 

c/TCTBue ynoMHHaHMti o KaKHX-nn6o uccneflOBaHMHx Aa*e b 
Tex c/iyMasx, xorfla aBtop ocnapneaeT ywe flaBHO cymecTBy- 
toiune b MCTopnorpa4)nn oubhkm ntoacxnx norepb cpeflM 
nonbCKHx BoeHHocny«aLHMx h rpa*AaHCKQro HaceneHwn. 
Ho 6eafloxaaaTenbHbi He mnbKo «B03flyiiiHwe» tiw(ppw 

B. TpHBCHKO. B HaCTHOCTM, OH HMXax H6 06bSCHSeT npOTMBO- 

penne Mewfly cbohm ceHcaLiMOHKWM TeaMcoM o conocTaeM- 
mocth MacujTaSoB Konna6opaanoHM3Ma m aHTwrMTnepoBC- 
kom 6opb6u nonnxoe w tsm (paKTOM, hto cpeflM OKKyrwpoBaH- 
Hbix eaponeticKMx cTpan nonbiua — eflMHCTBeHHan, b koto- 
pOM HeMuaM He yaanocb natiTM «noribcxoro KBHcnwHra», Hm 
He ynanocb c$K)pMwpoB3Tb MapwoHeTOHHWM opran ynpaane- 
hub 143 npeflCTaBMTenevi MecTHoro HaceneHun V\ hm6hho 
noribCKoe aHTMr^TnepOBCKoe noanonbe 6wno caMUM cnrib- 
hwm bo aceiS Eepone. Bpaa fin npeflcraBMTenHM Poccwm 
ctomt BbiflBHraTb b aApec flpyrux crpaH o6BHHeHne e xonna- 
6opaunoHH3Me, — bcmomhmm, mto b BoopyxeKHbix tpopMMpo- 
S3HHnx Ha CTopoHe repMaHnw coctohjio oxono MnnnnoMa 
coseTCKHx rpawaan 1 . 

CneAyfflinnflujarpaccy?KfleHMkiB.rpMBeKKo — «floxa3a- 
TenbCTBO*, hto «npnpe3aHHwe» 100 twchm kb. km ho "ronbxo 
ho 3acny»eHw nonnxaMM ynacTHeM b pasrpoMe TepMaHMH m 
m&enbK) rpa*flaHCKoro HaceneHMS ot pyx HBMeuKHX OKKy- 
nanTOB, ho h He Moryr CMMTaibCR KOMneHcaunet* aa seuriM. 
OTToprHyTbie b 1939-1940 roaax Cobctckhm Cokjsom. Xots 
nwflepbi aHTHrviTjiepoBCKOii Koannunn. He MCxniOMan m CCCP, 
npwHMMaq peiueHwe Ha FIotmhckoA m noTqqaucKoii KOH$e- 
penmiBx o nepeaane rionbtue neMeuKnx TeppMTopMw, MMeH- 
ho TaKOM KOMneHcauneM mx h CHMtariM! 

flo B. TpMBeHKo, xoMneHcaL|Mfl 3a eocTOMHbie Teppmo- 
puM flOBoeHHoro nonbCKoro rocyftapcTBa »e nonaraeTCn, no- 
CKOnbxy ohh H3flaana npuHajxnewanu aocTOHHbiw cnaBHHaM 
(«ribsoB. ranim, BpecT m TpoflHo — apeBHepycCKwe ropo- 
fla» ) A nonbcxas flOBoenHas CTaTMCTwxa . oueHUBaBiuan jjojiio 
nonbCKo-nsbiMHoro HaceneHun 3Tmx 36Mertb npnMepHOB40%, 
6wna c0aiibcn0nuMpoBana. x TOMy *e, 3HaMHTenbHaa nacrb 
nonbCKO-s3biHHoro HaceneHMH — 3to HMxaxMe hb nonnxn, a 
«ono,nnHeHHbie» BoctoHHbie cnaBRHe 

He 6yfl6M BB33blBaTbCB B CnOp OTHOCHTeObHO 3THM^eC- 

xoro cocTaea HaceneHHH, «pacoBovi 4HCT0Tbi» ero OTfle/ib- 
hhx rpynn (kto h3 hmx «HacTOHiune» nonflKW. a kto «ononH- 
HeHHwe» yxpanHuw, Senopycw. nwTOBUb*) m «mckohhhx npaB» 

TOM urtH HHOM HaUMW Ha Ty MHM MHyiO TeppMTOpuKl. Beftb 

ccwnKa Ha «ucKOHHbie npaBa Hannn» aHTHHaynHa n aHTwuc- 
TopuHHa. Hctopmkh 3naH3T: Hauwfl He ABnueTca HenaMeHHWM 
oSpaaoeaHweM — ee cocraB, aaux, KynbTypa, caMoomyu4e- 
Htie Ha npoT««eHnn Bexos HenpepbiSHO MewawTCfl. Apean ee 
noceneHMB hb 3a4)HKCMpoBaH pas n HaBcerfla. y xa>Kfloii 
HaqHM aa Bc» ee mctophkj oh hb pa3 n3MeHsncn xaK uenoe, to 
m Aeno coKpaiyancfl nnn pactuHpancfl! Koraa apryMeHT «cot- 
hh neT Hasaa b t3kom-to Mecre npowweaft TaKOM-To HapoA, 
3H3HMT, m ceM^ac 3to MecTo no npasy npMHafijieKHT eMy »e» 
ncnonb3yeT noriMTHK — sto cBWjeTenbCTByeT o ero uhhhsmc 
wenannH noaHATb m ncnonb3oaaTb b cbohx uennx sortHy 
HaunoHanw3Ma h KceHoc|}o6nn Kor^a x<e 3tot apryMBHt mc- 
nonbayeT aBTop, npeTeHflytotuwki Ha 3BaHne nciopuxa, — 3to 

2 Cm , nanpuuep. 0yHda*fe«/narJbMyw xmjey n. nonnwa ■ KQpmabi deyx 
dvKmamyp*, Mocnaa. 1996. 



cBMfleTenbCTByer o ero He Berne CTee m Hay^HOti HecocTon- 

TeflbMOCTM 3 . 

Tbk B rpuseHKO nonoiuen k CBoeMy rjiaenoMy BbiBOAy: 
paa 100 twcbm kb. km, nony^ieHHWX no/ibme* b 1945 roay, bo- 
nepBbix, xpoBbto nojinieoB onnaneHbi HeaocTaTOHHo h, bo- 
btopux. He MoryT CMHTaTbCA KOMneHcauMen sa ieppnTopn- 
aribHbte noiepn Ha soCTOKe, to 3HaMMT, aro — npeflocraB- 
neHHan Cobbtcxmm Coh330m KOMneHcauHB aa penpeccviw: 
oTnpaBKy a 30-40-e roflw e narepfl r/JlAra h na cneunocene- 
HMe coTeH TwcnH jxMTenew floaoeHHOfi noribiuH (ot ce6n 
yTOHHMM — 6onee nonyMMjuiHOHa), a Tatoxe 3a K33HM b 1939- 
1940 rr. oko/io 25 twchh no/ibcxnx rpawflaH. 

M HesawHo, hto sto KOMneHcauwH 3a ny*<otf chbt (Beflb 
ne cboh me Teppniopnn CCCP oTflaBan flonbuje), hto aaSbi- 
Tbi BenMKo6pnTaHMB vt CILIA, KOTopwe BMecTe c CCCP npHHH- 
Ma/in peuieHHe o nepeaane aeMerib! 06 ywep6H0CTM npMH- 
UHna «TeppMTopnM b oOmoh Ha penpeccMM* ywe roBopwnocb 
Bbiiue. 3flecb cnpocviM rmiub. noneMy B. rp^BeHxo orpawn- 
suncn To/ibxo nepnoaoM 1939-1940 rr., pasee rioawe xasHeii 
He 6w/io? Beflb *i3 apxMBHWxflOKyMeHTOB HKBfl cneflyei, 4TO 
Tonbxo Ha py6ewe MioHH-moriH 1941 roaa, a nopsflxe Tax 
Ha3wBaeM0M « aBaxyauwM TiopeM » 3anaflHwx o6nacTeM yCCP 
h BCCP, Sbinw paccTpenHHbi 6ea cyfla eme OKono 10 Tbictm 
nonbCKHx rpa>*uiaH* 

B xanecTBe eme oaworo apryMCHTa npoTMB fla/ibHeiiujHx 
KOMneHcaMuA nonnxaw ynoMMHaiOTcn h 600 Tbicsm cobbtckhx 
BoeHHOcnywaiflHX, naBiunx b 6ohx hpothb Hewuea Ha Bcew 
TeppnTopnH cospeMeHHOM nonbiun (b tom MMcne Ha 6t>iBiunx 
repMBHCKMx 36Mnflx, nepeflaHHwx rionbiue b 1945 roay), B 
«nontiTnviecxQM apn0MeTHKe» B. TpHBeHKo mx ri»6enb — aro 
eme o/iHa paaMeMHas MoneTa «b ynnaTyw 3a coBeTcxne 
waccoawe penpeccwn npoTMB nonbCKMx rpa>KflaH BoTTo/ibxo 
HauJM KpacHoapMeitubi o tom He AoraflbiBanucb. ohm wnTa- 
nw, mto ne maaflT cbomx *n3Hen b 6opb6e c (pauiH3MOM! 

Henb3fl cornactiTbCn m c 3axnK>HMTenbHbiM TeaticoM B. 

rpUBCHKO O TOM, MTO B OTHHHMe OT repMaHCXHX H314MCTOB. 

npuLueflujMx k enacTH nerHTMMHbiM nyTeM, SonbLueanKw no- 
nyMWiH snacTb e pe3ynbTaTe aaBoeBaHMfl CTpaHbi, a 3HannT. 
oTseTCTBenHocTb coapeMeHHOM Poccmm aa npecTynneH^n 
TOTanwTapHoro coBeTCKoro pe>XMMa MeHbtue, ueu OTBeT- 
CTaeHHOCTb TepMaHMM aa npecrynneHMs rHTriepnaMa 

Bpnfl nM cnpaBeflriHBO rtpeflCTaBnnTb poccMiicKoe 06- 
iLiecTao HeBMHHOM wepTBoPt anofleeB-6onbiueBHKOB. Bonb- 
LueBM3M Bbtpoc He Ha KaxOM-HMSyab. a Ha poccmmckom nonae. 
Be a Ma ceo bom noflAepWKU co ctopohw oahmx m naccttBHoro 
cornackw co CTopoHbi apyrux cnoes o6uiecTBa penpeccuB- 
Han cobbtckbh CHCTeMa He Morna 6w cymecTBOBaTb b Tene- 
Hue flecfiTMneTWM KaxaTo hm nenanbHo, tb hhm MHaH OTBeT- 
CTBeHHocTb, bo bchkom cnynae. MoparibHan, sa npecTynne- 
hmr coBeTCKoro pewMMa ne«MT Ha Bcex rpax<flaHax cTpaHbt, 
nepexoflH h na HHHeLUHwe noxoneHHn, — BeAb we CTaneM >xe 
Mu OTpeKBTbCfl ot cbomx poAMTeneii M AeflOB. B OTHOUJOHMM 
ce6n m cbocm cTpanbi — repManHH — HbiHeujHMe HBMi|bi 
noHHHM 3T0 HaMHoro paHbtue H3C 

CTeneHb MopanbHOw oTaercTBeHHOCTM KajKflbiii onpe- 
fle^neT atih ce6a caw . Onpeflenwn ee m Ambh TyneeB a ceoeii 
CTaTbe «Henh3x mumb wa ko/)shj?x», swuieflujeM e «HeaaBM- 
cmmom ra36Te>» 6 oktb6ph 2000 roAa. ripMMeM onpeaeriMn He 



3 Ba wno main commj nam — acoso 55 nam mooty naiad aOcorvomnoe 
6onbujijncmeo waee/tewi/H flbaoea u BunttHioca cocmaennnu nonnKO. ho 
sow 6bi na 3mou oc»oeanuu Kmo-nu6ydb causae nampe6oea/t eepnymti 
rionbiue amu ommopsnymbia a peaynkmame coeemacou aspeccuu so- 
poda, mo smo mpeCoaawue 6bino 6bi coeepuieHHQ enpaeadnueo onmno- 
neno — eeib causae mat e 6onbUJUncntae npoxuaaiom ynpaunu,bi u 
numoaitbi- 

4 Cu nanpuuep. cmambio ATypMHoaa u AKoxypuHB a 6 nouepe 
poccuQCKoaa ucmopuHecxozo u npaeoaawomwwo wyp»ana nHapma* 
3a 1994 a 



A fypbEHOB riopoMHafl apwcjDMeTMKa 



15 



TonbKo otir ce6n, ho h aha Bceii crrpaHbi: «...C KOMnneKCOM 
BHHbi hb o6psTeiub Kpw/ibfl Ann aaribKeMwero aenweHHa... 

nOKaflOHCb — BCT3HBM B nOflHUM pOCT» 

HenOHHTHo. Ha kskom ocHoaaHHM A Tyneea yTBep)Kaa- 
bt, mto «KOMnneitc bmhn cran bhsmthow xapraHKOM Pocchh», 
mo «Pocchp noKannacb n noBnnnnacb». l"loao6HOB yTaepw- 
A6Hne aenaeT n Bnaa^MMp fla^inec b caoeu ctaTbe «Poccnn 
- noribtua* a «He3aancnMou ra3ere» 3a 3 HonSpn 2000 roaa 
CTpaHHo. ho TaKoe npn3HaHne bmhw npowno a Pocchh Heaa- 
MeMeHHbiM. Beflb npeerynneHMfl npoiunoro ao cvtx nop O0n- 
unanbHo «e Ha3BaHbi y «ac npecrynneHHUMn Bchomhhm 
xota 6w nonyTOparoflUMHow aaBHOCTH aasBneHne pocckhc- 
Koro MUfla c 0tkb3Om npn3HaT D coseTCKoe aiopwenne b 
rioribiijy b ceHT«6pe 1939 roaa aKTOM arpeconn. 

(loao6HO B. TpHBeHKo. Amsh Tyneea HcnaseayeT Te3nc 
o6y3ypnaqnn BnaciH 6onbi*jeanKaMn v\ ontcynauMH nun POC- 
CHH (B HaCTHOCTM, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 33 WKpaCHblM T6ppOp» OH 

aoanaraei Ha naTwwcKHx cTpenxoB), noapaayMeBan. mo TeM 
caMbiw npoSneMa rpawaancKOw OTBeTCTaeHHOcm c hbc chm- 
uaeTcn. 

Ben CTaTbB A. TyneeBa, xacaiomaflCfl He ronb«o rionbuiH, 
n3o6nnyeTaeMarornHecKHMn npneMaMH (KaK h ero HHTepatra 
AHflpeio POMaHOBy, onyonnKoeaHwoe b «He3aencnM0M rase- 
re» 3a 3 Hon6pn). (Danam saecb KpaTKo ocTaHOBMMCH nnujb 
na aonymeHHbix hm ncKa>KeHnnx cpaKTOB, othocaiumxcji k 

MCTOpUW pOCCHHCKO-nO/lbCKHX OTHOW6HHM. 

Tn6enb KpacHoapMenuea b nonbCKOM nnewy b 1919- 
1 92 1 rr. y Hac s crpa He ywe necxonbKO neT nbtTaioTca ncnonb- 
30B3Tb 3 xaHecrae «npOTMBOBeca» KaTbiHCKOMy npecrynne- 
hwo. Bot h A. Tyneee o6bhhh6T rionbiuy b KBapsapcKOM 
yHMHTowenMH 80 TbicflH nneHHwx KpacHoapMei^ueB... b 
nonbCKHx KOHiyiarepnx, nbiTKax. a kotopwx npeBocxoannn 
3BepcTBOM nananen OcBenunMa*, yrBep)KAan npn 3-tom, hto 
HbiHeLUHnn rionbiua BO06uie naBeraeT o6cyxqeHnn 3tow rpa- 
reflnM. 

Kan n B. TpnBeHKo, AMan TyneeB hb ogpeMenneT ce6n 
ooocKOBaHneM cbomx yTBepxaeHHH n ccwnxaMM Ha nccneao- 
sanMfl. K cMacTbto, "HesaancuMan ra3eia» b nowepe 3a 19 
orrB6pti 2000 roaa npeaociaBHfia cjiobo nontcKOMy hctoph- 
ny 36HrHB9y Kapnycy. ony6nMKOBaaujeMy eiye b 1991 rofly 
«Hnry «Jertcy i tntemowani rosyjscy i ukrainscy w Polsce w 
lalach 1918-1924* (*PyccKnewyKpanHCKne9oeHHonjieHHbie 
w MHTepHMpoBaHHbie b rionbiue a 1918-1924 roaax»), 

CornacHO SbiKflaaKaw 3 Kapnyca, ocHOBaHHWM naaoKy- 
MBHTax no/ibCKHx apxnaoB, H3 1 10 twcjim KpacHoapMenuea, 
nonaBWMX b xoae nonbCKO-coaeTCKon bohhw 1919-1920 rr. s 
narepn BoeHHonneHHwx Ha TeppwopMH nont»iLin, ywiapnn 
oKono 15-18 twchh nenoBBK, npewae Bcero ot HeaoeaaHHS m 
6one3Hefi 3. Kapnyc m apyne nonbcswe aBTopw, npHBoan 
pna 0aicroB )«ecTOKoro o6pameHK» c aoeHHonneHHUMH, hx 
6eacTBenHOro nonomennfl a narepsx, BMecTe C TeM onpoBep- 
ra«T Bepcwio o npeawaMepeHHOM w ueneHanpaaneHHOM hc- 
Tpe6neHHM KpacHoapwe^uea a nneHy 

B Hanane 1990-x roaoe no/ibCKan dopoHa npeano)Knna 
POCChmck^m HCTopmtaw cawnu n3yMHTb nonbCKne apxMBHbie 
MaTepwanw no aioiii TeMe. Ecnw Hawa OTesecTBeHHwe no- 
6opHnx« KOHtienuHK «KOHTp-KaTWHw» (BwiWHao aBTopoe 
«He3aBncMMOH raseTus. «l/l3BecTnw» 3a 17 HOflSpn 2000 
roaa , «Bepcnn») HecornacHw c nofibCKHMH hctopuksmh no 
cymecTBy — nycTt aoKyMeHTanbHO ocnapHBaiOT hx ebiBoau 
h noqcHBTbi (KaK 3Toae/iaeT HpnHa MMxyinna b *HeaaBncH- 
moh raaeTeo ot 13 RHeapn 2001 r.), a He ae3HHtJx>pMnpyK)T 
poccniiCKHx MMTaTenew, 3ansrifiH o MormanHH nontCKOM cto- 

POHM. 

Bo3mojkho, HOBwe MccneaoeaHKfl nosBonm yroHHHTb 

KapTHHy coSbiTwii 80-neTHeii aaBHOCTn n, b nacTHocTn, nepe- 
CMOTpeTb oubhkh 36n™eaa Kapnyca. oaHaKO *nonnTnxo- 



apH0MeTHHecKKH» nooxoa. npeanonaraiomMfl aasaHMoaa- 
^eT» KarwHH sa rn6enb nneHnwx KpacHoapMeiiueB h 0aKTH 
hbckm o3HaMaiomnH nonnos npeHe6pe*6Hne k wepTaaM i 

CrpaaaHMHM MX pOflCTBeHHHKOB, H6O6XOAHM0 OTBBprHyTb 

cpasy. 

OaHaKO aepHeMCfl k AMany Tyneeay, KOTopwfi coana- 
TenbHO h/im no HeanaHnio bboamt HMTaTenen b 3a6ny>KaeHHe 
h no apyruM acnexraM poccHScito-nonbcxwx oTHoujennH. B 
HacTHOCTH, b roaw. npeautecraoBaBtune nairry «MonoroBa- 
pM66eHTpona», CCCP HMKoraa He aanpaiunBan rionbiuy o 
npoaneMHH MnpHoroaorosopa, n6oa 3tom He 6uno HHKaxovi 
hbo6xoahmocth: mmphuh aorosop 1921 roaa, saKntonehiHbiti 
b Pure. 6bin 6eccpOMHbiM, a a 1932 roay 6wji eme 3axnioHeH 
C0eeTCKO-nojibCKMkinaKTOHeHanaaeHMH,npoaneHHbiHBl934 
roay na cneayramne 10 net (t. e. ao 1944 roaa), 

CTom. Me 6e3aoKa3aTenbHO yraepwaeH na A- Tynee Ba o 
noBcewecTHOM xapaKTepe ocKBepHeHws. npn nonycnirenb- 
cTBe anacTeii, KJiaaSumcoBeTCKnx bohhob, nornSLiJHx b 1 944- 
1945 rr. a xoae 0CB06o)KaeH4H rionbtuH. f\a, k cowansHHK). b 
nocneaniie roaw b no/ibwe nMenw mbcto nocTwanwe airrw b 
OTHoujeHMM OTaenbHux Knaa6Hin Haiawx conaaT. OAHara 
TaKMe cayHan H3B6CTHbi HanepeHeT. KaK npaBMno, K/iaa6niaa 

COB6TCKHX BOHH08 nOaaBp)«MBaK)TCfl B (lonblue B aOCTOMHOM 

cocTOfiHUM. 9\ caM HMen BO3M0M«0CTb y6eanTbCn a 3tom b 
othowbhhu KnaA6maa e ropoaKe KaraHb Ha 3anaae rionbun, 
Koraa b 0TB6T Ha aanpoc, OThpaBneHHufl no npocbSe oaHoro 
m wnTenew CwKTWBKapa, nen poaCTBeHHH* Boesan a norn6 
a Tex MecTax b tpeBpane 1 945 roaa, mu nonyniinH us nonbwn 
caenannwe ann nac 0oTorpatpviH sroro 6naroycTpoeHHoro 
iyiaa6nina M noapoSHyro cxeMy pacnonoMceHMn wornn. 

CaM AMan Tyneea He npMBOflUT hh KaKnx-rn6o cTainc- 
THHecKHx aannbix, noaTBepwaaoiawx «nOBCeMeCTHOCTb» oc- 
KBepHeHHH Knaa6nuj coaeTocnx conaaT, hk (pairroB, no3eo- 
nnroiaMx o6anHHTb nonbCKHe BnacTM b nonycTMTenbCTae sto- 
My no3opnoMy HaneHHto. Mojkho hb cornamaTbca c peweHw- 
eM ropOflCKMX enacTeS KpaKoaa o napeHoca Me mop nana 
cobstckum aoHHaM, naeujHM npn ocsoOoxuseHHH ropoaa, ho 
nasaaTb stot nepeHoc ocKBepneHiieM spna n« bo3mo>kho. K 
coxcanennK), saneHne HaapyraTenbCTBa Haa wiaaCumaMH hb 
nywao m Hatueii CTpane: b HacTHOCTM. a okth6pb 1996 roaa y 
AepeBHH Hobmkobo PMaHCKOM o6nacTH 6wno Bapaapc«n 
paspyiueHO oano W3 046Ht> He«HOrnx b Pocchm MeMopMant- 
hwx Knaa6nuj yMepujux a sawiiOHeHnn nonbCKMx rpa>«aaH» 
(MOrM/ibt 6onbajnncT3a H3 hhx b apyrux Mecrax vt noHbtne 
0CTaK}TCflB3a6BeHnn), Khbcth MecTHwxnpaeooxpaHHTenb- 
hwx opranoB, anoyMbioineHHWKn 6wnn ycTanOBneHbi h nowec- 
nn HaKasanns s yronoBHOM nopnAKe, Mu ocyi«aaeM ocKsep- 
Henwe MOrnn bhs sasHCHMOCTH ot toto, b Kaxoi* CTpane oho 

npOMCXOAHT 

OTBepran Heao6pocoeecTHocTb apryMQHTauMH A. Tyne- 
eaa. HentsB, BMecTe c TeM, He npnBeTCTBOsaTb 0aKT. hto h 
3tot aBTop «Ha3aBMCHMOH ra3BTbi» ny6nnHH03aTponyn npo- 
6neMy OTBeTcraeHHocTK aa Haiue TOTanwTapHoe npoiunoe. 
3HaHMT, npo6neMa HaKOHeu-To HannHaeT npoHMKaTb a poc- 
cuMCKoe oSmecTseHHoe co3HaHne — h sto ecermei naaew- 
Ay. 

^. MocKea 

S Ha 3mou me Kftad6uute noxopononbi euie o ne»euKue eoeHHort/iex- 

Hbie u UHmepnupoeaHHhie 

CfTPg gwa "Kaorribi* : f7y6nuxyBMsi(i metcm e cepeduHe oxmnSpfi 

2000 soda 6bin npednomen pedaxuMi «rH83a8ucu*»ou aa3emw», 
HOmopatt coo6tuuna aemopy 06 omttass s ny6mjKauuu. 8 (peepann 

2001 aoda rOGtMBR zaaema* onySnuxoea/ia conpawfiHnbti) ampoe 
aapuBHm meiccma nod HaaeaHuew * C penp8ccupoeannhix npuHuma- 
emcti?* Mypnan «Kapma» npadnaeaam ewuMawuw vumsme/ied 
nonHbiii mBKcm pa6omtj. 



II 



4 



APXl/IB 




CoBepiueuo npectynAeHne_ 
Hanaro cAeACTBHe 

OKOHH6HO CAeACTBHe 

AeAO nocrynHAO b BT 

PaccMOTpeHO b 113 



KOnHH 



npuroBOP 

MMEHEM COK)3A COBETCKMX COUHAAHCTHHECKMX PECnYEAHK 

6 AeKa6pH 1949 r. 
BOEHHblH TPMEYHAA AEHHHrPAACKOPO BOEHHO-MOPCKOFO TAPHH30HA 

b cocTSBe: npeAceAaTeAbcreyioiaero — Matiopa iocthi;mm — KoBaAeBa, 

HapoAHUx 3aceAaTGAeK: KaimraHa 2 panra nacKHHa h HHHceHep — Mafiopa LUepcraGHTOBa. 

npH cesperape — KannTaHe — CanyceBe, 

c yMacTneM 3aMCCTHTeA» BoeHHoro nposypopa BMM Ar noAnoAKoBHHKa KxrrHUHH ApBaH n aABOKaTOB 
Ao6bi3eHKo h KpoAeHKO, b saRpUTOM cyAe6HOM 3aceAaHHH, b TpH6ynaAe, paccMOTpeB a^ao no o6bh — 
KeHHfo CAymaTeAea Boemto — MopcKofi MeAHijHHCKon AKaAeMHH — 

KannraHa MeAHunncKofi CAy«6bi — AOAHACbEBA Hropa 

BccBOAOAOBHHa, 1924 roAa pojkaouhh. ypojReHi;a ropoAa AeHHHrpaAa, 

pyccKoro, 6ecnapxHHHoro. ao bochhoh CAy»6bi yMameroca, jKeHaToro, 

na hi x 'ii mm cAy«6e c 1 942 roAa, patiee He cyAHMoro » 

craptnero AeftTenaHTa mcahumiickoh cAy*6u — AAEKCAHAPOBCKOrO 

BaAHMa TeHHaAHeBiiia, 1924 roAa po)KAeHHH, ypo»e«ua ropoAa 

CTaAHHrpaAa, pyccKoro, <LAena nap-ran c 1940 roAa, ao bochhoh 

CAyjK6u ynaiuerocs, na bochhoh cAy»6e c 1941 roAa. fltenaToro, 

panee He cyAHMoro. — 
o6ohx. b npecrynAeHHH. npeAycMorpenHoM cr.58- 10 v. 1 YK PCOCP, — 



ycTanoBMA HMJKecAeAyiomee: 

AcpaHacbes h AAeKcaHApoBCKHH, HannHaH c 1946 roAa, cpeAn OKpy«aiotUHX nx CAyuiaTeAefi Bochho- 
MopcKOM MeAHUHHCKon AKaAeMHH npoBOAHAH airracoBeTCKyK) nponaraHAy. nanpaBAeHHyio npoTHS 
MeponpmmiH, npoBOAHMUX coBeTCKHM npaBHTeALCTBOM. a hm9hho: ocenbio 1946 roAa, nocAe onyOAHKO- 
Baijna nocTanoBAoitHM I4K BKFIJ6) o JKypHaAax «3Be3Aa» n «AeHHHrpaA». ohh na ceMsmapcKHx saHHTHHx 
b npHcyrcTBHH p«Aa ahm BbicrynaAH c afrracoBeTCKOH oueHKon 3Toro nocraHOBAeHHH. 

B 1947 roAy na saHimiHx no AHaACKTH^ecKOMy MaTepnaAH3My BMcrynaAH c BonpocaMH npoBOKauH- 
OHHoro xapaKTepa, noABCpraa coMHeHmo oTAeAbHbie noAoxtenHH 3Toh na>Kn, h pacnpocrpaHaAH cpeAH Tex 
*e cAymaxeAen aKaAeMHH aHexAOTU aHTHcoBeTCKoro coAep»aHH». 

B 3TOM *e 1947 roAy AcpanacLos BocxeaAHA >KH3Hb pafioqnx b AvepnKe h KAeBeraA na noAOJKeHHe 
pa6o«JHX h nn^enepoB b CoseTCKOM Coiose, a AAeKcaHApoBCKHH Tamse KAeBeTHUMccKn OT3hiBaAcs o 
MaTepnaAfcHOM noAo«enHH pa6oHHX CoaeTCKoroCoioaa ii socxBaAAA ycAOBHa jkh3hh paooinx <J>hhahh — 
AHH. KpoMe Toro, AcpanacteB b 1948 roAy pacnpotrrpaHflA coAcp^anne aHTHCOBeTCKHx nepeAan 
3arpaiiHHHbtx paAHocTanqMn «Bn — Eh — Ch» h «Toaoc AMepnxH», KAeseraA na AeMOKpaTHto h cntreMy 

Bhl6opOB, a AAeKCaHApOBCKHH B aHTHCOBeTCKOM AVXe 3a»BAHA 06 OTCyTCTBHH nOMHHHOH AeMOKpaTHH B 
CoBeTCKOM Coro3e. 



4 



APXHB 



17 



CTpaHHija 2 

BuHODtiocTb Atpatiacbesa h AAeKcaHAposcKoro noATBep>KAaeTcs nona3aHHHMH cBHAeTeAe&: Mopo30Ba. 
Ae6eAa. EeTaKH. Aannbix hmh Ha npeABapicreAbHOM cacactbhh h Ha cyAe. CBHAeTeAHMH: HxAaKosa, FapaH, 
flHHKHHa h Kapa>tyrAHHoBa, AaHHux hmh na npeABapirreAbHOM cacactbhh. 

floAcyAHMbie Ha npeABapHTeABHOM cacactbhh npH3HaAH ce6a bhhobhblmh b hoahom o6'eMe npeA*«B — 
AeHHoro oSBHHenHH. a Ha cyAe npH3naAH ce6a bhhobhljmu lacTHMHO. 

Ha ocHOBaHHH H3AojKeHHoro, Been huh TpHOynaA npH3HaA AcpanacfeeBa h AAeKcaHApOBCKoro bhhob — 
HbiMH b npOBeAeHHH aHTHcoBeTCKofl nponaraHAbJ. T.e. b npecTytiAeHHH, npeAyCMOTpeHHOM ct, 58— 10 1.1 
YK PC<J)CP, h. pyKOBOACTByacb ct. 319 h 320 YTIK PCOCP, BoeHHbiH TpH6yuaA 

npnroBopHA: 

AdJAHACbEBA Mropa BceeoAOAOBH^a H 
AAEKCAHAPOBCKOTO BaAHMa TeHHaAHeBHHa 

3a coBepiueiiHbie hmh npeciynAeHMH, Ha ocHOBaHHH ct.58— 10 h,1 YK PC<DCP, AHtiiHTb cboooau b 
HcnpaBHTeAtHo-TpyAOBbix Aarepnx cpoKOM Ha Aecsrn. (10) AeT KaJKAoro, c nopaaceHHeM b noAHTHHecKHx 
npaBax Ha HeTbipe 14) roAa Ka*Aoro h c AHiiieHHeM npaB na Homemie MeAaAefi AtpaHacteea : «3a oSopony 
AeHHHrpaAasi, «3a no6eAy "^A TepMaHHeH b Bcahkoh OTenecTBeHHOH bohhc 1941 — 1945 rr.» h «XXX AeT 
CoBeTCKOH Ap.MHH H fl>AOTat> h AAeKcaHApoBCKoro — « 3a noSeAy HaA TepMaHHefi b Bcahkoh OreHecTBeH — 
hoh bohhc 1941 — 1945 rr.» H «XXX act CoBeTCKoA ApMHH h <t>AOTa». 

3aHecrb ocyjKAeHHbiM npeABapwTeAhHoe ao cyAa 3aKAJOieHHe h cpoK or6biTHH HaKa3annH Hc^HCAHTb 
AcpaHacbeBy c 27 aBrycTa 1949 roAa, a AAeKcaHApOBCKOMy c 29 aBrycra 1949 roAa. 

llpHroBop Mo»ceT 6brrb oS^cajVOBaH b saccauHOHHOM nopHAKe b BoeHHbiH TpHSynaA bohckoboh MacTH 
10727, yepe3 BoeHHbiH TpitSyHaA AeHBoeHMoprapnH30Ha BTeieHHe 72 nacoB, c MOMetrra Bpy^eHHH kohuh 
npHrosopa ocy>KAeHHbiM, 



nOAAHHHblH 3a HaAAe*amHMH nOAnHCHMH, 

c noAAHHHbiM BepHo: nPEACEAATEAbCTBYlomMPl 

Maftop IOCTHUHH — 

/ KOBAAEB / 
noAnHCb, neiaTb: "BoeHnuft TpHfiyHaA AeHHHrpaACKorc BM TapHH30Ha» 



«riojio>KeHuie yHMTenew xy>Ke apecTaHTCKoro...» 



S ceKpemnbix o&30pax nonumunecKozo cocmoFmn 
CCCP, Komopbie aomoeuna Boc6e3onacHocmb (06bedu- 
HeHHoe rocydapcmeeHHoe fionufr,u^ecKoeynpee/ienue). no- 
cmoMHo npucymcmeoeanu dea unacca — padovue u Kpec- 
mwwe. MspedKa naxodunocb Mecmo u d/w dpysux couu- 
anbHhtx apynn. B cnedymtneM o6?ope eoeopumcst o ce/ibc- 
kom yvumenbcmee. (QKmnGpt, 1926 eoda.) 

PusaHCKaa aySepnuft. y^MTe/ib rM6nnUKOM uixonbi Ka- 
cwMOBCKoro yeaaa roBopm: «MHTennnreHTHOMy Me/ioaexy b 
HacrotiLuee BpeMB nmt MpeasuHaiiHo Tpyflno. Pa6oMMM Ha 
3aaofle Kapna Jln6KHexTa nonyMaei 100 p,, a y^eHwn neno- 
B6K — 40 py6.» 

roMenbCKan ey6epHtin. Cpenn yMMTeneii Hocobmmc- 
kow BonocTM rowenbCKoro ye3fla oTMenaeTcn He/ioBoribCTBo 
hh3kiim ypoBHew sapnnaTbi V^MTenb 3n6poBcxoti LUKonu b 
pasroaope co cbommw KOJinerawn aanBun: unenaTb cooSma- 



eT, hto SiOflmeT ToMenbCKOM ry6. eoapoc na 100 % npoTMB 
npomnoro roaa. a 3apnnaTa ynmenflM ocra/iacb Ha npewneM 
ypOBHe m no mohm noncneraM paeHa 12 p. 50 k. aoBoeHHbix. 
Pas Tan, Hajtto n paooiaTb Ha 12 p. 50 k.» 

YuancKuu oxpya. B >KaiuKOBCKOM paiioMe ynnTenfl ro- 
Bop«T: «B oicpyx<HOM qeHTpe hs paaHbix cpaSpuxax m aaBOflax 
OTBeTCTBeHHbie pa6oTH«Kn no/iy^awT KonoccanbHoe *ano- 
saHwe n o6>KMpa(OTCa, a Mbi, 3epK3Jio CoBenacTH. aa6biTbie, 
3a6poiueHHbie, cymecreyeM Ha 30 py6.. aoiukhw snaMMtb 
xcamoe cymecTBOBaHMe m BWHocwrb ace rpyflHOCTM Ha cboux 
firenaxn. 

MuHycuHCHuu ottpye. ynHTenb cpeflHeii LUyiueHCKOM 
ujKonw (nneH BKH) roBopwn: wYHHTenbCKoe wanoBaHwe Kpai^- 
He HeaocTaTowHo fl hmbkj Meny m peSewa h hhksk He Mory 
cnpasviTb ce6e m jtcene oSyBM. MMeio Bcero oahm 6pto«n, na w 
re Tpe6y>OT KanmanbHoro peMOHia. Oco6eHHo rnweno cy- 



II 



4 



APXflB 



mecTBOBaTb Ha yMWTenbCKoe wa/ioeaHne HaujeMy 6paTy — 
ceMenHOMy» 

flepeoMauCKuO otcpya (YKpauna). B MecTeHKe flodpo- 
Benm-iicoeKa, Toro xce pawoHa, yHMTennM He BbinjianeHa 3ap- 
nnaTa 3a 3 Mecaua. 6naroaapR MeMy Heo6ecneHenHas qacrb 
yMMTenbCTea *nBeT nonTu Bnporonoflb. 

BfloMaHOBCKOM pawone yHHTentcrey PMKom He Bwrina- 
hsho xcanoBaHne eme aa asrycT MecBu.. 

CapamoecKan sySepmift, AmaxapcKUU ye3d. BanaH- 
Awhckmm 8MK MMeeT agaonwceHHOCTb no sapnnare yMMTen«w 
3a 5 MBCHuea. ynonHOHOHeHHwe BUKa, npoaoflfl KawnaHMio 
no coopy HeflOMMOK, na JKanoSw xpecTbBH, hto nnaTwrb 
hb4bm. 3aaenfiK)T, mto fleHbra HyxHbi pjm noraweHMB aaaon- 
>kbhhocth no sapnnaTe yMWTenflM. KOTOpue Bxo6bi rp03«T 
BUKy cyAOM. noaoSHbie 3aBaneHn« BoccTaHasnuBatOT Hace- 
neHHe npoTUB yMMrenbCTBa, 

TpoutjKuu oxpya (Ypan). B HMWHe-yser bcxoM paitoHe 
yMMTennM cncTeMaT«HecKM 3aflep)KHBaeTca awn/iaTa sapn- 
naTbi. TaK, HanpMMep. yMHTenbCTBO noc neTposcxoro »e 
nonyviH/io saprtnaTy eme 3a n»OHb weeny, CpeaciBa. nojiyva- 
sF/bie PMKom H3 oxpyra na ewnnaTy 3apnna™ yMMrennM, 
pacxoAy»TCfl Ha ortnary Bexcenea no nocrpoiSxe PMKobckom 
MenbHMuw. 

BnadueocmoK, fJocbemcKuu pauoH. yMvrrenbCKWM nep- 
conan pawona ywe TpeTMM Mecsu ne nonyMaeT 3apnnaTy, Ha 
HeoaHOKpatHbie 3anpocbt co ctodohw yMHTe/ieM o BpeMeHM 
BbinnaTbi 3apnnaTbi PUK He OTBeMaeT. 

kf3K>MCHuQ onpyz (YKpauna). 1 2 yHMTeneM c AHApees- 
Ka u npwneraiomux xyTopos nonanw saflBneHMe 06 yBonbHe- 
hmh, MOinBwpy« CBOfi yxoA T8M. mto Mano rmatsT, aa h to 
HecBoeBpeueHHo. y^MTenn BbmnHynn noayw: «P336erawcs. 
trro tcyna MoweT». 

MpxymcKuu onpya (Cu6upb). CpeAM wpKyTCKOro yww- 
TenbCTBa na noMBe HeAOBonbCtaa MarepviaribHbiM nonowe- 
hh6m Benacb armada sa o6bHBneHne 3a6acTOBKn. Pacnpo- 

CTpaHfinHCb B033B3HI4H M HMCTKM. npM3b)BaiOUH<e K 3a6aCTOB- 

kb. BMeiuaTenbCTBOM Py6. OHO 3a6acTOBKa 6wna npexpa- 
uiena. 

HumuHCKuu onpyz. V^nierif? KupbBHOBCKOro paiiOHa 
yxoflHT c paBoTbi e u/xonax vt nocTyna«T Ha pa6oTy «a 
wene3Hyra flopory. 

Kypcxap ay6epmin B rop. KopoMM Ha aonoCTHOii yviw- 
TenbCKOM KOHt|)epeHHMH no Bonpocy 06 yHacTviw ynnTeneft b 
o6mecTBeHHOti paSoie b flepeBHe Bwcrynun y^MTenb cno6o- 
flbi PloropenoBKH vt 3aflann. ^to «Hy>KHo cHanana HaKopMMTb 
yMMTe/iH, a hotcm yme HaeR3bisaTb eMy BceBoauo^Hbie ponn 
b flepeBHe». C aHaiiornHHbiM aansneHMSM no Bonpocy o& 
oBmecTBeHHow pa6oTe ewcTynwn npeflMecTKOMa Be/iropoa- 



cKoro yeaaa h cKa3a/i: «flaeaib fleHe>«Ky w nonymiiijb o6we- 
CTBeHHyio pa6oTy». 

ffnenponempoacKUu onpyz. B c. nerpaKOBKa, Toro we 
paiioHa, ymiTenn cosepiueHHo He y^acTByiOT b pa6oTe ce/ib- 
6yaa nycTpanBatoTcneirraK/iHH pasHue 3aKpbtTbte Bene pun - 
km y ce6s na KBapmpax. KpecTbfme w.e B03MymeHU m roao- 
pBT: «HaM, KpecTbBHaM. npMfleTcs octaTbca oakum, m6o 
MHTennwrenutiB c naww He uaeT m pa6oiaTb c naMn He xohst» . 

KySaHCKuu onpya. B ct, yManCKOft rpynna peaKUMOHHo- 
HacipoeHHbix ynnTeneii BeaeT arMTatiMKi cpenn yMmenbCTBa 
06 OTKaae ot oSwecTBeHHOK pa6oTw b BMfle npOTecTa npoTwa 
HM3Koro ypoBHH sapnnaTw: «Kan HaM nnaTBi, raK uu h pa6o- 

TaTb 6yfl6M». 

YMaHCKuu oxpya. YvmenR b cenax BpoaeuKoe » Kono- 
AB3Hoe EKaTepMHononbCKoro pationa tobopbt: «nonoxteHwe 
y>-iMTeneki 6e3BwxoAHoe. bcjih nocTasnTbna ronocoaaHne, 3a 
koto mw ctomm: 3a uapB win coBBnacb. to mw ronocoBann 
6w 3a uapft». 

Ky6aHcxuu onpyz. ynMTenbHuua ct. ApxaHrenbCKOii 
THXOpeuKoro paiioHa cpeAM KpecTbBH roBOpHT. hto «BKfl 
coctomt M3 6ocbko8 m xynnr3H0B m npeACTaBnBeT M3 ce6s 
HeonpeaeneHHyto LuaMKy». 

yuMTenbHMua ct CnaefiHCKOM Torowe paiioHa, a BeceAe 
C TpeMfl Apyrnwn yMHTenbHuuaMn. ysepBna nocneaHMx o 
cxopoin naAeHHn cyutecTayioutero ctpob, yxaaaa, mto «HMne- 
ro, noTepnuM eme 6 MecBues h snactb M3MeHMTCB. B MocxBe 
xoMMyntiCTbi pa3Aennnncb na ABa narepfl: 3a KOMMyny m 

npOTUB KOMMtyHb), M T8. KTO npOTMB KOMMyHW, H06eABT. T.K. 3a 

hmmm eecb napoA K TOMy we Flonbiua BwcTaanna bomcio Ha 
rpaHMue m softHa Hen36e>KHa». 

ApuaeupcKuu oxpye, rpuaopuno/iuccKuu paOOH, 
lllKO/ibHwiS yviHTefib ct rpuropunonMccKOM b 6eceAe c Kpec- 
TbflnaMM roaopMT: «(1ycTb 6epyr Hanor. sto Tonbxo pastBpMT 
KpecTbBH, BeAb Asxce pa6oHMe v\ tb HeflOBonbHbi Ha co- 
BanacTb. a KpecTbBHe m TeM 6onee. Echh BAPyr 6yAeT 3asa- 
pyujKa trnw sowHa. to xpecibBne He npocTBT — ohm noKawyr, 
Kax c hwx 10 luxyp AP3Tb». OAHoapeMeHHO ysepfleT, mo 
BOMHa Hen36e*Ha 

KpacHonpcxuu OKpya. Ha oahom M3 paitoHHbtx KOHCpe- 
peHu^M y^MTenevi OTiueManacb cneayioinafl arviTauMB aHTM- 
coaeTCKM HacrpoeHHbix aneMBHTOB: «nono*eHwe ywHTene^ 
xyxe a pecTSHTCKoro noTOMy. hto rocyAapcTBO 6pocaeT 6onb- 
uine AenbrM Ha arMtauwo 3a rpaHuueM, Ha coAep*anne areH- 
rypbi m uinwoHOB, a noTOMy m nonyMaeTcn AetpML4MT b roc6toA- 
weTe*. 

(/7o MamepuanaM npospaMMhi «f\OKywenmbi 

npouinoao* Paduo CeoGoda, pedaxmop u eedymuu — 

nuca ma/ib AnamonuO Cmpananhtu) 



^ 




PoccniScxMfl npoexT ittypnana 'Index on Censorship* Mana/icfl a 4>BBpa/ie 1997 roAa, 
<Doha 3auiMTbt r/iacHOCTM — napTnep -Index on Censorship* no npoexry — y^peAMn xypHa/i 
■Aocbe Ha uenaypy >■. 

OcHOBnan aaAa^a poccniiCKOro myp»ana «MKAet(c/flocbe Ha uenaypy* — 3amnTa 
MHtjTOpMauMOHHOii cpeAw o6mthhmb le^oeexa ot paapyiUMre/ibHoro ao3AeMCT8HB enaCTM, 
xopnopaTMBHbix MHTepecoa m caMoro Henoaexa. 

M3A3Te/iH xypHana NanoMMHaioT, mto hbcmotpb Ha ottnuna/ibHyio OTMeny uensypbi b 
Poccmm, ona npoAonxtaei cyuie-CTBOBaTb a paaHbix oQnMsvinx. 

XypHan Mcc/ieAyer npo6^eMw AOCTyna x MHCpopMauMMi, vtaysaeT npaaoBoe no/ie, b 
xotopom cymecTayioT cpeACTBa MaccoBOM HHtfiopMauMM. 

Xypnafl ny6nt"xyeT npoM3BBABHMH MaaecTHbix nucaTenefl n nepeBOAHbie MaTepwa/iw wa 
aHr/ikiiicxoro "Index on Censorship- 

119021, Mocxsa, 3y6oscKHA 6ynbeap, a-4, komh.447 

Ten./+aKc: (095)201-5086 
E-mail: edit@index.org.ru http://www.lndex.org.ru 



d/ 



4 KPACHOE KOJ1ECO 



AHApew CYC/lOB 

ripoTOKOA OAHoro 3aceAaHHH 



CneunepcccaeHKc. opraHiuoBaHHoe CiaaitHbiM h bcphum tuy 
UonwrStopo. cop&aao e HacKWCHHbix steer h yparanoM noHGCJio b 

HCH3BCCTH0CTb COTMM TWC* 1 ) KpCCTMIH. TtDKCace BCWO UpHlliaoCb 

Tew, Koro 3axjiecTHyaa nepsas Boana immoh - pjHiieii BecHoii 1930 
r. Hmchho iia sro BpcMs npmiiaocb Ha noo.il> ui ec hmcjio 6eio6pa3HH, 
HconpaBaaKKoii "*ecroKOCTit, HapymeHHfi it 6e3 TOro MaaoryMaH- 
hux coseTCKHX jaKOHOB. B uuipoKou Maclina&e npaKTHKOBaawcb 
nu»a.it.nwf KomfiHCKaiwit i.noj rpepcHKy». buccichiid pacicyaa- 
> icii ti t.i\ !i hhctoc CHe»CHoe none •■ mi.i 6cpeiKy » « i . :i . BuccrteimuM 
bo BTopoit nojioBHKC 1930-ro - h Ha'ia-ie 1931-ro route npiuoaii- 

JlOCb HCCJiajlKO. IlcnOjIKOMU 11 XOiaiiCTBCHHhlCOpraHHiaUHH, B Hbe 

Bwemie noiia.ia.TM cncmicpcceaeiiubi, lie cnpaaajiaitcb e o6ycTpofi- 
ctbom orpoMKoro Hiicia awaefi. He Moraii ooecneHHTb CHa6»cnKc 
rtpoitOBO.ibCTBKeM k TOaapaMii nepBOfi hco6xojhmocth. opraHHio- 

BSTb CTpOllTejlbCTBO CFfOCHOrO fltliabR, 111 pVK BOH 1I/I0X0 BCHOCb 

rpyjoycTpoHCTBO. 

CcepcaHHw 193) roaa noaHTHHCCKoe pyKOBo.icTBo crpaHbi 
rtcpCHOcin aKUCHT nepeceaeHHecKOK noanritKH na ii3B.ie4eHiie 
wane ii vi a. ii.nui o xn >niicmcnnon' -ifytyeKit ot hx rpyaa. Cneunepe- 
ce;iCHUCB nepeaaioT b BcaeHitc Omy . jena* CTaBKV wa ajiMHKHCT- 

paTHBHbie B03MOKHDCTH )TOH op[ all It klllllil. HapJUY C 3T11M IipilllM- 

MaioTcit it apyrne Mepu. B HacTHoctit. npaaHTeabCTBo nouiao Ha 
pejKoe orpaHHHCHMe noaHTmecKHx npas cncunepcccacHiieB. oa- 
HOBpCMCHHO o5n3aB Bee xo3jiflcTBCHHbie opraKirjauiiit. Hcno.ib >\ m- 
uine iix Tpya, ypaBHdTb BbicaaitHtJx b CHa6*eHKH h onaare rpyaa c 
paooiitMH 1 , 

AHpeRTHBU ueHTpa o5cy*aa.mcb 11 npoBoaHancb b siinHb 
napntiiHbiM pyKonojcTBOM b pa'iaii'iiihix perwoHax trpani.i Ha 
laKpwTOM 3accjannn 6iopo ypa.io6h*OMa BKIH6), 4 aeryera 1931 
r.. oocywcaaacji oonpoc o cneunepece.ieHiiax. Ilcpca 3thm rpynna 
h.ichob ypajioSKOMa BKn(6), coBMecTHo c npeacraBHTejiMMH Omy, 
npoBcaa o6caeaoB8HHC ycbBHHCKKX Konefi h npnaoKauiHX k hhm 
cucuncpece/ieHHecKHx hocc.ikob. JXo nac aouiea npoTonoa iroro 
laceaaHnsv nepeaaKMiwii aTMOc<[>cpy BpeMomi 11 BKipoCBU 
napTHHHon sepxyiiiKH. AoKVMein pttcyci aeebwa HenpKraoHyio 
Kapi tiHv noaosKCHHH cneitnepcceacHUCB 11 pacKpueaCT noaxoau K 
peuicHHio lis npoSaeM napTiifiMMMit pynoBO.iHTC.mMii oG^acm. 

BCCbMa OTKpOBCHHO Bb!CKa3aniHHMM CBOH MMC-3H H3 33KpblTOM 

laceaaHMH. 

HcyaHBHTCibHO.MTOWHonteCTapbie nojxojw k opraKH3aiiKH 
tpyaa h Obira cneunepcceacHUCB b 1931 roay y*e KpnTHKOBa.incb: 

HOBbieaiipeKTHBblCaCaOBanO HCIlO-lHUTb. HeyaKBHTCabKOHTO.ITO 

c/ioKHBuiaHcx cHTvauHH aHaaii3HpoBaaaCb npesKac Bcero itoa yr- 
,3om yayiuicKHn xo3uBcTBeHHoro Hcnoab30BaHHa cncuncpcccacK- 
UCB. Hmchho tbkhm o6pa?oM ocMbicaiiBaa npofiaCMy aOKaaaniiK t. 
QefirHH. OaHHM H3 rnaBHUX HeaocraTKOB oh iiaieaa HepauHona.nb- 
hoc paiMcuicHHc pafioieii cttaw. Ha necKux pa6oTax oKaiaaocb 
lanitTo He Menee TpeTH crapitKOB, ttKBanHaOB 11 npoHHX (tnuiwccKH 
He roaHwx k >TOMy Tpyay atoaefi, a Macca npHrojHux k (pHJHHec- 
komv Tpyay paiMcma-iacb a apynix pafioHax He iipitHiiMa.iaeb a 
paMCT cneuxaabKOCTb cneunepcccacHuea. K ttpiiMepy, v upaHKiibi 
nonaaanit Ha .lecoiaroTOBKii. b to apc%in han Bbixoauu ittCapa- 
nyabCKOro paTtOHa, matouiHc aecHoc acao, HcnoabioeaaHCb 11a 
npoMbimaeHHwx npcanpHHTiwx. B cay sac khoto pacnpcaeacHH* 
pafioneft citaw npoKiBoaitTcabKocTb Tpyaa woraa 6w yseaitHHTbcii; 
capanyabubi 3aroTOajinaii b encaHCM ao Herbtpex KyooMerpoB apc- 
hl-lhhw b acHb. a yKpaitHUbi ToabKo noaTopa. HcpaunoHaabHofi 
npH3HaBaaacb 11 ai.a'biak-a CoabuiHX ceweit b acciiue paKOHU, no- 
cico.ibKy wchiuhh h acrefi hcbo3mo)kho 6biao jaaeitcTBoaaTb Ha 
aeconoBajie. 



B xoae oficacaoBaHHH noce.iKOB Sua ausBaeH botihioiuhh 
4«vja: cncuncpcceaeftitw 5oaee roaa. t.c. c MOMeHTa kx npH6wTHH, 
hc noaynaioT sapnaaiw. OaHaKO OcilniHa 3T0 HHTcpccycT anuib 
nocToa btrv . noc KoabKy Tcpuerca CTHMya aan vBcaHieHini Bbipa6oT- 
kh. nacK swaaercs b aiofioM caynae. a 3apnaarw hct, aioaH npHXo- 
a»T 1 BUBOay, f to paooTaior 6cctiaaTHO. 

«B oSaacTH ^itnuuiHoro CTpoHTeabCTBa, — lOBOpitrca b jiok- 
aaae. — aeao o6ctoht oTBpaTHTc.ibno CKBeptio. r.iaBHWM o5pa30M 
no npHiHHe roro. hto mm caMit saMopaosaait ito aeao». Jinn 
pyKOBoaiiTeaeft 6oabuniHCTBa opraHHiamifi otcjtctbkc aHpcKni- 
ftbt 06 OTaaeHeHHK Haent asoaeii Ha 'ui otobkm aeca 110a nunQBK 
cTpoHTcabCTao 6hjaopaBH03naMHO3anpCTy: HaKajanim 3a hhhuh- 
aTHBy, He caHKUuoHiipoBaHHVK) CBbiuie. cTaait oowacHHbiM a BacHit- 
cm ioro BpL'Mcmt Jlio.icH y*e ycncaii OTVHHTb aeHCTBOBaTb a 

COOTBCTCTBHll CO 3apaBUM CMWCaOM, CC.1H 3T0 OpOTHBOpCHHao 
HHCTpVKUHHM, XapaKTCpHblM ItpHMCpOM MO/KCT CaViKKTb OOR3Hb 
OTCT>'[iaeHHS OT peKOMCHJOBaHUHX apOCKTOB *M.T1,I\ aOMOB ja* 

cneunepeceaeHueB. 

H} aok-aaaa t. OeiirHHa Ha lacejtHHH fiwpo > pa.io6KO«a 
Bh"n(6) 

Mvjkuk yueem empoumb ujoymky dwr ce&H. a « jecHbtx 
pauoHax cuOum npopafi. Komophtu oojohm cmpoumt> <k>.\ia no onpe- 
de,ienm>.\t\ muny, nmo ue .uotym dciamh Haxodmiiuecx ma.\i tnom- 
hiikii flpopan. C KomophLM » soaoptLi, nptnuoem, tmo hc.ii.3H man 
empoumh, ho matt kqk tMy npuxaiauo u HccxaibKO .»ecjii4e« mo.uy 
naiad dpyzoii npopao 6bLi omdan nod cyd 3a mo, tmo cmpou.1 He no 
npoexmy. a uexoda in tie.iecoo6paiHocmu. mo oh ne puctcyem 
empoumb netu a dpyvux .uecmax. Mbt 6u.3u ceudeme.ia.vu, tmo 
HocmaaieHM uioyiuKit. a neneu Hem. Haufm ucpu mmi ■ tbii* « npu- 
Mepo.M MOMcem c.iyoicumb nocejon ua Konax ircbebt: man emponm 
2-x 3maMCHbtu 6apan, « Komopo.u npettvcMampueaemca moibico 2 
rie^u ho 420 He.iowK. 4y6opHbix u 2 rnumbi. Booopajume no.wMce- 
Hue, aorta 210 •iejoeen OavtcHbi somoKumt, nuuty Ha o<)hoi'i netu. 
nojynaemca co«epuie»HO HeeepoamHoe tie.to. 

TIowMy « pauoaax. tde uveemca mhoco ieca. itpu homo wit 
padateu cutu Ky.iaKoa He lawmoHumb .iec u empoumb 1-2-4 Kaap- 
mtipHbte do.ua c me.u. tmodbi pa3veutamh meppumopuaibHO max, 
vmoobi ua tmo Oe,io ynompe&umb paSotym ruty ee.\ieu xy.iaKOB? 
Tym empoamea mpoMtibie oapaau npu no.vtou iteaoiMojaiocmu 
sedenun ce.ibcKOjoxojaucmiw, Onxmn doixc km .uyiambca co choo- 
xemteM npodo»o.ihcmauev u m.ii. npu ne ucno.rbioxaHuu demeu. 
mo^^a kok mojkho noempoumb do.va, sde eemb ie.\t.ta u nemoxax. 

OeHritii TaKtte ofipauiaer BHitMaHite «taeH0B6iopo HaoTHami- 
hoc noaosKewite co cMaoweHiieM npoaoBoabCTBtieM h npOMwuiacH- 
hmmh TOBapaMit. 11a OTcyTCTBite MeaHuttHCKofi noMOtuit k it3acBa- 
TcabCTBa HaanepcceacHiiauii. Frocoo6uteHHeneB03MO/KHOHHTaTb 
OC3 coaporaMim 

Hi mi. i,ii;i t. <t>riiiHHa 11a lacctamtti fimpo N pa.iofiKOMa 
BKH(6) 

Omepaoiume.ibHoe de.w c npodogaibcmeue.» e.iecHhix noce.1- 
ntX ojasodapa noiHo.uy omcymcmsuio dopoc. Mbt Suliu « cpanau- 
me.ibHa fauiKUX nocvKOX u e.ie doopciucb, nomo.uy umo fioopamb- 
cm mojkho mo.WKO «epxo.M... Ceunac hvhcho aodsosumt npodo- 
eoibcmmte. nomo.uy tmo nojoncenue .wyHume.ibHoe. Ma.teHhxue 
oemu nepe-uep.w. ocmaiucb mo.ibm 6-S-.iemHue demit, Komopbie 
Moeym mtmantbcM xkoom. KomopbtM ne cmo.ihKO mv-jk-ho moioko, 
kok MOJieMbKUM demntr, ami aviMJHH, xomn eud oteab mx.wt- mit 
Om jk)6ou tiapamiHht paisuttaiomca onyxo.ru. Cocmoanue demeu 
moxoe om HedocmamoHnofo numanua. paimmaemca c.ienoma. 
mpaxo.ua u dp. mSowsamat. 



SI 



A.CycnoB flpoTOKOJi oahoto 3aceflaHna 



Ha pacnpede.iume.ibHOM nyHKtne. Kyda npufibieaiom nosne 
napmiiu. c'deMbt eude.iUMa.it' HbKUxdemeu, ohu HecawwHHo yMpym. 
Hem mojoko. y hux xymKuu sud... Cusepno c odeiKdou. .mm «e 
jHaeM, komy hvxcho u ne hvmcho daeamb odexcdy. flepsaK napmun 
Ky.iaKoe npudbua notmu 6e3odeJKdbi. HeKomopax tacnu, ny.iaxae. 
nonasmu « nuuice.ibie ycioswt. pacnpodaia. Ceuiac npu6bt«ax>m 
KV30KU. odecneietiHbie no.iHOcmbto odejicdou u npodoao.ibcmmi- 
KM... 

C.iediwufuu aonpoc a MeduuuncKou novoutu: no.inoe omcym- 
cmeue sparest u tpejibdmepan. H cmas.no sonpoc He mo.ibico c moHKu 
jpenim cnaceuux ncumu, a cmonxu ipeHUH u npottjeodcmsa. Jltodu, 
obieaem, cu.vy.uipy mm, a mym HeujeecntHO. cu.uy.uitiwi jmo u.iu 
nem. Ebua mam* cucmeMa. «ffto oo.ien u.iu Hem. udu na paoomy, 
eau He udetob. He no.iyvuuib xieoa. 'Jmo «e coomsemcmmvm 
dupenmusoM gbttuecmoxiuux opsanuiauuu. B umo?e jhatumcibHos 
•iacmtr npeepamiuacb e uHsauudoe... 

Mnado omMetnumb cmepiwe oopamenue c humu. Bejoopaiue, 
KOida uj-ia neebipaoomKU nop.vbi cadnm ua 30 cymoK n 5qhk> npu 
30-spadycHOM Mopose; dne.\i pafiomamb. a nonbio udu it 3QMapo- 
DtceHHYHi oamo. Xemuuu cadu.ui Ha ScymoK. MyxvuH na 30cymoK. 
Oduit U3 Mu.tunuouepo« 30 om Kaj am paoomti lacmpe.iwi cneyne' 
peccieHua. jmoto .\nau»uoHepa He maibKO ne naiiasaiu. a nepeee- 
in mo.ibKO « dpy&u pauoH... 

hcm 6u Kit jaiii.ia pt'Hb. oGkomobuu paccMaTpHBaaii no.io- 
jkchkc cneunepece.ieHiieB c tohkh 3peHHs nojiyrenHS npoinBoa- 
CTWHHoro atnjwiaa or npHMCHCKMa hx rpyaa. Hanpimcp. o6cyat- 
.laFOTcM *aao6w xoiflHCTBCHmiicoB Ha mioxyio pa5oTy Ky.iaKOB. 

HCBfcinO.THCHHC HOpM 14 T.!J. BblSCHUCTCq. 'I TO B KaHCCTBe CTHMVJIOB 
lipilML'IIHCTCH 111 HIS. KOMHiTCKC liaK.HJIIMM Bcf KOMCH.iaHTU pVKD- 

BoacTByioTcs Te-iiMttoKorpaMMoR. coraacKO tcoropcfi hc Bbitto.iH*- 
khiiiic KopMu jIhuibiotcs nafik-a, Tpy,iocncKo6Htie nepeBoaRTCR Ha 
naeK HeTpy.iocnocooKbix. y npoBHHiiBiuiixcH lnbiMawTCfl ace jana- 

CW npolOBO/lbCTBHS.OHH JtKtUalOTCJt HI.I\o:iHU\ JlieH. M.TCH o6KOMa 

Pa3KaiiHKce ctaaHT rry rtpo6^eMy tbk: «Et:wy6usaKim HcwneM, 
mo ejo paccmpciusamm tau seutatom. imo-Huoydb otiHo. A mym 
{lexoaeKy} ne n,tamnm sapa&omHyto n.iamy, eio otce .xuutatom nau- 
kg. omSupamm ece mieioufuecn ianactt npodoao.ibcmaua u luuia- 
Him sbtxodHHx trneu. Bbtxoeium, nc.ioeeK c*aij*ri?« paoomamt, nan 
cKomuna: cKotnuna u ma uMeem omdbix. u 3a neu yxajicu«aiom». 

Jflme BtcbMa cmri HCHHaa KpKTHKa HciocraTKOB b paSotc CO 
ciitfuncpcccicHiiaMH Bbijusana 6ojic3hchhvk> pcaKuuio npcjcTa* 
BifTCTeR pa):[ifiHbi.\ buomctb, pajCKimiix la uccTb wviiaiipa 06- 
KOMoaeu I o.ioBiiii ja»BH.i o ttecor,iac>i>i c tcm, ito o6kom hc aaBa.1 

.llipCKTHB, IIIl.TVHa.lOtb, HTO BO BCC.M BMHOBaiU UCJUHHUHaTIIBKblC 

xosafiCTBCHKHKH. npe^cTaBMTCib OrflV K;illHI'MaH OTBCpr OOBH- 
HettiM b aapec OITIV, o6paTHB BHttMaHHe na to. ito HeKiicTaM 
[topViK.m «()M.i>)KHiiaHiiL'» cncunepecLMCHUCB io.tiiko c 1 mown 
1931 r, it ia HCTCKUiHC jBa Mccaua ohm wkc mhoio cae.na.iK apx 
HaBcjcKitx nop*aKa. «Koeoa ft ctoda npuexa.i. — cuaiai oh, — 6bu 
yxac, mbiaiHU mejespaw* «j pauonov naiymnu o mo.\t. vmo 
,'o.ionueM . Muiivii Hem u m.ti.. a ceuiac iiu odnou mpeeajtcHOU 
mejispd.\LUht HeuiH. Ty xccnoiiiUHioiaHR.'i iio.iiioMuHMbiit npc.K u- 
BHTe.ibOrny no Vpany HujcB.cK.iaa ynop KanpoMaxn mccthux 
pa6oT>iiiKOB ii Ha nGbCK i h bh bie rpy jhocth, HciasiicaiiiHC ot ypajib- 
ckhx opraHOB Omv'. Caw Toro He laMcnaJJ. Hoaee. no cytuccrBy, 
pacKphiBaci hcouj> MaimocTb, c.ia6yio noaroTOBKy ii npecTynnoc 
HesHiiMaHtie ueHTpajibHUX opraHOB k .iio.iim npu ^opcupoBaHKOM 
npoaeacKHH umpoKOMacuiTaOHOK KaMnaHiin ncpeccicHiist «k'y.ia- 

K0B»- 

Hj BMCTynJteHHs t, HojtBa Ha iiceaiHHH fiiopo > paaoi5- 

kosi.1 UK! hut 

Ton. <PeusuH .-iwnpum. >tmo Modu paiueuieHht HenpaeujbHO. 
Bozwjcho. ujsecmHbie npouaxu ecmb. ho coziacumecb. mo« 
&eu?UH. KOtda na uwecmHau vmaniiuu npumcuaemt's do 3 raw- 
HCioeeK. ycmpaueamb « oo.iacmu copmupo«Ky mxdot^o juteiona. 
— imoso hu mpoHCrtopm. hu tiamvue na.veuteHuu de.tamb ne 
noiso.ixm ... 



Ha.\iu yvmeHbi «ce cneuumucmbi. u cneuuaiucmoa HanunaeM 
ucno.ibjosamb ma\t. tde ue-iecooopamo... 

nvixii.ii cocmoHHUu Medo6c.iyxcue.aHua soaopuiu neodhoK- 
pamuo. KaKue dupenmusbi moe. KoHosa.io«y e imou ooiacmu hu 
daeait. ho s cvumaio, Sei gHywume-ibHoit noMOUfu co cmopoHbi 
HapKOM3<)patta mo«. Konoemoe He « cutax Huveso cde.iamb. Bpa- 
neu Hem. f> mbic. .inydeu cneunepece.KHtjee npuc.iftHO a dhipbi, npu 
itcex Hedocmamnax numauutt. ncuiuuiHozo oGycmpaunaHun um.d., 
3a6o.weae.nocm b yn&ju <tusaemcti. 

Mo.vcH0.tu ypa.ty«biumuuino.io3KeHUHCocnouMUKadpaMU? 
Hem. (Mhoko hu adnata npana Konava-loe ne no.iynLi. Meduna- 
MeHBios moDKe ncm. IJoMjpau moe. (ioHona,io8 denbfu? Hem... 

[Jo vacmucHaSMceHwtcnevnepecejeHtfesypatieca. UMeemcH 
nocmaHO«.WHue UK o mo.v. *mo6bt ecex cneiinepeceJieHuea. jaim- 
mbix Ha .tecoiaeomoeKox. npupanHnmb k Kadposbut pa6onu.\t Od- 
naKo jmo nocmanoeieHue UK caoomupyemcx iteHmpavtbHbiMu 
opjanirtauuxxw... 

iJeHCTBHTe;ibHo, paccwaTpHBan nono**eHHC cneunepcce.ieH- 
ilea. He.Tbin 3a6btaaTb o Becbwa tsucc.imx vctobhax, b KOTopbix 

HaXOJH.'lHCb COBCTCKHe TpyjfdHHeeS B UCjIOM. 06'bCKTHBHO cyme- 

cTBOBavi je^HUHT TOBapoB ii npojyk-roB. PajyMeeTCfi, pyKOBoaa- 
iUhc opranbi npc.inoHHTa.iH opneHTHpoBaTbea b nepByio otepcab 
na cHa6*CHHc pa6oiero toiacca. Bpaa m mo<kho 6u.io o*naaTb ot 
hhx HHoro. JpyroB sonpoc. HacKOJibKO uaiecooSpaiHO Sw.io nepe- 
ce.inib MH.i.inoHbi nicaeft. ycyryo.iajt npotS.ieMV CHa6>KcKHii » ue- 

J10M... 

til BUtnii.ii'HHsi i. OuiBHuut'Ba >ia jacciaiiiiH 6»po i pa- 

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Pacceiumb 600 mbic. na meppumopuu oo.iacmu u npedocma- 
sumb e metenue 2-x .weamee see mo. imo ne uiueem ypaibCKuu 
padowu. Komopbiu Mv«em « omde.ibHbtx ayiaxx e xyduiux vc.io- 
nusx. — jmu mpeooeanuit fibi.w 6u Heueieeaonpambt... 

Mhi 6bt oveHb xome.tu npupa«ngmh acex Ky.taKott k cna/iMce- 
huio paoonux. ho U3 imajo mw.-u He ebiudem. Hapaeue numamb 
Ky.iaKoe c paoanuMit He noudem. Mbi o6maHbt U3 u.veioufuxai 
<f>t>Hdoa cHa6oicamb s nepayto ovepedb paoonux. Jlpyeoe de.io. Kti.-ihi 
tfroHObi oydym onpedexxmbcx 100% nnwocmitto n cHa&ncenuu pa- 
6ohux u nepece,ieHi4ee. Komopnx uueemca 1 .\lih. 3mo He«ox»ajtc- 
ho. Bonpoc ctodumctt k mo.%iy. nmo ,wu Ajwdn naKcu.tia.ibHO 
opsauuiosamb CHa&x-enue. neo6xodu.\toe d.w npaumodume-it,Hoc- 
mu mpyda, u damb 3auHmepecosaHHocntb e paoome. 

Cncunepece.iCHUbt crpaaa-iK m noroMy, mo TorajtirrapHaa 
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«aparaM Hapoaa». B Hanaae 30-x it. cneuncpecc.icniibi. fieiycnoB- 

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npnnoMHHJi na "wccaaHHH oiopo ooKowa npeacraBKTcab V'ebBHHC- 
koto pafiona ryjin.Hr " Hemupe .veaiita naiad. KotdcMN npuHu.na.iu 
cnettnepece.ieHne«, * cmo.iosou ocmaicA o6ed. xomucmeeHHUKu 
nped.w3KU.iu nanopvumb cneHnepece,iem(e«. a luipmuuHwe opfa- 
Huiatfuu npcd.io.xcu.iu ne daeamb }mo?o ooeda cneifnepece.wHtfOM. 
u necb o6ed nbi.iu.iu na Jetnw. a .iiodeu to.wdHbix He HaKop.vu.iu ". 
Hmas cciojhs npo iiporoKoa laKptrroro lacciiaHHH Bucuiefi 

BJI3CTHOH HHCTaHUHH VpajIbCKOH OO.'iaCTH. HC VCfaClUb > ,11TB. ;a [ bCH 

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.iHpeKTHBbi, cnopHTi tom, kto BHHOBaT b aonvineHHbix npocHcrax, 
oocysKiiaTb. Kax aynue ti a.i a.m 1 1» Gw t it cHa6wcHHC cnciinepecejieH- 
ucb. Ho ace -no omtoab hc in cocrpaaaHK)i k oociao.ieKHbiM ii 
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.iwaefi — MaucHMaabHO tohhoc ticno.iHCHne npmcaioB boxuch n 
cooaioacHHe BeaowCTBCHHbix hhtspccob. H ito crpaiuno . 

1 nocmanoamni/e CHK «06 ycmpoQcmee cnannapecaneHuae* om 1 utona 
1931 g. — rAPV>. 0P-1Z35, on 2. 0. 716. n. S8. 

2 LtBOO CO. 0. 4. on. 8, a S3, n.37-54. Bca Awyvewmto/ (fefloa no mmany 
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RIGHTS 1 



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